The seeking of Noetic Goals scale (SONG) reliability.
The Noetic Goals scale, which provides a method of measuring the
level of the motivation to find the meaning of life, was developed by
Crumbaugh with the guidance of logotherapy by Victor Frankl. His
original version was developed for the English-speaking population,
which is why the objective of this study was to test the reliability of
the scale with the non-clinical, Spanish-speaking population. The scale
was applied to 139 men and women in the general population of the city
of Toluca, Mexico. The results indicate reliability indexes similar to
the original scale which can be used with confidence in research of the
Scale, noetic goals, reliability
Pena, Gloria Margarita Gurrola
Hernandez, Juan Carlos Perez
Nava, Patricia Balcazar
Munoz, Martha Patricia Bonilla
|Publication:||Name: Existential Analysis Publisher: Society for Existential Analysis Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Psychology and mental health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Society for Existential Analysis ISSN: 1752-5616|
|Issue:||Date: Jan, 2011 Source Volume: 22 Source Issue: 1|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research|
|Persons:||Named Person: Frankl, Viktor Emil|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: United Kingdom Geographic Code: 4EUUK United Kingdom|
Victor Frankl (1994) developed a conceptual framework for the care
and study of the human spirit, whose body of knowledge is known as the
psychology of the purpose and recognized as a valuable source of
clinical practice. It is also known as the third Viennese school of
psychotherapy. This system makes reference to logos and meaning as the
channel of rapprochement to human suffering (Pareja, 1998).
Frankl (1980) conceives human beings in a holistic way, in other words, composed of four different dimensions that correspond to biology, psychology, sociology and the spiritual or noetic dimension. This last dimension, of particular relevance to logotherapy, permits the understanding of suffering and the way humans confront the circumstances of life.
Referring to the noetic dimension, Frankl (1980), indicate that with the word spirit, we must understand the dimension of hum-specific phenomena. For some people, spiritual nature is restricted to the religious dimension, but for others it is not. Guttman (1998) indicates that this dimension contains all of the resources of the human spirit to be used by the individual to counteract illness and the traumas that life brings.
Under a wide view of the noetic dimension is the willingness to find meaning and goals in life, creativity and a sense of humor, conscience and self-consciousness, compassion and forgiveness, as well as the awareness of ones own mortality.
In his effort to clarify this dimension, Pareja (1998), points out the following:
a) The noetic dimension is ontologically distinct from the biological and psychological dimensions.
b) The noetic dimension satisfies an anthropological unit in human beings.
c) The noetic dimension, being specifically human, is characterized by freedom and responsibility, from which spirituality emerges.
d) The noetic dimension, in the case of a single person, is a dimension that is not affected by the somatic and psychic dimensions.
Also, within the spiritual noetic dimension, it is important to mention unconscious extended spirituality as that which stems from the suppression of the reflexive self-consciousness, while implicit self-understanding of the human existence remains standing. This understanding is characteristic to all human beings. Pareja (1998) indicates that human self-reflection is not perfect nor desirable, since the human spirit is not designed to contemplate itself, but to be pointed in the direction towards someone who is beyond this world or next to him. In this way, it is understood that human beings are more completely human when it comes to something intentional or transcendent and in terms of the intentional and existential.
On this topic, Frankl (1995) indicates that the meaning of live can be discovered in three different ways: 1) carrying out an action; 2) having a principle; 3) through suffering.
On this topic, Frankl (1980) mentions that within the uniquely human or noetic dimension, we must find the phenomena of self-transcendence of logos (spirit) since the human existence always tends to go towards something further than oneself, towards some sense. From this perspective, the term existential can be used in three ways; 1) to refer to existence itself; 2) in the sense of existence; and 3) the effort of finding concrete sense in one's personal existence.
With the goal of measuring the way in which human beings have been able to find meaning in their lives or lack thereof, Crumbaugh and Maholick (1976), developed the Life Purpose Test (PIL), which indicates the level of meaning and purpose of the participant, but does not measure the level of the motivation to find this purpose.
Crumbaugh (1977) constructed an attitude scale to measure the level of personal motivation to find meaning in live which he called SONG. Motivation is what Frankl called noetic and refers to spiritual, inspirational and aspirational aspects of the mind. This dimension, as mentioned before, is not necessarily religious but refers to the highest non-material aspirations of life.
Both scales have been widely used within educational, clinical and research environments, but the SONG has not be tested with the non-clinical Hispanic population. For this reason, this paper seeks to test the reliability of the scale of noetic goals.
The study included 139 people from the general population, men and women of the city of Toluca, between 18 and 78 years old, from the middle class; and from different occupations such as homemakers, students, professors, teachers, construction workers, retired people and others.
The test of noetic purpose created by Crumbaugh in 1977 was used. It is a scale that can be administered in an individual or group manner. The printed instructions are suitable for adolescents and adults who know how to read. The test has 20 questions in total with seven options which range from never to constantly in 11 of the questions and constantly to never in 9 questions. In its original version the scale showed adequate reliability with a Pearson product-moment correlation of .71 between questions and a Spearman-Brown correlation of .83 at a significance level of .04.
First, since the instrument required translation, the translation was completed by English to Spanish and Spanish to English experts to insure a correct translation. Then it was piloted to insure the correct understanding of the questions.
Next, permission was obtained from different institutions to apply the instruments to their members. Once permission was granted, the test was administered individually to each participant, answering any questions they had. Once the instruments were answered and after verifying they were answered completely, they were returned to the researcher for processing, results and the writing of conclusions.
An analysis of the odd and even questions was completed looking for Pearson and Spearman-Brown correlations.
The results show strong levels of reliability between questions at levels of significance which are statistically significant (see Tables 1 and 2).
The reliability of the SONG scale (Test of the seeking of noetic goals) for the Mexican population produced a .76 Pearson correlation and a level of significance of .000, while it also produced a .64 Spearman-Brown correlation and a significance level of .000. The congruency of the questions in the scale are highly similar to those reported in the original scale (Crumbaugh, 1977) since the level of correlation is slightly lower and the statistic significance is perfect.
The operationalization of the level of motivation to look for the meaning in life situations is of particular relevance since it allows the prediction of success or failure. Also its relevance lies in the noetic dimension according to Guttman (1998): the willingness to find meaning, the goals and objectives in life, creativity, love (more than physical), conscience (more than superego), sense of humor, commitment, ideas and ideals, imagination, responsibility and ability to answer, self-consciousness, compassion and forgiveness and an awareness of mortality.
To conclude, the SONG scale demonstrated adequate psychometric reliability levels and can be used with complete confidence in the research of the constructs it evaluates. It is also suggested that norms be created for the Noetic Goals Test in the Mexican population and that it be reviewed with other types of statistics.
Crumbaugh, J. and Maholick, L. (1976). Purpose in Life Test. USA: Psychometric Affiliates.
Crumbaugh, J. (1977). The Seeking Noetic Goals Test. USA: Psychometric Affiliates
Frankl, V.E. (1980). Ante el Vacio Existencial: Hacia una Humanizacion de la Psicoterapia. Herder: Barcelona.
Frankl, V.E. (1994). Logoterapiay Andlisis Existencial. Herder: Barcelona
Frankl, V. E. (1995). El hombre en busqueda de sentido. Herder: Barcelona.
Guttman, D. (1998). Logoterapia para Profesionales. Bilbao: Desclee de Brower.
Pareja, G. (1998). Viktor Frankl: Comunicacion y Resistencia. Argentina: San Pablo.
Gloria Margarita Gurrola Pena has a PhD in Psychology and is a research professor at the Autonomous University of Mexico State. Her research areas are the purpose of life and existential vacuum in different populations, and conjugal violence
Postal address: Filiberto Gomez s / n. Col. Guadalupe. C: P. 50010.Toluca, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Email: email@example.com
Juan Carlos Perez Hernandez's research areas are the purpose of life and existential vacuum in different populations, and sports psychology Postal address: Filiberto Gomez s / n. Col. Guadalupe. C: P. 50010.Toluca, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Patricia Balcazar Nava has a PhD in psychological research and is a research professor at the Autonomous University of Mexico State. Research areas are the purpose of life and existential vacuum in different populations, and health psychology
Postal address. Filiberto Gomez s / n. Col. Guadalupe. C: P. 50010.Toluca, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Email: email@example.com
Martha Patricia Bonilla Munoz has a PhD in social psychology and is a research professor at the Autonomous University of Mexico State. Her research areas are the purpose of life and existential vacuum in different populations, and family psychology
Postal address: Filiberto Gomez s / n. Col. Guadalupe. C: P. 50010.Toluca, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Pearson Correlations between odd and even questions Questions r Pearson Level of significance Even .763 .000 Odd .763 .000 Table 2. Spearman-Brown correlation between odd and even questions Questions r Spearman-Brown Level of significance Even .648 .000 Odd .648 .000 Table 3. Example of Questions from the Noetic Purpose Scale I think about the ultimate meaning of life 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Occasionally 4. Sometimes 5. Often 6. Very often 7. Constantly I feel that my greatest achievement is still to come 1. Constantly 2. Very often 3. Often 4. Sometimes 5. Occasionally 6. Rarely 7. Never I don't feel the need to find the meaning and purpose of my life 1. Constantly 2. Very often 3. Often 4. Sometimes 5. Occasionally 6. Rarely 7. Never The mystery of life confuses and frustrates me 1. Constantly 2. Very often 3. Often 4. Sometimes 5. Occasionally 6. Rarely 7. Never Before reaching a goal, I start another goal 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Occasionally 4. Sometimes 5. Often 6. Very often 7. Constantly
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