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Yi F - - 2006
Ceramide-activated NAD(P)H oxidase has been reported to participate in homocysteine (Hcys)-induced abnormal metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat glomerular mesangial cells. However, it remains unknown whether this ceramide-redox signaling pathway contributes to glomerular injury induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) in vivo. The present study was designed to address this ...
Caturla Francisco - - 2006
The preparation of the sulfoxide analogues 7, 8, and 9 and their enantiomerically pure forms is discussed as well as their ability to act as prodrugs of the potent and selective sulfone-containing COX-2 inhibitors 1, 2, and 3. Sulfoxide derivatives 7 and 9 were shown to be rapidly transformed in ...
Weaver Mitchell - - 2006
Several essential components of NADPH oxidase, including p22phox, gp91phox (nox2) and its homologs nox1 and nox4, p47phox, p67phox, and rac1, are present in the vasculature. We previously reported that p67phox is essential for adventitial fibroblast NADPH oxidase O2- production. Thus we postulated that inhibition of adventitial p67phox activity would attenuate ...
Obata Toshio - - 2007
Although the physiological role of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor still remains unclear, the present study examined whether or not immobilization stress (IMMO) induce MAO inhibitor. An endogenous inhibitor of MAO was separated by gel filtration from 105,000 g supernate in rat liver cytosol following IMMO. The molecular weight of ...
Nielsen Kirsten - - 2006
Tracking serotonergic pathways in the brain through immunodetection of serotonin has widely been used for the anatomical characterization of the serotonergic system. Immunostaining for serotonin is also frequently applied for the visualization of individual serotonin containing fibers and quantification of serotonin positive fibers has been widely used to detect changes ...
Minami M - - 2006
A single dose of isatin (indole-2,3-dione)(i.p.), an endogenous MAO inhibitor, significantly increased norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations in the rat brain and also significantly increased acetylcholine and dopamine (DA) levels in the rat striatum. Urinary isatin concentrations in patients with Parkinson's disease tend to increase according to the severity of disease. ...
Schwartz K - - 2006
Amphetamine and its derivatives are psychostimulants active at the plasma membrane monoamine transporters. In the present study we assessed the interaction of parachloroamphetamine, D-amphetamine, fenfluramine and methylendioxymethamphetamine with brain vesicular monoamine transporter using purified rat striatal synaptic vesicles. All four psychostimulants inhibited vesicular [(3)H]dopamine uptake in a competitive and dose-dependent ...
Taravini Irene R E - - 2005
Pleiotrophin (PTN), a developmentally-regulated trophic factor, is over-expressed in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Because striatal PTN can provide trophic support to dopamine neurons, we identified the cellular types containing PTN in the striatum of adult rats. By means of fluorescent double-immunolabeling, we found PTN to co-localize with a neuronal ...
Sugihara Kazumi - - 2006
The in vivo conversion ratio of N1-methylnicotinamide (NMN) to N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-PY) and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide (4-PY) as a parameter for the estimation of aldehyde oxidase level in rats was examined. NMN and its pyridones (2-PY and 4-PY) are usually detected in the urine of rats. When we measured the ratio of the ...
Maekawa Masao - - 2005
D-serine is nephrotoxic in rats. Based on circumstantial evidence, it has been suspected that D-amino-acid oxidase is involved in this nephrotoxicity. Since we found that LEA/SENDAI rats lacked D-amino-acid oxidase, we examined whether this enzyme was associated with D-serine-induced nephrotoxicity using the LEA/SENDAI rats and control F344 rats. When d-propargylglycine, ...
Hübler Nicole - - 2005
Two tests, a functional observational battery (FOB) and measurement of motor activity, have been used to screen the two NHE inhibitors EMD 96785 and EMD 125021 for neurobehavioral effects. These two NHE inhibitors, which exhibit a marked selectivity for the NHE 1 isoform, are under development in the research laboratories ...
Dai Xiaoling - - 2006
Superoxide anion (O2-*) production is elevated in sympathetic ganglion neurons and in the vasculature of hypertensive animals; however, it is not known what enzymatic pathway(s) are responsible for O2-* production. To determine the pathway(s) of O2-* production in sympathetic neurons, we examined the presence of mRNA of NADPH oxidase subunits ...
Guillem Karine - - 2005
Nicotine is the major neuroactive compound of tobacco, which has, by itself, weak reinforcing properties. It is known that levels of the enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and MAO-B are reduced in the platelets and brains of smokers and that substances, other than nicotine, present in tobacco smoke have MAO-inhibitory ...
Yu Zhifeng - - 2006
Hyperuricemia is associated with a number of pathological conditions such as gout. Lowering of elevated uric acid level in the blood could be achieved by xanthine oxidase inhibitors and inhibitors of renal urate reabsorption. Some natural compounds isolated from herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine have been previously demonstrated to ...
Meulemans Alain - - 2005
Continuous measurements were realized in rat corpus cavernosum using microvoltammetric captor. After inhibition of endothelial NO-synthase by L-NMA vasodilatation was induced by intracavernous injection of acetylcholine. Blood flow of rat penis was monitored by laser Doppler. A new peak appeared in reduction. It was identified as hydrogen peroxide by its ...
Volz Trent J - - 2005
The methylphenidate analogs N-methyl-4-methyl-methylphenidate and N-benzylmethylphenidate are believed to interact differently with the dopamine transporter (DAT) in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report that methylphenidate and N-methyl-4-methyl-methylphenidate, but not N-benzylmethylphenidate, protect the rat striatal DAT from the arginine-selective chemical modifying agent, phenylglyoxal. This suggests that methylphenidate and N-methyl-4-methyl-methylphenidate, but ...
Arshaduddin Mohammed - - 2005
Imipramine is a well-established tricyclic antidepressant which was first approved for the treatment of depression in the late fifties. Antidepressant effect of imipramine is attributed to inhibition of serotonin (5HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake in brain. These monoamines have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders including tremor. In ...
Kitahama K - - 2005
Immunoreactivity to p-tyramine, one of the natural trace amines, was studied in the rat brain by an anti-p-tyramine antibody. Immunoreactivity to this amine is very weak in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and terminals, and weak in the locus coeruleus noradrenergic ones. It was intensified in these structures after monoamine oxidase ...
El Mouedden Mohammed - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: In the present study, a model was developed to determine the effect of secretase inhibition on beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of freely moving adult rats. METHODS: Rats were chronically implanted with a cannula into the cisterna magna and CSF samples were collected at different ...
Izgüt-Uysal V Nimet - - 2005
Sulfite has both an endogenous and an exogenous provenance in the mammalian tissues. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sulfite on macrophages functions in normal or sulfite oxidase deficient rats. Rats were divided into eight groups; (1) control group, (2) sulfite group (the rats ...
Tanabe Michiharu - - 2005
A cDNA encoding rat p47phox was cloned from rat spleen cDNA library, utilizing rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame corresponded to 389 amino acids: It contained the phagocyte oxidase homology domain, two Src homology 3 domains and a proline rich region, all of which are conserved in ...
Pragasam Viswanathan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of nitrosative stress in the process of urolithiasis is far from complete. Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory demonstrate the presence of nitrated THP in stone formers, l-arginine (l-arg) a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), attenuates the endothelial dysfunction caused by reactive nitrogen species. We investigated ...
Machín Raquel - - 2004
We have evaluated quantitatively the whisker barrel field (posteromedial barrel subfield, PMBSF) size in rats raised in standard cages and in rats chronically exposed to an enriched sensory environment. Some animals were subjected to either chronic trimming of the right whiskers, or permanent transection of the right infraorbital nerve. Coronal ...
Ma Xiaoqiang - - 2004
Lycopodium alkaloids are quinolizine, or pyridine and alpha-pyridone type alkaloids. Some Lycopodium alkaloids are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Huperzine A (HupA) is reported to increase efficiency for learning and memory in animals, and it shows promise in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). 201 Lycopodium alkaloids from 54 species ...
Yamada I - - 2004
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, Y-700, were evaluated in rats and healthy male volunteers. In a rat model of hyperuricemia, oral Y-700 (0.3-10 mg/kg) showed a more potent and a longer-lasting hypouricemic action than allopurinol. A single oral dosing of Y-700 (5, 20 or ...
Dourron Hector M - - 2005
Vascular stretch induces NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion (O2-), which has been implicated in hypertrophy and cell proliferation. We hypothesized that targeted delivery of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor to the adventitia would reduce stretch-induced vascular O2- and attenuate neointima formation. We designed a novel replication-deficient adenovirus containing a fibroblast-active promoter driving ...
Nag Maitreyi - - 2004
Drugs with efficacy in psychiatric disorders affect the function of central neurotransmitter amines, which are inactivated primarily by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Effect of these drugs on the two types of MAO (MAO-A and MAO-B) has been studied in rat brain. The result showed that chlorpromazine (CPZ) and imipramine (IMI) at ...
Manyam Bala V - - 2004
Mucuna pruriens possesses significantly higher antiparkinson activity compared with levodopa in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. The present study evaluated the neurorestorative effect of Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder on the nigrostriatal tract of 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder significantly increased the brain mitochondrial complex-I ...
Paterna Jean-Charles - - 2004
We compared the transduction efficiencies and tropisms of titer-matched recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) derived from serotypes 2 and 5 (rAAV-2 and rAAV-5, respectively) within the rat nigrostriatal system. The two serotypes (expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]) were delivered by stereotaxic surgery into the same animals but different hemispheres of ...
Songur Ahmet - - 2004
Phospholipids located in the cellular membrane play a critical role in the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure and membrane function. Evidence is mounting for the role of abnormal phospholipid metabolism in some neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As an important essential fatty acid (EFA), omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acid series are found ...
Lozeva Violina - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric complication of chronic liver disease. Brain monoamines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HE. We examined the relationship between monoamine dysfunction and the degree of portal-systemic shunting (PSS) in rats with varying degrees of PSS. METHODS: Concentrations of catecholamines, serotonin, histamine, ...
Moh Joo Hyun - - 2004
2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-5-[4-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl]-3(2H)furanone derivatives, 3 and 6, were shown to be effectively transformed in vivo into the corresponding methylsulfone derivatives 1 and 4, when orally administered to rats. Pharmacological implications for use of sulfoxide analogues 3 and 6 are discussed as prodrugs to potent selective COX-2 inhibitors 1 and 4.
Maragos William F - - 2004
Intrastriatal administration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitor malonate produces neuronal injury by a "secondary excitotoxic" mechanism involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence indicates dopamine may contribute to malonate-induced striatal neurodegeneration; infusion of malonate causes a pronounced increase in extracellular dopamine and dopamine deafferentation attenuates malonate ...
Namiecinski Michal - - 2004
Since novel synthesized deprenyl-related derivatives of nitroxides, named "JSAKs", have been shown to possess antioxidative properties, their cytotoxicity on neuronal-like PC-12 cells line was examined. The antiproliferative effect of two selected JSAKs was examined and expressed as IC10, IC50 and IC90, and compared with those of the parent nitroxide (Nx-640), ...
Khamdang Suparat - - 2004
We have elucidated the interactions of human and rat organic anion transporters (hOATs and rOATs) with pravastatin and cimetidine. Pravastatin inhibited hOAT1/rOAT1, hOAT2/rOAT2, hOAT3/rOAT3, and hOAT4. The mode of inhibition was noncompetitive for hOAT1 and hOAT2, whereas it was competitive for hOAT3 and hOAT4. Cimetidine also inhibited hOAT1/rOAT1, hOAT3/rOAT3, and ...
Benazzouz Abdelhamid - - 2004
High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates dramatically motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, and recently it has been suggested that zona incerta (ZI) stimulation might be as beneficial to patients. We used in situ cytochrome oxidase (CoI) mRNA hybridization to investigate and compare the effects of HFS of ...
Jesina P - - 2004
We studied the extent to which hormonally-induced mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) activity contributes to the supply of reducing equivalents to the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the rat liver. The activity of glycerophosphate oxidase was compared with those of NADH oxidase and/or succinate oxidase. It was found that triiodothyronine-activated mGPDH represents ...
Goodyer Claire L M CL Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, BA2 7AY, Bath, - - 2003
Inhibition of the isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has important applications in therapy of several diseases, including cancer. Using 1400 W [N-(3-aminomethylbenzyl)acetamidine], thiocitrulline and N(delta)-(4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)ornithine as lead compounds, series of N-benzyl- and N-phenyl-2-amino-4,5-dihydrothiazoles and thioureas were designed as inhibitors of NOS. Ring-substituted benzyl and phenyl isothiocyanates were synthesised by ...
Alonso-Magdalena P - - 2003
Circumventricular organs are considered to be involved in hydromineral homeostatic responses. In this study we used quantitative histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase to evaluate the oxidative metabolic activity of the subfornical organ of rats with a partial aortic occlusion. These rats showed a significant increase in water intake from the second ...
Soares-da-Silva Patrício - - 2003
The present study evaluated the relationship between the degree of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition in erythrocytes and liver by BIA 3-202 (1-[3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrophenyl]-2-phenyl-ethanone) and determined its effects upon the O-methylation of L-DOPA in rats orally treated with L-DOPA plus benserazide. The soluble form of COMT (S-COMT) in erythrocytes was endowed with the ...
Lu Hong - - 2003
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) are the major polyphenolic constituents in green tea. In this study, we characterized the enzymology of cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-catalyzed methylation of EGCG and EGC in humans, mice, and rats. At 1 microM, EGCG was readily methylated by liver cytosolic COMT to 4"-O-methyl-EGCG and then ...
Javeshghani Danesh - - 2003
Sepsis is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, the metabolic sources of increased ROS are not well understood. We hypothesized that the recently described nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase system could be an important source of the ROS superoxide anion (O2-) during sepsis, and the interaction of O2- ...
Kitamura Shigeyuki - - 2003
We investigated the endocrine-disrupting actions of the organophosphorus pesticide fenthion and related compounds and the influence of metabolic transformation on the activities of these compounds. Fenthion acted as an antagonist of the androgenic activity of dihydrotestosterone (10(-7)M) in the concentration range of 10(-6)-10(-4)M in an androgen-responsive element-luciferase reporter-responsive assay using ...
Kim In J - - 2003
This study was aimed to characterize the vascular production of superoxide in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. The nitroblue tetrazolium staining in the aorta from old (30 weeks) OLETF rat was more prominent than that of age-matched control (LETO) rat, which was significantly ...
Schwartz Karin - - 2003
Psychopharmacological and neurochemical research suggests that alterations in monoamine transporters may be involved in the etiology of depression. We studied the expression of the brain-type vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) in the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, which represent a genetic animal model for clinical depression in humans. VMAT2 expression at ...
Kitamura Shigeyuki - - 2003
The in vitro metabolism of fenthion and its sulfoxide (fenthion sulfoxide) in sea bream (Pagrus major) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) was investigated and compared with that in rats. Fenthion was oxidized to fenthion sulfoxide and the oxon derivative, but not to its sulfone, in the presence of NADPH by liver ...
Fogel W A - - 2003
The effect of human recombinant growth hormone (hrGH) on intestinal adaptation in rats subjected to massive small bowel resection has been followed by monitoring changes in the tissue polyamine system and in red blood cell (RBC) polyamine levels. In parallel, the activities of monoamine oxidase A and B and diamine ...
Fowler Joanna S - - 2002
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) regulates neurotransmitter concentration in the brain and is also an important detoxifying enzyme in peripheral organs. It occurs in 2 subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. Their relative ratios in different organs are variable, depending on the particular organ and species, making it difficult to extrapolate measures ...
Swerdlow Neal R - - 2002
Startle may be inhibited when the startling event is preceded by a stimulus; this is called prepulse inhibition (PPI) when the prestimulus is weak and nonstartling (s) and paired pulse inhibition when the prestimulus elicits startle (S1). The authors examined the relationship of these measures across species and tested whether ...
Kang Tae-Cheon - - 2002
To identify the roles of pyridoxine-5'-phosphate (PNP) oxidase in epileptogenesis and the recovery mechanisms in spontaneous seizure, a chronological and comparative analysis of PNP oxidase expression was conducted. PNP oxidase immunoreactivity in a preseizure group of seizure-sensitive (SS) gerbils was detected more strongly than that in a seizure-resistant (SR) group. ...
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