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Robertson Courtney L CL Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Bloomberg Children's Center Room 6321, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA, - - 2014
Progesterone has been studied extensively in preclinical models of adult traumatic brain injury (TBI), and has advanced to clinical trials in adults with TBI. However, there are very few preclinical studies in pediatric TBI models investigating progesterone for neuroprotection. Immature male and female rats (postnatal day, PND 17-21) underwent controlled ...
Zhang Xiaoliang X Institute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University School of Medicine, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China, - - 2014
Podocyte injury plays a critical role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Over expression of TRPC6 on the podocytes has been revealed to cause podocyte injury in non-diabetic states. Besides, the emerging evidence from clinic revealed that vitamin D could reduce albuminuria and improve renal function, which ...
Khan Junad J Brotman Orofacial Pain Clinic at University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) profile on pain intensity induced by nerve injury in a rat model. EIH was tested by evaluating the percentage of withdrawal responses to a train of 30 mechanical stimuli on the hind-paw before and after ...
Huang Xinli X Center of Liver Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, The Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Health, Nanjing, - - 2014
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, it is unknown whether H2S plays a role in the protection of hepatic I/R injury in both young and old patients. This study compared the protective effects of H2S in a rat model (young and old animals) of ...
Cebesoy O - - 2014
Heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most frequently used antithromboembolic drugs in fractures. We aimed to compare the effects of heparin and enoxaparin, which are used as standard treatment, on viability in degloving injuries. Thirty rats were used in the study. Three groups were composed including 10 rats ...
Akhoondinasab Mohammad Reza MR Faculty of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, - - 2014
Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower ...
Ibraheem Waheed Ademola WA Department of Ophthalmology, Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, - - 2014
A case of traumatic blepharectomy secondary to a rat bite in a 13 day old neonate. Infants should not be kept in an isolated place in a rat endemic area. This case suggests an existence of a relationship between poverty and rat bite.
Comu F M - - 2014
In the current study we aim to investigate the effects of vitamin C and profol on red blood cell deformability in diabetic rats Materials and methods: Twenty- eight Wistar Albino rats were included in the study after streptozocin (60 mg/kg) treatment for 4 weeks of observation for diabetes presence. Twenty-eight ...
Yang S M SM Department of Cardiac Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China - - 2014
Hyperlipidemia is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary atherosclerosis, while intermedin (IMD) has been identified as a novel calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family member involved in cardiovascular protection. However, whether IMD protects against hyperlipidemia-associated myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is unknown. We established a hyperlipidemia model using Sprague-Dawley rats, ...
Zhou Changhui - - 2013
The aim of this study was to perform the first transferability assessment in China of the micronucleus scoring method based on three-colour flow cytometry (FCM). This was accomplished for both rat bone-marrow and peripheral blood specimens following exposure to a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals, whereby micronucleus induction was ...
Nazarov S B - - 2013
We evaluated physical development and activity of erythropoiesis in the offspring of rats with experimentally impaired uteroplacental circulation as well as the effect of exogenous nitric oxide donator used during pregnancy, on offspring development. Exogenous NO producing an anti-hypoxic effects contributes to the increase in somatometric parameters of the offspring ...
Mesquita Casagrande Ana Caroline - - 2013
We herein investigated the in vitro effect of hypoxanthine on the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, as well as on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), in the plasma of rats. Results showed that hypoxanthine, when added to the incubation ...
Yan Xiang X Medical Oncology Department of PLA General Hospital, BeiJing, - - 2013
This paper mainly studied the effect of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici on erythrocyte immune function in SD rats with acute blood stasis. The methods used the effect on erythrocyte immune function. After intragastric administration of suspension of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici to SD rats for 3 weeks, on ...
Yoshinari Orie - - 2012
Abstract Previously, we showed that trigonelline (TRG) exerts antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and also lowers blood and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine when compared with those levels in GK control rats without TRG. These results suggested that TRG also mitigates oxidative stress, ...
Zhang Ping - - 2012
The stereoselective degradations of racemate metalaxyl (rac-MX) and its single enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes were assayed by a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. The t(1/2) of (+)-S-MX in rat liver microsomes was between 7-8 min tested by rac-MX and the individual (+)-S-enantiomer, respectively, and that for (-)-R-MX was ...
Videau Orianne - - 2012
We recently designed the CIME cocktail consisting of 10 drugs to assess the activity of the major human CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A), a phase II enzyme (UGT1A1/6/9), two drug transporters (P-gp and OATP1B1) and a component of the renal function ( Videau et al. 2010 ). ...
Zhang Ping - - 2012
Hexaconazole [(RS)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) hexan-2-ol] is a potent triazole fungicide and consists of a pair of enantiomers. Enantioselective degradation of hexaconazole was investigated in rat hepatic microsomes in vitro. Concentrations of (-)- and (+)-hexaconazole and enantiomer fraction were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a cellulose-tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase. The t(1/2) ...
Alán L - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Diabetic Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats represent an established model of type 2 diabetes that exhibit an onset of pancreatic islet (PI) pathology characterized by islet hypertrophy with a decreased number of insulin-secreting β-cells. Among the remaining β-cells, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and consequently glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are impaired, perhaps ...
Samuel T A - - 2011
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid, whose toxicity has raised a lot of concern. Humans are exposed to this metalloid through contaminated water, air and even foods. As a sulfhydryl reactive metal, arsenic has been found to cause extensive damage to organs such as the liver. It has also been found ...
Jung Donald - - 2011
PURPOSE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of the prodrug, TH-302, and its active metabolite, bromo-IPM (Br-IPM), in nonclinical species. METHODS: TH-302 was administered in single oral, intraperitoneal and intravenous bolus doses to mice, rats, dogs and monkeys as well as in acute and chronic safety studies in rats and dogs as ...
Iwaniec Urszula T UT Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. - - 2011
Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy normalizes the mosaic skeletal phenotype of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. However, it is not clear whether increased hypothalamic leptin alters bone metabolism in animals already producing the hormone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long duration effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-rat leptin (rAAV-Lep) hypothalamic ...
Hwang Su Jin - - 2011
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma and type II diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor (PPAR)-γ has been suggested to regulate inflammatory responses in diabetes and asthma. We investigated whether PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2), leptin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are expressed in rat lung tissues and whether ...
Zhao Hai-Lu - - 2011
This longitudinal study addressed the sequential events and metabolic consequences of lipid partitioning following uninephrectomy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sham operation (n = 15) or left uninephrectomy (UNX, n = 18). At 1 and 3 months post nephrectomy, three rats from each group were killed for histopathological examination of adipocyte differentiation and ...
Mul Joram D - - 2012
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic ...
Castrillejo Vanessa M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the relation between obesity and oxidative stress and to assess the potential beneficial properties of a grapeseed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), the amelioration of obesity with oleoyl-estrone (OE), and the possible combined effect of GSPE and OE on the hepatic and renal antioxidant enzyme system in obesity-induced oxidative ...
Nowland Megan H - - 2011
Fasting is a common procedure for animals in experiments. Although fasting may be necessary for scientific reasons, it should be minimized. In the current study, jugular-catheterized male Sprague-Dawley rats in metabolism cages were fasted for 0 to 24 h before measurement of various physiologic markers (serum chemistry, CBC analysis, serum ...
Grillo Claudia A CA Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, 6439 Garner's Ferry Road, D40, Columbia, SC 29208, United - - 2011
Ongoing epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese. There is a growing appreciation that the complications of obesity extend to the central nervous system (CNS) and may result in increased risk for neurological co-morbidities like depressive illness. ...
Iwasa Takeshi - - 2011
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important orexigenic peptide that acts in the brain. The increase in hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression induced by fasting is mainly caused by a decrease in the effects of leptin. We investigated the developmental changes in the sensitivities of leptin and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y to fasting. ...
Müller Günter - - 2011
Filling-up lipid stores is critical for size increase of mammalian adipocytes. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, CD73, is released from adipocytes into microvesicles in response to the lipogenic stimuli, palmitate, the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug glimepiride, phosphoinositolglycans (PIG), and H(2)O(2). Upon incubation of microvesicles with adipocytes, CD73 is translocated to cytoplasmic lipid ...
Joo Jeong In - - 2011
One of the major questions in the field of obesity is why some humans become obese (obesity prone, OP) and others resist the development of obesity (obesity resistant, OR) when exposed to a high-calorie diet, which has not been completely studied. Therefore, in the present study, in order to gain ...
Grillo Claudia A CA Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, 6439 Garners Ferry Road, Columbia, SC 29208, - - 2011
Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese, and there is a growing appreciation that the complications of obesity extend to the central nervous system (CNS). While the vast majority of these studies have focused on the hypothalamus, ...
Santana Aluana Carlos - - 2011
After long-term estradiol deficiency, female rats displayed body mass gain accompanied by an increase in the size of adipocytes, an increase in hyperglycemia, and a decrease in insulinemia. The effects were reversed by daily estradiol treatment. Adiposity was suggested by the increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in castrated rats, ...
Choi Jung-Won - - 2011
Sibutramine is an anti-obesity agent that induces weight loss by selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine; however, it is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attack and stroke. Here, we analyzed global protein expression patterns in plasma of control and sibutramine-treated rats using ...
Zhang Ping - - 2011
Benalaxyl (BX), methyl-N-phenylacetyl-N-2,6-xylyl alaninate, is a potent acylanilide fungicide and consist of a pair of enantiomers. The stereoselective metabolism of BX was investigated in rat and rabbit microsomes in vitro. The degradation kinetics and the enantiomer fraction (EF) were determined using normal high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and ...
Tanida Mamoru - - 2011
Niijima previously reported that intragastric infusion of glutamate has increased the activity of the efferent parasympathetic nerves that innervate the stomach and pancreas in urethane-anesthetized rats. In the present study, the effects of intragastric injection of glutamate on the efferent sympathetic nerve outflow to the kidney and the white adipose ...
Gorres Brittany K BK Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. - - 2011
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, with potential implications for glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Previous studies examining the role of ERs in glucose metabolism have primarily used knockout mouse models of ERα and ERβ, and it is unknown whether ER expression is altered in ...
Boersma Gretha J - - 2011
There are large individual differences in the susceptibility for metabolic disorders such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, most animal studies in this field ignore the importance of individual variation which limits the face validity of these studies for translation to the human situation. We have ...
Brown Lynda M - - 2010
Obesity results from a complex interaction of genes with environmental factors. Our experimental design compared obesity in three rat strains with the corpulent (cp) mutation. The three strains included Lister and Albany NIH (LAN) rats, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and Dahl Salt Sensitive (DSS) rats that were congenically bred. The ...
Iwami Momoe - - 2010
Grains of paradise (GP) is a species of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, extracts of which have a pungent, peppery taste due to an aromatic ketone, 6-paradol. The aim of this study was to explore the thermogenic effects of GP extracts and of 6-paradol. Efferent discharges from sympathetic nerves entering the ...
Coupé Bérengère - - 2010
High-protein (HP) milk formulas are routinely used in infants born with a low birth weight (LBW) to enhance growth and ensure a better verbal IQ development. Indirect evidence points to a link between an HP intake during early life and the prevalence of obesity in later life. We hypothesized that ...
Irwin N - - 2010
Cold acclimation is initially associated with shivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscle followed by adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis, particularly in brown adipose tissue (BAT). In response, hyperphagia occurs to meet increased metabolic demand and thermoregulation. The present study investigates the effects of cold (4±1°C) acclimation and hyperphagia on circulating and intestinal levels ...
Schmid Peter M - - 2011
Adiponectin increases nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cell cultures and is reduced in the circulation of obese and diabetic patients, but its functional effect on resistance arteries is not yet studied in detail. We assessed the direct vasodilatory response of isolated mesenteric resistance arteries of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) ...
Müller Günter - - 2011
In response to palmitate, the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug glimepiride, phosphoinositoglycans, or H(2)O(2), the release of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-degrading phosphodiesterase Gce1 from adipocytes into small vesicles (adiposomes) and its translocation from adiposomes to cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD) of adipocytes have been reported. Here the role of Gce1-harboring adiposomes ...
Clark C - - 2011
Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate globally. Several studies have shown that premenopausal women have a reduced risk of CV disease and a reduced myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The effect of obesity on myocardial tolerance to ischemia in women has not been established. To determine how obesity affects ...
Mosconi Elisa - - 2011
In vivo single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4.7T and ex vivo high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-NMR) at 500 MHz were used to study the composition of adipose tissues in Zucker obese and Zucker lean rats. Lipid composition was characterized by unsaturation and polyunsaturation indexes and mean chain lengths. ...
Peng Wei-Bing - - 2010
The in vitro metabolism of two novel phosphate prodrugs of glycyrrhetic acid (GA) was studied by the method of incubation in the rat liver microsome and the in vivo plasma pharmacokinetics after injecting intravenously (i.v.) into six rats was investigated, respectively. The prodrugs diminished gradually with time and most of ...
Lai Q G - - 2010
The objectives of this study were to observe the effects of immunization with mouse mature adipocytes for the prevention of obesity in rats and to investigate their mechanism of action. Mouse mature adipocytes (3T3-L1) were injected as a vaccine into the abdominal cavity of rats. Control rats were injected with ...
Mazur Christopher S - - 2010
The extent to which membrane-disrupting agents, such as alamethicin, may alter cofactor transport and influence in vitro kinetic measurements of glucuronidation is a major concern regarding the characterization and extrapolation of inter- and intraspecies pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA). An additional concern is the omission of a BPA intestinal metabolism ...
Wang Xin X School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR, - - 2010
The effects of the aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) on metabolism/pharmacokinetics of caffeine and on liver microsomal CYP1A2 activity in humans and rats have been investigated. The effects of Danshen aqueous extract on CYP1A2 activity were determined by metabolism of model substrates in the rat in vivo and ...
Takano Ryohji - - 2010
The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for acrylonitrile in humans based on in vitro metabolic parameters determined using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and a prior previously developed PBPK model in rats. The model basically consists of ...
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