Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 675
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Ou L C - - 1998
We examined erythropoietin (EPO) gene expression and EPO production during hypoxia in two Sprague-Dawley rat strains with divergent polycythemic responses to hypoxia. Hilltop (H) rats develop severe polycythemia, severe hypoxemia, and pulmonary artery hypertension. The H rats often die from a syndrome indistinguishable from chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in humans. ...
Mastropasqua L - - 1998
A study was performed to evaluate the effect of prolonged environmental hypobaric hypoxia on the ultrastructure of rat cornea. 60-day-old female Wistar rats were exposed to a simulated altitude of 5,500 m (350 mmHg) and pO2 of 76 mmHg for 30 days. Control rats were exposed to atmospheric sea level ...
Sugito K - - 1998
We investigated how signals arising from peripheral chemoreceptors could affect pulmonary vasculature in rats. Effects of the hypoxic exposure (10%) on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), abdominal aortic flow (Q) and the estimated total pulmonary vascular resistance (mPAP/Q) were determined in anesthetized, artificially ventilated, carotid sinus nerve intact or chemodenervated ...
Hinrichsen C F - - 1998
We tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic nuclei involved in thermoregulatory control could represent a site of integration of the metabolic and ventilatory response to cold and hypoxia. Electrolytic lesions were performed bilaterally under stereotaxic guide, either within the anterior or posterior hypothalamic areas of adult rats. One week later, oxygen ...
Igari H - - 1998
The pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) response to hypoxia is characterized by an initial vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation. Pulmonary vessels can release endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), which is considered to be nitric oxide (NO), but the role of EDRF in the regulation of normal and hypoxic pulmonary vascular tone is still ...
Okada Y - - 1998
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the pons in hypoxic respiratory depression (HRD) of the neonatal rat. Experiments were conducted using the isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal rat (1-3 days old). The brainstem was transected at various levels. We found that ablation ...
Gozal D - - 1998
Gasping is an important mechanism for survival. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an excitatory role in brainstem regions mediating respiratory responses to hypoxia. We hypothesized that neural structures mediating anoxia-induced gasping would display NO dependency. Two- to 15-day-old rat pups underwent anoxic exposures with 100% N2 in a plethysmograph following administration ...
Haleen S - - 1998
We previously showed that CI-1020, an endothelin (ET)-A-selective receptor antagonist, dose-dependently blocked acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. In this study we show that CI-1020 can reverse existing PH and prevent progression of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ...
Motoyama S - - 1998
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence is accumulating that hypoxic liver injury involves not only necrosis but also apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species can cause apoptosis. This study examined the hypothesis that H2O2 induces apoptosis in hypoxic rat liver. METHODS: Blood-perfused rat livers were made hypoxic by reducing the perfusion flow. H2O2 was ...
Varela A - - 1997
When exposed to hypoxia, the isolated atria from fed rats released lactate into the medium and underwent a decline of the peak developed tension and pacemaker frequency. The atria from 24-h fasted rats showed a rise in the resting tension together with a greater decline of the pacemaker rate and ...
Ling L - - 1997
This paper will describe recent studies concerning the existence of developmental plasticity in the hypoxic ventilatory control system and the locus of the functional impairment following perinatal sensory suppression. Suppression of peripheral arterial chemoreceptor activity was achieved by exposing rats to hyperoxia (60% O2) for the first month of life; ...
Varela A - - 1997
During hypoxia the atria from fasted rats exhibit a faster decline in the pacemaker and contractile activities than those from fed rats. Oxfenicine and methylpalmoxirate, inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT 1), ameliorate these disturbances. Since the fasted rat atria have greater triacylglycerol stores and a faster lipolysis, and CPT ...
Maslim J - - 1997
PURPOSE: To study the death of photoreceptors in normally developing and dystrophic retina and to test the role of hypoxia in causing that death. METHODS: Death of photoreceptors was detected in the albino, hooded, and Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) strains of rat, and in the rabbit and cat, using ...
Gautier H - - 1997
We have investigated at ambient temperatures (Tam) of 25 and 5 degrees C the effects of ambient hypoxia (Hxam; fractional inspired O2 = 0.14) and hypercapnia (fractional inspired CO2 = 0.04) on ventilation (V), O2 uptake (VO2), and colonic temperature (Tc) in 12 conscious rats before and after carotid body ...
Colice G L - - 1997
Hilltop (H) strain Sprague-Dawley rats are more susceptible to chronic mountain sickness than are the Madison (M) strain rats. It is unclear what role pulmonary vascular remodeling, polycythemia, and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction play in mediating the more severe pulmonary hypertension that develops in the H rats during chronic hypoxia. It is ...
Klinger J R - - 1997
Mechanisms that regulate atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression during hypoxia are not well defined. We hypothesized that plasma immunoreactive ANP (irANP) and right heart irANP and ANP mRNA levels would be greater in a strain of Sprague-Dawley rats that develops more severe hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (H rats) than another strain ...
Vannucci R C - - 1997
We previously have demonstrated that hypocapnia aggravates and hypercapnia protects the immature rat from hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. To ascertain cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic correlates, 7-d postnatal rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia during which they were rendered either hypo-(3.5 kPa), normo- (5.1 kPa), or hypercapnic (7.3 kPa) by the ...
Fujibayashi Y - - 1997
An ideal hypoxia imaging agent should have high membrane permeability for easy access to intracellular mitochondria and low redox potential to confer stability in normal tissue, but it should be able to be reduced by mitochondria with abnormally high electron concentrations in hypoxic cells. In this context, nitroimidazole residues are ...
Thomas T - - 1997
1. We have investigated the roles of adenosine in regulating the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of rats that were made chronically hypoxic for 3-4 weeks from 6 weeks of age (CH rats) in an hypoxic chamber at 12% O2. They were studied under anaesthesia while breathing 12% O2 and during ...
Ling L - - 1997
1. Hypoxic ventilatory responses are greatly attenuated in adult rats exposed to moderate hyperoxia (60% O2) during the first month of life (perinatal treated rats). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that perinatal hyperoxia impairs central integration of carotid chemoreceptor afferent inputs, thereby diminishing the hypoxic ventilatory ...
Pissarek M - - 1997
The effects of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH, 28 days, simulated altitude 5,500 m) on the cardiac expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and creatine kinase (CK) was studied in rat left (LV) and right (RV) ventricle. To separate the effects of hypoxia from its associated perturbations, anorexia and pulmonary hypertension ...
Iwasa Y - - 1997
Nucleotides and nucleosides are essential components in all cells. However, nucleotides have not been supplied in parenteral nutrition regimens. We developed a well-balanced nucleoside-nucleotide mixture "OG-VI" and examined its effect in animals under some stressed conditions. OG-VI was composed of 30 mmol/l of inosine, 30 mmol/l of guanosine monophosphate, 30 ...
Widmer H R - - 1997
Mole rats (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) perform the heavy work of digging their subterranean burrows in Israel under highly hypoxic/hypercapnic conditions. Unlike most other mammals, they can achieve high levels of metabolic rate under these conditions, while their metabolic rate at low work rates is depressed. We explored, by comparing mole ...
Brauer M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The effects of hypoxia on bioenergetic parameters of the livers of rats with and without chronic ethanol (CE) treatment has been studied in a totally noninvasive manner, using in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHOD: The effects of hypoxia (10% oxygen for 55 minutes) on the levels of ...
Nakanishi K - - 1997
High-altitude hypoxia causes polycythaemia and a hypercoagulable state in humans and animals. This study examines the effects of a hypobaric, hypoxic environment (HHE) on the blood coagulation system in rats. A total of 170 male Wistar rats were housed in a chamber at the equivalent of 5500 m in altitude ...
Zinchuk V - - 1997
The effect of high hemoglobin-oxygen affinity (HOA) on chemiluminescence initiated by Fe2+ was studied in rat plasma and red cell ghosts during fever. The high HOA was induced by daily ingestion of sodium cyanate with drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats with high or normal HOA received i.p. lipopolysaccharide Salmonella ...
LeGrand T S - - 1997
We previously showed that chronic hypoxia decreases activity of intestinal glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymes and is associated with a proximal-to-distal gradient of enzyme activity, suggesting reduced detoxication capacity in ileal cells. To assess whether hypoxia affects metabolism of hydroperoxides, jejunal and ileal enterocytes from rats exposed to air (n = 11) ...
Piantadosi C A - - 1997
Carbon monoxide poisoning produces both immediate and delayed neuronal injury in selective regions of the brain that is not readily explained on the basis of tissue hypoxia. One possibility is that cellular injury during and after CO poisoning is related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the ...
Strohl K P - - 1997
We examined ventilation and metabolism in four rat strains with variation in traits for body weight and/or blood pressure regulation. Sprague-Dawley [SD; 8 males (M), 8 females (F)], Brown Norway (BN; 10 M, 11 F), and Zucker (Z; 11 M, 12 F) rats were compared with Koletsky (K; 11 M, ...
Dorszewska J - - 1997
Wistar rats, aged 3.5 months, were subjected to severe hypoxia by placing them for 3 minutes in an atmosphere containing 2 kPa of oxygen. The myelin fraction was isolated from brains of the experimental animals at the following periods after the hypoxia event: 4 and 24 hours, 14 days, 2 ...
Mimura Y - - 1996
Hypocapnia is known to have an antiphosphaturic effect that overcomes the phosphaturic effect of hypoxia. The objective of this study was to examine whether conscious rats exposed to acute hypoxia show a decrease in phosphate excretion due to the concomitant hypocapnia. Wistar rats weighing 200 g were exposed to hypoxia ...
Fletcher E C - - 1996
Repetitive episodic (18-24 s twice per minute) hypocapnic hypoxia (HH) administered chronically (7 h/day, 35 days) to Sprague-Dawley or Wistar-Kyoto rats results in a sustained increase in daytime blood pressure (BP). We examined acute and chronic BP response to episodic HH and eucapnic hypoxia (EH) in borderline hypertensive rats [first ...
Kreher P - - 1996
Rats were exposed to a 3-wk regimen of chronic normobaric hypoxia, with or without almitrine treatment. Chronic hypoxia led to a significant rise in the right ventricular mass and lengthened the action potential duration (APD) in right ventricle and in nonhypertrophied left ventricle. Hypertrophy and APD lengthening were significantly enhanced ...
Sidney E J - - 1996
Angiopeptin is an analog of somatostatin-14, which has been found to inhibit cellular proliferation in several models of systemic vascular injury. As proliferation plays a major role in pulmonary hypertension, we examined the hypothesis that angiopeptin would inhibit the development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the rat. Angiopeptin was ...
Nakanishi K - - 1996
High altitude hypoxia is known to cause pulmonary hypertension in humans. Altitudes of 5500 m and 4000 m above sea level are considered to be the upper limits for short-term human survival and long-term human residence, respectively. To study the effects of hypobaric-hypoxic environments on pulmonary vascular beds, the physiologic ...
Berkowitz B A - - 1996
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that breathing carbogen (95% O2-5% CO2) oxygenates the inner retina better than breathing 100% oxygen using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that noninvasively measures inner retinal oxygenation in normal adult and newborn rats. METHODS: Urethane-anesthetized adult and newborn (day 18) rats were studied. Sequential ...
Hu M - - 1996
Hepatic transcription of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is enhanced in hypophysectomized (hypox) rats and can be rapidly down-regulated by GH administration. Here we examined the effect of insulin on IGFBP-1 messenger RNA abundance in hypox rats and the effects of insulin and GH on IGFBP-1/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmids ...
McNulty P H - - 1996
During hypoxia, the heart consumes glycogen to generate ATP. Tolerance of repetitive hypoxia logically requires prompt replenishment of glycogen, a process whose regulation is not fully understood. To examine this, we imposed a defined hypoxic stimulus on the rat heart while varying its workload. In intact rats, hypoxia reduced myocardial ...
Wilkins M R - - 1996
1. The ability to manipulate pharmacologically pulmonary vascular tone independent of effects on systemic blood vessels is a desirable objective. Elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) may permit preferential targeting of the pulmonary circulation. 2. Here we review our studies of the role of locally synthesized ...
LaManna J C - - 1996
Three weeks of hypoxic exposure results in a spectrum of systemic physiological and local brain tissue adaptations. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used as an indicator of changes in energy demand in response to hypoxia. We found overall cytochrome oxidase activity decreased in hypoxic adapted rats as compared to normoxic control ...
Fedde M R - - 1996
We compared apparent blood viscosity, measured with a cone-plate viscometer, in normoxic and chronically hypoxic rats. All comparisons were made at equal packed cell volume (PCV) and shear rate conditions. Apparent viscosity of whole blood from the hypoxic rats was significantly lower than that from normoxic littermates and was similar ...
Mian R - - 1996
1. In rats housed in a hypoxic chamber at 12% O2 for 3-5 weeks (CH) and in normal rats housed in air (N), we directly observed responses of arterial and venous vessels of the spinotrapezius muscle to changes in O2 concentration in the inspirate. Both CH and N rats were ...
Yamaji R - - 1996
This study examines the effects of hypoxia in the gastric function in conscious rats which adapted to a meal-feeding schedule, that allowed free access to a high protein (HP) diet (550 g casein/kg diet, Exp.1,2 and 4), a normal protein (NP) diet (200 g casein/kg diet, Exp.3) or a nonpurified ...
Du H K - - 1996
We examined the effect of isovolemic hemodilution in a rat model of chronic mountain sickness (CMS). After 30 days at simulated high altitude (5,500 m), Hilltop rats had developed evidence of CMS: severe hypoxemia, polycythemia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Isovolemic hemodilution to a mean hematocrit of 46 +/- 5% was ...
Roos C M - - 1996
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous vasodilator produced in endothelial cells. Inhaled NO selectively vasodilates the pulmonary circulation. We determined the effects of chronic inhaled NO on hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling and endothelium NO-dependent and -independent vasodilation during normoxic and hypoxic conditions in rats. Rats were exposed to 3 ...
Kuboyama Y Y Toxicological Research Laboratories Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., Yamaguchi, - - 1996
The changes in the nasal cavity volume of rats with age and the area exposed to nasal drops administered into the nasal cavity were investigated. Results indicated that the nasal cavity volume lineally increased as rats grew older. In 7-week-old rats, the exposed area in the case of an administration ...
Maresová D - - 1996
The possible protective action of pramiracetam, a pyrrolidinone nootropic drug, against hypobaric hypoxia was studied in two age groups of immature rats with implanted electrodes. Epileptic afterdischarges induced by hippocampal stimulation were used as a measure of hypoxic damage. Pramiracetam did not substantially change these afterdischarges in 12- and 18-day-old ...
Cruz M - - 1996
The response of hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and sham-operated (S-HYPOX) female and male Wistar young rats (8 weeks old) to antigenic stimulation was compared. Humoral antigenic responses against hemocyanin were measured by ELISA. [3H]thymidine incorporation into cultured spleen cells was used to determine proliferative response to concanavalin A (ConA) or antigenic stimulation. ...
Dichgans C - - 1995
TGF-beta has the ability to transform rat fibroblasts, but it also induces neigbouring normal cells to eliminate newly arizing transformed cells. Therefore, the transforming effect of TGF-beta can only be demonstrated when it is added to rat fibroblasts sparsely seeded in soft agar. Combination of monolayer and soft agar cultures ...
Varela A - - 1995
The aim of the investigation was to assess whether L-carnitine, an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial transfer of fatty acids, would ameliorate the hypoxic-induced disturbances in the isolated rat atria. During hypoxia, the atria released lactate into the bathing medium and underwent a rise in resting tension and a decline ...
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