A revision of the tracheline sac spider genus Cetonana Strand, 1929 in the Afrotropical Region, with descriptions of two new genera (Araneae: Corinnidae).
Abstract: The dark sac spiders of the genus Cetonana Strand, 1929 (Corinnidae: Trachelinae) of the Afrotropical Region are revised. Following a detailed comparison of the somatic and genitalic morphology of the Afrotropical C. martini (Simon, 1897) with the European type species, C. laticeps (Canestrini, 1868), Afroceto gen. n. is established to include the transfer of two Afrotropical species previously described in Cetonana, namely A. martini (Simon, 1897) comb. n. (type species) and A. coenosa (Simon, 1897) comb. n. Three species are proposed as junior synonyms of A. martini, namely C. curvipes (Tucker, 1920) syn. n., C. tridentata (Lessert, 1923) syn. n. and C. simoni (Lawrence, 1942) syn. n. The type of C. aculifera (Strand, 1916) from Madagascar is presumed destroyed and this species is considered nomen dubium. Additionally, 12 new Afroceto gen. n. species are described from southern Africa, namely A. arca sp. n., A. bulla sp. n., A. bisulca sp. n., A. capensis sp. n., A. corcula sp. n., A. croeseri sp. n., A. flabella sp. n., A. gracilis sp. n., A. plana sp. n., A. porrecta sp. n., A. rotunda sp. n. and A. spicula sp. n. Afroceto gen. n. species display variable ecological preferences, occurring in tree canopies, lower foliage strata, bark, and on the ground in contrasting habitats (forests, savannah, grassland, karoo and fynbos) in southern Africa, with single records from Malawi and Tanzania. Patelloceto gen. n., closely resembling Afroceto gen. n. but distinguished by the reduced leg spination and distinctive genitalic morphology, is also described, with three new species, P. secutor sp. n. (type species), P. denticulata sp. n. and P. media sp. n. from southern, central and east Africa. Patelloceto gen. n. species are primarily arboreal, occurring in tree canopies, lower foliage strata or on bark in forests and savannahs.

KEY WORDS: Corinnidae, Trachelinae, Afroceto, Patelloceto, Afrotropical, distribution, endemic, habitat, new species, new genera.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Spiders (Identification and classification)
Spiders (Discovery and exploration)
Authors: Lyle, Robin
Haddad, Charles R.
Pub Date: 12/01/2010
Publication: Name: African Invertebrates Publisher: The Council of Natal Museum Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Zoology and wildlife conservation Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2010 The Council of Natal Museum ISSN: 1681-5556
Issue: Date: Dec, 2010 Source Volume: 51 Source Issue: 2
Geographic: Geographic Scope: South Africa Geographic Code: 6SOUT South Africa
Accession Number: 253058162
Full Text: INTRODUCTION

Recent and ongoing revisions of Afrotropical tracheline sac spiders (Araneae: Corinnidae) have increased our knowledge of regional generic and species diversity (Haddad 2006; Lyle & Haddad 2006, 2009; Haddad & Lyle 2008; Lyle 2008, in press). Presently there are nine genera occurring in the region, namely Cetonana Simon, 1874, Fuchiba Haddad & Lyle, 2008, Fuchibotulus Haddad & Lyle, 2008, Paccius Simon, 1898, Planochelas Lyle & Haddad, 2009, Poachelas Haddad & Lyle, 2008, Spinotrachelas Haddad, 2006, Thysanina Simon, 1910 and Trachelas L. Koch, 1866, of which all but Cetonana and Trachelas are endemic. Three genera formerly listed under Trachelinae by Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocque (1997) were misplaced: Austrachelas Lawrence, 1938 was recently transferred to Gallieniellidae; Brachyphaea Simon, 1895 belongs to Corinninae; and Pronophaea Simon, 1897 can be considered Corinnidae incertae sedis (Haddad et al. 2009; Haddad & Bosselaers 2010; Jocque & Bosselaers in press). The unusual genus Lessertina Lawrence, 1942, considered by Bosselaers and Jocque (2000) to be Corinnidae incertae sedis and later as a Trachelinae genus (Bosselaers & Jocque 2002), is here considered Corinnidae incertae sedis due to conflicting genitalic morphology with other Trachelinae (particularly a palpal median apophysis and conductor in males) and ambiguity as to the homology of the "ventral cusp" on the anterior metatarsi.

Platnick and Ewing (1995) stated that many New World trachelines had been treated as congeneric with either one of two European trachelines, Trachelas minor O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 or Cetonana laticeps (Canestrini, 1868), type species of their respective genera. Detailed examination of their somatic and genitalic morphology produced very little evidence to support that the New World trachelines are similar to the European, resulting in the removal of Meriola Banks, 1895 as a synonym of Trachelas L. Koch, 1872 and the transfer of many Neotropical Cetonana species to Meriola (Platnick & Ewing 1995). However, the fate of the remaining three Neotropical Cetonana species and their relationships to other trachelines (particularly the Afrotropical and Palearctic Cetonana) remains unresolved.

This development highlighted the need for a detailed comparison of the Afrotropical Cetonana with the type species to resolve their taxonomy. A recent cladistic analysis including C. laticeps and C. martini (Simon, 1897) from South Africa already provided the first indications that the genus was polyphyletic and may need to be separated into different genera (Haddad et al. 2009). In evaluating their morphology, several distinctive differences between C. laticeps and C. martini were found (Table 1), which ultimately necessitated the establishment of the new genus Afroceto gen. n. to accommodate the Afrotropical species. A second new genus, Patelloceto gen. n., resembling Afroceto gen. n. in somatic morphology, is described to accommodate three Afrotropical species with unusual genitalic morphology and reduced leg spination. Variations in the appearance of ventral cusps between the two new genera further support their establishment. Only males have ventral cusps in Patelloceto gen. n., while they are present in both sexes, although not in all females, in Afroceto gen. n.

In this paper, C. coenosa (Simon, 1897) and C. martini are redescribed and transferred to Afroceto gen. n., with the latter species designated as the type species of the new genus. Cetonana curvipes (Tucker, 1920), C. tridentata (Lessert, 1923) and C. simoni (Lawrence, 1942) are proposed as junior synonyms of Afroceto martini (Simon, 1897) comb. n. after the examination of all holotypes. A further 12 new species are described in the genus. The type material of C. aculifera (Strand, 1916), described from Madagascar, could not be traced and is presumed lost or destroyed. Recent collections of large quantities of spiders from Madagascar by several American and European institutions have yielded no fresh material of this species fitting Strand's (1916) description, and as a result this name is considered a nomen dubium. A second new genus Patelloceto gen. n. is described, with P. secutor sp. n. from southern and eastern Africa as the type species. Two additional species are described from central and eastern Africa.

RELATIONSHIPS

To evaluate the relationships of the Afrotropical Cetonana with the European type species, C. laticeps, we compared the somatic and genitalic morphology of the latter species with two Afrotropical species that were ultimately considered as the type species of the two new genera proposed here, i.e. Afroceto martini (Simon, 1897) comb. n. and Patelloceto secutor sp. n. (Table 1). For details of the material examined see the species listings below. Figures of the genitalic morphology of C. laticeps are given by Grimm (1986).

While there was considerable similarity in several eye characters relating to anterior eye sizes and separations, and MOQ anterior : posterior width ratio, the posterior eye rows showed several differences. The PME of C. laticeps are separated by at least 1.3 times their diameter, while those of A. martini and P. secutor sp. n. are separated by less than their diameter in both sexes. Also, the PME of C. laticeps are smaller than the PLE, while vice versa applies to A. martini and P. secutor sp. n. Sclerites associated with the sternum and leg bases are generally similar in the three genera, except for an additional pair of intercoxal sclerites between coxae III and IV found in P. secutor sp. n. that are not present in the other two species.

Leg spination and the occurrence of ventral leg cusps have proved useful tools in diagnosing Afrotropical tracheline genera (Haddad 2006; Haddad & Lyle 2008). Leg spines are totally absent in C. laticeps, while A. martini and P. secutor sp. n. have spines at least on femur I and some segments of the posterior legs. Afroceto gen. n. and Patelloceto gen. n. have scattered leg spines on the anterior femora and posterior tibiae and/or metatarsi, but distinction between the two genera lies in the more numerous, longer and more robust spines of Afroceto gen. n. species. The spines of Patelloceto gen. n. species are short and fine. There is considerable variation between species in the presence and number of leg spines and cusps in Afroceto gen. n., while Patelloceto gen. n. are more stable and conservative in these structures.

In C. laticeps, ventral leg cusps are found on the anterior metatarsi and tarsi of both sexes; in A. martini cusps are additionally found on the anterior tibiae of both sexes, with cusps of females being elongate rather than stout (Figs 23-26), as in males (Figs 29-31). Some A. martini females additionally have erect elongate setae in two rows lateral of the cusp rows. However, several Afroceto gen. n. species have females lacking cusps while still presenting regular leg spines. In such cases the anterior metatarsi and tarsi are quite densely scopulate ventrally. In contrast, P. secutor sp. n. males have short tibial, metatarsal and tarsal cusps on legs I and II (Figs 123-129), all of which are absent in females (Table 1).

Regarding genitalic morphology, each genus can be recognised by characteristic combinations of genitalic characters. Perhaps most distinctive is Patelloceto gen. n., whose males have a very large and distinctive retrolateral patellar and dorsal tibial apophysis and a short distal embolus (Figs 130, 133-135); the only other genus to possess such a large tibial apophysis is the South African Spinotrachelas Haddad, 2006, which can be separated from Patelloceto gen. n. by the many pairs of strong ventral spines on the anterior legs (Haddad 2006; Lyle in press). The male palp of C. laticeps has a very strongly curved cymbium that is narrowed distally and a long winding embolus with a sharp tip (Grimm 1986, figs 14a-d), contrasting with the slightly curved cymbium and shorter embolus with a broadened tip seen in A. martini (Figs 32, 39). Further, the palpal patella of C. laticeps lacks an apophysis, which is found in A. martini. Palps of all Afroceto gen. n. males have well-developed retrolateral tibial apophyses, and occasionally also a patellar apophysis, though quite variable in size and shape.

The females of C. laticeps can be recognised by the posteriorly placed copulatory openings in small epigynal ridges (Grimm 1986, figs 15-17), while A. martini has medially placed copulatory openings found within very large broad oval anterior epigynal ridges (Figs 28, 36). Other Afroceto gen. n. species have either epigynal ridges (e.g. A. plana sp. n. and A. coenosa) or epigynal hoods (e.g. A. arca sp. n., A. capensis sp. n. and A. rotunda sp. n.). Patelloceto gen. n. females can be easily recognised by the widely separated small spermathecal structures accompanied by oblique lateral ridges, with a broad membranous median septum separating them (Figs 131, 136).

Even though there is a large degree of variation in genitalic morphology within Afroceto gen. n., their larger size, abdominal sclerotisation and presence of high numbers of leg spines, particularly the long, strongly developed prolateral spines on femur I, help separate this genus from the African Patelloceto gen. n. and Thysanina. Within the Trachelinae, considerable genitalic variation with relatively conservative somatic morphology can also be found in Thysanina and Meriola Banks, 1895. Whether this genitalic variation can be regarded as adequate justification to establish several new genera to accommodate each genitalic template is certainly debatable, and should be the subject of an extensive cladistic analysis. Considering these factors, it is quite possible that Afroceto gen. n., Thysanina and Meriola may be polyphyletic, as is the case in Trachelas (Platnick & Ewing 1995; Bosselaers et al. 2009; Haddad et al. 2009; Bosselaers & Bosmans 2010).

While it would be ideal to analyze the relationships of Afroceto gen. n. and Patelloceto gen. n. in the present contribution, we feel that there is too large a diversity of Afrotropical tracheline species (and most likely genera, too) that still need to be described, particularly in Trachelas and Thysanina. Therefore, any result produced would be too preliminary to account for variations in these genera or effectively identify the characters needed to define the limits of each genus properly. If attempted now, such an analysis would inevitably need to be repeated at a later stage, which could potentially result in an unnecessarily large numbers of taxonomic changes being made to the classification of the Trachelinae. While the tracheline fauna of the other continents has been quite thoroughly treated (with the exception of Australia), we would thus propose that a global-level cladistic analysis be performed once the Afrotropical fauna has been more thoroughly revised.

BIOLOGY

Afroceto gen. n. species have been predominantly captured from the ground surface by pitfall trapping or sifting leaf litter, but are also collected from foliage or beneath loose bark of trees, sometimes occurring in high numbers (Haddad, pers. observ.). Some specimens of A. arca sp. n. have been collected from abandoned Trinervitermes trinervoides (Sjostedt, 1911) termite mounds (Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2006a), while A. plana sp. n. was one of the most abundant spiders associated with the bark of Acacia xanthophloea trees at Ndumo Game Reserve in South Africa (Haddad, unpubl.). Egg sacs are constructed underneath bark and under stones or logs, and measure 4.0-5.0 mm in diameter. Afroceto gen. n. species have been collected in South Africa from all the major biome types, namely savannah, grassland, forest, fynbos and karoo (Foord et al. 2002, 2008; Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 2005a; Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2006a, 2009; Haddad et al. 2006; Dippenaar et al. 2008), and are occasionally collected in agroecosystems during long-term surveys, although usually not in large numbers (Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 2005b; Haddad et al. 2005; Haddad & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2006b). Only three species, A. martini, A. arca sp. n. and A. plana sp. n., are widespread and occur in several different biomes: A. martini and A. plana sp. n. occur primarily in higher rainfall regions and are known from forest, savannah, grassland and fynbos habitats, while A. arca sp. n. is mainly distributed in lower rainfall semi-arid and arid habitats (grassland, Nama karoo and succulent karoo). The remaining species have smaller distribution ranges and are restricted to one or two biome types. The greatest endemism levels are in the fynbos, Nama karoo and succulent karoo biomes of southern and western South Africa.

Only three species are not endemic to South Africa (including Lesotho): there is a single record of A. arca sp. n. from Namibia, a single record of A. martini from Tanzania and one record of A. plana sp. n. from Malawi. These outlying records suggest that the genus could at least also occur in Botswana, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe.

Patelloceto gen. n. species are presently known from limited records in savannah and forest habitats in the east of the continent (e.g. Haddad et al. 2006, 2010 as Cetonana sp.). These spiders are primarily arboreal and have been collected by beating, under bark or by canopy fogging. Patelloceto secutor sp. n. was often collected from bark of Acacia xanthophloea trees and by canopy fogging at Ndumo Game Reserve (Haddad, unpubl.) but was considerably less abundant than A. plana sp. n. in both. Both genera have been collected frequently by canopy fogging in South Africa, although they are not very abundant, while Patelloceto gen. n. was occasionally collected by canopy fogging in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

All specimens were preserved and examined in 70 % ethanol, and were observed for description using a light microscope. The epigynes of female paratypes were dissected with 0-size insect pins and cleared for eight minutes in a Branson 3200 ultrasonic bath, after which they were drawn in 70[degrees]%o ethanol. A left palp of a male paratype was dissected and drawn for each species, where possible.

All measurements are given in millimetres (mm). Body measurements (excluding legs) were determined from the smallest and largest specimens of both sexes to provide a size range. Eye and leg measurements are given for the largest specimen of each sex. Leg spination follows the format of Bosselaers and Jocque (2000). Eye arrangements are described for the anterior view of the anterior eye row and the dorsal view of the posterior eye row. Descriptions are provided for the type species first, followed by other species in alphabetical order.

The following abbreviations are used in the descriptions:

AER--anterior eye row

AL--abdomen length

ALE--anterior lateral eye

AME--anterior median eye

AW--abdomen width

CL--carapace length

CW--carapace width

do--dorsal

FL--fovea length

MOQ--median ocular quadrangle

PER--posterior eye row

pl--prolateral

PLE--posterior lateral eye

plv--prolateral ventral

PME--posterior median eye

rl--retrolateral

rlv--retrolateral ventral

SL--sternum length

ST--spermatheca

SW--sternum width

TL--total length

vt--ventral terminal

Material for scanning electron microscopy (A. martini, A. plana sp. n. and P. secutor sp. n.) was dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and then critical point dried in an argon chamber. Specimens were mounted onto stubs, sputter coated five times with gold, and then studied using a JEOL WinSEM 6400 at 10 kV. Digitised micrographs were taken. Digital photographs of males and/or females of each species were taken using a Nikon Coolpix 8400 mounted on a Nikon SMZ800 stereomicroscope. The extended focal range images were stacked using CombineZM software (http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk) to increase depth of field.

Material used in this study was obtained from the following collections (curators are named in parentheses). Locality co-ordinates were provided when available.

TAXONOMY

Genus Cetonana Strand, 1929

Ceto Simon, 1874: 238; Grimm 1986: 10; Paik 1991: 263; Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocque 1997: 128. Cetonana Strand, 1929 (replacement name); Platnick & Ewing 1995: 2; Platnick 2010. Cetonana Mello-Leitao, 1941: Brignoli 1983: 556 [lapsus!].

Type species: Drassus laticeps Canestrini, 1868.

Diagnosis (after Grimm 1986 and Bosselaers et al. 2009): Cetonana can be recognised by the following combination of characters: the presence of ventral leg cusps on metatarsi and tarsi I and II of both sexes (absent from tibiae of both sexes); scopulate metatarsi and tarsi I and II of females comprising erectile bristles; the absence of leg spines; flat carapace; AME that are clearly larger than the other eyes; PME that are smaller than the PLE; female epigyne with posterior copulatory openings; and male palp with strongly ventrally curved cymbium and a tegulum occupying only part of the ventral side of the cymbium. Species included: C. laticeps, C. lineolata Mello-Leitao, 1941, C. orientalis (Schenkel, 1936), C. petrunkevitchi Mello-Leitao, 1945 and C. setosa (Simon, 1897).

Afrotropical species transferred to other genera: Afroceto coenosa (Simon, 1897) comb. n.; A. martini (Simon, 1897) comb. n. (= C. curvipes (Tucker, 1920) syn. n., = C. tridentata (Lessert, 1923) syn. n., = C. simoni (Lawrence, 1942) syn. n.).

Afrotropical species considered nomen dubium: C. aculifera (Strand, 1916).

Cetonana laticeps (Canestrini, 1874)

For complete bibliography see Platnick (2010).

Material examined: SPAIN: 1 [male] 1 [female] Girona Province, Baix Emporda, Els Angels, 485 m, J. Bosselaers, sifting litter in corkoak wood (PCJB). GERMANY: 2 [female] Baden-Wiirttemberg, Tubingen (SMF, 20270).

Cetonana aculifera (Strand, 1916)

Ceto aculifera Strand, 1916: 74.

This species was described from Madagascar on the basis of a single female. The type specimen was presumably lost or destroyed during World War II, and the original description is inadequate for the identification of the species. Despite considerable efforts to generate spider material in Madagascar during recent decades, no fresh tracheline specimens could be found in the California Academy of Sciences, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Smithsonian Institute or American Museum of Natural History fitting Strand's (1916) description, and as a result this name is considered a nomen dubium.

Genus Afroceto gen. n.

Etymology: The generic name is a combination of the prefix afro-, indicating the Afrotropical Region where the genus is found, and the suffix from Cetonana, to which this genus is closely related. Gender feminine.

Type species: Cetonana martini (Simon, 1897).

Diagnosis: The genus Afroceto gen. n. differs from other closely related genera, such as Cetonana, Patelloceto gen. n., Thysanina Simon, 1910 and Trachelas, in several respects. The most noticeable characteristics are their generally larger size and the presence of leg spines, of which the most diagnostic are one to four strong prolateral leg spines on the femora of leg I. The aforementioned genera lack leg spines with the exception of Patelloceto gen. n. and two Thysanina species, in which single fine spines are found on the femora, and isolated fine spines on the tibiae and metatarsi of the posterior legs (see below and Lyle & Haddad 2006). The posterior legs of Afroceto gen. n. usually have several spines scattered on the femora, tibiae and metatarsi. Ventral cusps are found on the anterior tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi of legs I and II in all males and in some females; in females without cusps the anterior metatarsi and tarsi are densely scopulate. Variation in cusp shape can be seen within species: tibial cusps are usually elongate with a rounded point and are slightly constricted at the base, while other cusps are often peg-like with a rounded point and flattened at the base (Figs 26, 83, 89). Males of Afroceto gen. n. have a well-developed dorsal abdominal scutum covering nearly the entire abdomen, in females extending up to 1/3 the abdomen length, or absent (Figs 1-22); dorsal abdominal scuta are absent in Thysanina, indistinct in male Cetonana and absent in their females, and often absent in Trachelas. Abdominal sclerotisation is similar to Patelloceto gen. n.

Description: Medium to large spiders, 3.4-8.1 mm in length; male smaller, with legs and abdomen thicker, more robust than female. Carapace slightly dorsoventrally flattened, highest immediately posterior to eye region; ocular region narrowest; carapace broader medially, concave posteriorly; carapace bright orange to dark red-brown, paler posterior to fovea (Figs 1-22); carapace covered in fine setae; fovea short, distinct, slightly thickened; ocular region darkened with dark rings around eyes. Anterior eye row nearly straight, either slightly procurved or recurved; posterior eye row slightly recurved (Fig. 81). Chelicerae usually with two or three promarginal teeth and two retromarginal teeth; labium usually longer than broad; endites straight along lateral margin; serulla distinct. Sternum shield-shaped (Fig. 82), longer than broad; short and long fine setae scattered across smooth surface; colouration pale brown to orange, darker towards border. Legs with paired tarsal claws situated in dense claw tuft; ventral cusps (Fig. 23) present on anterior tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi of males, sometimes present in females (A. martini, A. corcula sp. n. and A. plana sp. n.); in other females anterior metatarsi and tarsi densely scopulate ventrally; long erect setae sometimes found on tibiae of anterior legs (Fig. 91); cusps varying in shape, either elongate with rounded point and tapered at base (Fig. 26), or peg-like with rounded point and tapered at base (Fig. 89); situated in deep sockets (Fig. 27); cusp arrangement differs among species and individuals; leg spines present, one to four strong prolateral spines on femur I, sometimes also on other femora; posterior legs with scattered spines on most segments; legs I to IV generally pale yellow to light brown, many species with grey bands on most leg segments. Abdomen broad anteriorly, broadest medially, tapering posteriorly; integument pale yellow to dark grey, with paired sigilla; some species with grey chevron or other dorsal abdominal markings (Figs 1-22); dorsal scutum present in males, usually absent in females. Female with paired copulatory openings in weakly sclerotised epigyne, often with uniquely shaped anterior epigynal hood and lateral epigynal ridges (Fig. 28); vulva with variable entrance ducts, ST II (spermathecae linked to entrance ducts) usually anteriorly located, and ST I (spermathecae linked to ST II and fertilisation ducts) smaller, posteriorly placed. Male palps with considerable variations in size and structure of tibial apophyses, and structure, length and origin of embolus (Figs 32, 87); patellar apophysis rarely present.

[FIGURES 1-22 OMITTED]

Species included: A. arca sp. n., A. bulla sp. n., A. bisulca sp. n., A. capensis sp. n., A. coenosa (Simon, 1897) comb. n. (ex Cetonana), A. corcula sp. n., A. croeseri sp. n., A. flabella sp. n., A. gracilis sp. n., A. martini (Simon, 1897) comb. n. (ex Cetonana), A. plana sp. n., A. porrecta sp. n., A. rotunda sp. n. and A. spicula sp. n.

Key to the species of Afroceto gen. n.

1 Males ([male][male] of A. bulla sp. n., A. coenosa (Simon) and A. corcula sp. n. unknown) 2

--Females ([female][female] of A. bisulca sp. n., A. gracilis sp. n. and A. porrecta sp. n. unknown) 12

2 Retrolateral patellar apophysis present 3

--Retrolateral patellar apophysis absent 5

3 Embolus curving transversely, ending in sharp point; tibial apophysis simple, triangular, with sharp point, situated dorsally; distal spines on cymbium absent (Figs 112, 113) spicula sp. n.

--Embolus orientated obliquely for much of its length, distal section curved, ending in swollen, fist-like point; tibial apophysis complex, situated retrolaterally, broader distally than at base in lateral view, with one or three excrescences (Figs 40, 98); cymbium with two distal spines (Fig. 39) 4

4 Embolus curving prolaterally after emerging from beneath tegulum, tip directed retrolaterally, ending close to distal tip of cymbium (Fig. 39); retrolateral tibial apophysis in lateral view with three excrescences (Figs 40, 41) martini (Simon)

--Embolus directed distally after emerging from beneath tegulum, tip close to retrolateral margin of cymbium (Fig. 97); retrolateral tibial apophysis in lateral view broad and flat, with dorsally directed tooth-like excrescence (Fig. 98) plana sp. n.

5 Embolus very broad and tongue-shaped, projecting ventrally; retrolateral tibial apophysis in lateral view with single base split into two tooth-like projections, ventral one rounded and directed anteriorly, dorsal one directed dorsally (Fig. 53) bisulca sp. n.

--Embolus narrower with distinct curvature, varying in length; retrolateral apophysis simple or comprising two distinctly separated apophyses 6

6 Embolus originating prolaterally, directed transversely across cymbium, with nearly parallel sides and flattened tip near retrolateral margin (Fig. 73) flabella sp. n.

--Embolus shaped otherwise. 7

7 Cymbium strongly curved ventrally, post-tegular section narrow, twice as long as tegulum, accompanied by very long fine tapering retrolateral embolus; palpal tibia with two retrolateral apophyses, ventral one small and triangular, dorsal one angled slightly dorsally and twice as long (Figs 103, 104) porrecta sp. n.

--Cymbium only slightly curved, post-tegular section less than tegular length, embolus position variable; palpal tibia with single apophysis 8

8 Tegulum with large, curved, tapering prolateral distal extension containing part of sperm ducts; embolus originating prolaterally, curving beneath tegular extension, emerging retrolaterally and curving towards tip of cymbium along retrolateral margin (Fig. 60); retrolateral tibial apophysis parallel sided, directed dorsally, ending in two sharp points (Fig. 61) capensis sp. n.

Tegulum without tegular extension; embolus originating prolaterally or distally, coiled or tapering distally to sharp point; retrolateral tibial apophysis triangular, tapering to point distally 9

9 Embolus coiled, tip directed distally 10

--Embolus slender, ending in sharp point directed obliquely towards retrolateral margin 11

10 Tibial apophysis situated retrolaterally, subtriangular, broadest medially, gradually tapering to tip (Fig. 46); embolus originating prolaterally, with broad coiled base; tip pointed and located medially near cymbium tip (Figs 47, 49); tibiae I and II with prolateral cusps only (Fig. 45) arca sp. n.

--Tibial apophysis situated dorsally (Fig. 71), triangular, with sharp tip; embolus originating retrolaterally distally, with narrow coiled base and curved, parallel sided distal section; tip broad and serrated, located near prolateral margin of cymbium (Fig. 70); tibiae I and II with prolateral and retrolateral cusps (Fig. 71) croeseri sp. n.

11 Tegular sperm duct with sharp proximal and retrolateral loops; cymbium without plv distal spine (Fig. 78) gracilis sp. n.

--Tegular sperm duct U-shaped, with broad proximal loop and no distal loop; cymbium with single plv distal spine (Fig. 107) rotunda sp. n.

12 Epigyne with anterior hood present 13

--Epigyne with anterior hood absent 17

13 Anterior hood arch-shaped or round (e.g. Fig. 43) 14

--Anterior hood with distinctive median projection (e.g. Fig. 57) 16

14 Anterior hood with lateral extensions extending to copulatory openings (Fig. 75); ST I projecting laterally beyond outer margin of ST II; spermathecae separated by distance less than their length; ST I not linked by narrow transverse tube 15

--Anterior hood not extending to copulatory openings (Fig. 43); ST I and ST II outer margin in same plane; spermathecae widely separated, by distance approximately equal to their length; ST I linked by narrow transverse tube (Fig. 44) arca sp. n.

15 Anterior margin of anterior hood subtriangular, expanded anteriorly; ST I expanded laterally, much larger than ST II (Fig. 75) flabella sp. n.

--Anterior margin of anterior hood evenly thick, not expanded anteriorly; ST I and ST II equal in size (Fig. 109) rotunda sp. n.

16 Anterior hood with lateral extensions leading to copulatory openings (Fig. 65); ST I and ST II spherical (Fig. 66); anterior legs with ventral cusps on metatarsi and tarsi (Fig. 64) corcula sp. n.

--Anterior hood without lateral extensions (Fig. 56); ST II oval, situated laterally, ST I subtriangular, with small posterior lobe (Fig. 58); anterior legs without ventral cusps capensis sp. n.

17 Anterior legs with cusps present on tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi (Figs 35, 99) 18

--Anterior legs without ventral cusps 19

18 Tip of ST II extending beyond anterior margin of epigyne (Fig. 100); copulatory ducts simple, directed anteriorly to small ST II, with broad duct leading to posteriorly situated spherical ST I (Fig. 101) plana sp. n.

--Tip of ST II not extending beyond anterior margin of epigyne (Fig. 36); copulatory ducts compactly coiled to small ST II, with narrow duct leading to bilobed posteriorly situated ST I (Fig. 37) martini (Simon)

19 Copulatory ducts and anterior region of ST II coiled (Fig. 115); ST I widely separated, spherical, at epigastric fold (Figs 114-116) spicula sp. n.

--Copulatory ducts curved but not coiled, ST II oval (e.g. Fig. 54); ST I close together, sometimes at epigastric fold, shape variable 20

20 Posterior section of spermathecae converging medially to epigastric fold; lateral ridges absent; ST II clearly separated (Fig. 54) bulla sp. n.

--Posterior section of spermathecae diverging, ending broadly at epigastric fold (Fig. 62); epigyne with lateral ridges; ST II nearly touching 21

21 Epigyne with distinct oval lateral ridges anteriorly, leading to median copulatory openings, placed in anterior half of epigyne (Fig. 62); femur I and metatarsus IV with single leg spine, remaining leg segments spineless coenosa (Simon)

--Epigyne without lateral ridges, copulatory openings situated medially in posterior half of epigyne (Fig. 68); femora I-IV, and tibiae and metatarsi III and IV, with leg spines croeseri sp. n.

Afroceto martini (Simon, 1897), comb. n.

Figs 1, 2, 23-41

Ceto martini: Simon 1897a: 509; 1897b: 179, fig. 184.

Ceto curvipes Tucker, 1920: 480, pl. 29, fig. 18. Syn. n.

Ceto tridentata Lessert, 1923: 200, figs 50, 51. Syn. n.

Ceto simoni Lawrence, 1942: 172, fig. 22. Syn. n.

Cetonana martini: Bosselaers & Jocque 2002: 250, figs 3a, 4e.

Diagnosis: The female can be recognised by the coiled copulatory ducts, which are initially directed medially (Fig. 36) and are covered by long curved lateral epigynal ridges. The male can be recognised by the palp, which has a broad tibial apophysis with three distal excrescences, and the embolus that curves prolaterally after emerging from beneath the tegulum, ending in a fist-like tip (Fig. 39).

Remarks: Examination of the type material of C. martini (holotype female, and male and female syntypes), C. curvipes (holotype male), C. tridentata (holotype male) and C. simoni (holotype female) indicated several key similarities in somatic and genitalic morphology. Females share the same epigyne structure, particularly the shape of the epigynal ridges, and orientation of the copulatory openings and coiled entrance ducts.

[FIGURES 23-34 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 35-41 OMITTED]

Males share similar palpal structures, particularly the embolus partially obscured by the tegulum, orientation of the distal end of the embolus and structure of the retrolateral tibial apophysis. We therefore propose the synonymy of C. curvipes syn. n., C. tridentata syn. n. and C. simoni syn. n. with A. martini comb. n. Although a male specimen is amongst the type series, it was never described by Simon (1897a).

Redescription:

Female.

Measurements: CL 2.40-2.90, CW 2.05-2.33, AL 2.40-4.60, AW 1.48-2.80, TL 4.80-7.60, FL 0.15-0.23, SL 1.40-1.73, SW 1.20-1.38, AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.05, ALE-ALE 0.53, PME-PME 0.20, PME-PLE 0.16, PLE-PLE 0.80. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.30 + 1.00 + 1.88 + 1.73 + 1.18 = 8.09; II 2.25 + 1.00 + 1.70 + 1.65 + 1.00 = 7.60; III 1.73 + 0.80 + 1.23 + 1.55 + 0.65 = 5.96; IV 2.30 + 1.05 + 2.20 + 1.60 + 0.85 = 8.00.

Carapace reddish brown (Fig. 1); first two thirds of carapace gradually rounded with highest point in first third, last third with relatively steep decline; surface smooth, with short, distinct, slightly thickened fovea at two thirds CL. Ocular region reddish brown to dark brown with dark brown, almost black, rings around eyes; AER slightly procurved, AME larger than ALE; clypeus height equal to 0.8 AME diameter; AME separated by distance equal to 0.4 diameter; AME separated from ALE by approx. 0.4 AME diameter; PER very slightly procurved, almost straight, PME larger than PLE; PME separated by distance equal to 1.2 their diameter; PME separated from PLE by 1.2 PME diameter. Chelicerae brown, orange towards fang base; anterior surface covered in pale, fine setae; fangs orange, paler at tips; two promarginal teeth, proximal tooth largest; two retromarginal teeth, proximal tooth largest. Sternum light brown, darker towards borders; surface smooth covered in fine setae. Abdomen cream with brown mottling dorsally; some specimens with grey chevron markings; broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; scutum small, covering less then one quarter abdomen length; venter pale grey, covered in fine setae. Legs I to IV uniform brown to pale yellow; some specimens with incomplete grey bands on all legs; anterior leg pairs more robust than posteriors; moderately dense scopulae on metatarsi and tarsi, remaining leg segments covered in fine, less dense setae; leg spines and cusps present. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1, II pl 1, III pl 1 rl 1, IV pl 1 rl 1; patellae spineless; tibiae: I plv 8-10 rlv 8-10 cusps, II plv 3-8 rlv 5-11 cusps, III pl 1, IVplv 3 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 15 rlv 13 cusps, II plv 13 rlv 10 cusps, III pl 1 rl 1 plv 1, IV plv 1 vt 2; tarsi: I plv 8-10 rlv 7-8 cusps, II plv 6-9 rlv 6-8 cusps (Figs 23-27, 35). Epigyne with curved lateral epigynal ridges, with large copulatory openings close to lateral ridges (Figs 28, 36); entrance ducts forming two-fold coil before extending towards oval anterior ST II, with narrow tube leading to posterior globular ST I (Fig. 37).

Description:

Male.

Measurements: CL 1.84-3.50, CW 1.65-3.00, AL 1.68-3.90, AW 1.29-2.13, TL 3.68-7.20, FL 0.18-0.25, SL 1.20-1.88, SW 1.08-1.73, AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.08, ALE-ALE 0.65, PME-PME 0.23, PME-PLE 0.23, PLE-PLE 1.23. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 3.20 + 6.10 + 2.75 + 2.45 + 1.63 = 16.13; II 2.90 + 1.38 + 2.50 + 2.45 + 1.55 = 10.78; III 2.20 + 1.10 + 1.60 + 2.10 + 0.90 = 7.90; IV 0.80 + 1.25 + 2.60 + 3.40 + 1.18 = 9.23.

Carapace reddish brown (Fig. 2); first two thirds of carapace gradually rounded with highest point in first third, last third with relatively steep decline; surface slightly granular, with short, distinct, slightly thickened fovea at two thirds CL. Ocular region reddish brown with darkened, almost black rings around eyes; AER very slightly procurved, AME larger than ALE; clypeus height equal to 0.7 AME diameter; AME separated by approx. 0.4 diameter; AME separated from ALE by approx. 0.15 AME diameter; PER very slightly procurved, almost straight, PME larger than PLE; PME separated by approx. 1.2 diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance approx. equal to PME diameter. Chelicerae brown, orange towards fang base; anterior surface covered in fine, light setae; fangs orange, paler at tips; three promarginal teeth, median tooth largest, proximal tooth smallest; two retromarginal teeth, proximal tooth largest. Sternum orange, brown towards borders; surface smooth, covered in fine setae. Abdomen cream with brown mottling dorsally; some specimens with grey chevron markings; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; scutum broad, covering three quarters of dorsum; venter cream, covered in short fine setae. Legs I to IV uniform brown to pale yellow; some specimens with incomplete grey band arrangement on all legs; anterior leg pairs more robust than posteriors; slightly dense scopulae on metatarsi and tarsi, remaining leg segments covered in fine, less dense setae; leg spines and cusps present. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1-4, II pl 1, III pl 1, IV pl 1; patellae spineless; tibiae: I plv 7-9 rlv 0-3 cusps, II plv 4-10 rlv 0-2 cusps, III pl 1 rl 1 plv 2 rlv 1, IV pl 1 rl 2 plv 1 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 15 rlv 10-11 vt 2 cusps, II plv 6-13 rlv 10 cusps, III pl 1 rl 1 plv 2 rlv 1, IV pl 1 rl 1 plv 2; tarsi: I plv 6-9 rlv 4-7 cusps, II plv 4-6 rlv 2-7 cusps (Figs 29-31, 38). Palp with embolus originating prolaterally, partly hidden by tegulum, directed prolaterally then retrolaterally after emergence from beneath tegulum (Figs 32, 39); two small strong spines situated prolaterally and retrolaterally on distal end of cymbium (Fig. 33); tibia with three retrolateral apophyses, dorsal and ventral apophyses triangular, median apophysis curving ventrally (Figs 34, 40), with some variation in sharpness of curved tip (Fig. 41); patellar apophysis small, triangular (Fig. 40).

Lectotype (here designated) [female] and paralectotypes 2 [female] 1 [male] and 1 imm. (examined): SOUTH AFRICA: Natal (no specific locality), C. Martin (MNHN, 9232). Note: The lectotype has been designated here to preserve the current concept of the species.

Type material of new synonyms (examined):

Cetonana curvipes (Tucker, 1920). Holotype [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Groot Wintershoek Mts, 4200-4700 ft, 19.xi.1915, R.W. Tucker (SAMC, B2742).

Cetonana tridentata (Lessert, 1923). Holotype [male] SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Umbilo, Bevis (MNHG).

Cetonana simoni (Lawrence, 1942). Holotype [female] SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Umhlali, Sheffield Beach, ii.1940, R.F. Lawrence (NMSA, 2983).

Other material examined: LESOTHO: 2 [male] 1 juv. Qachas Nek, 30[degrees]06.549'S:28[degrees]41.068'E, 1833 m, 8.xi.2003, C. Haddad, bluegum bark (NCA, 2006/1546). SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 1 [female] East London, Cambridge street, Outdoor Living Shop, 17.vi.1978, P. Croeser, wandering in camping equipment (NMSA, 18455); 1 [female] 1 [male] Fort Brown, Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve, 33[degrees]07'S:26[degrees]37'E, 4.vi.1981, P.M.C. Croeser, found on and under bark of dry river bed trees Combretum caffrum (NMSA); 1 [female] same data (NMSA); 1 [female] Grahamstown, Dassienuaz, 8.X.1989, R.F. Law[rence]. (AMG); 1 [female] Grahamstown, Fern Point, ii.1933, J. Hewitt (AMG); 4 [female] Hogsback, Amatola Mountains, 32[degrees]36'S:26[degrees]56'E, 25.iii.2007, C. Haddad, leaf litter (NCA, 2006/1521); 1 [male] Kasouga Coastal Reserve, 16 km WSW of Port Alfred, 33[degrees]39'S:26[degrees]45'E, i.1940, J. Omer-Cooper (NMSA); 1 [female] Kei Mouth, 32[degrees]41.206'S:28[degrees]22.497'E, 8.xii.2005, C. Haddad, leaf litter, coastal forest (NCA, 2006/1291); 1 [female] 3 juv. same data (NCA, 2006/1292); 3 [male] same locality, 32[degrees]41.280'S:28[degrees]22.484'E, 13.xii.2002, C. Haddad, leaf litter at tree base (NCA, 2006/1509); 2 [male] same data, 2.vi.2003, C. Haddad, leaf litter, coastal bush (NCA, 2006/1507); 1 [female] same data, 2.vi.2003, C. Haddad, under cut grass, coastal bush (NCA, 2006/1495); 1 [female] same data, 30.iv.2005, C. Haddad, leaf litter, coastal dune (NCA, 2006/1480); 1 [female] near Mazeppa Bay, 36[degrees]26.495'S:28[degrees]36.968'E, 28.x.2006, C. Haddad, leaf litter, Eucalyptus plantation (NCA, 2007/279); 1 [female] Mkhambathi Nat. Res., 10 m, 31.27333[degrees]S:30.02288[degrees]E, 27.i.2008, III-UKZN, Tree beats, forest (NCA, 2010/235); 1 [male] Port Elizabeth, Lovemore Park, 34[degrees]00.282'S:25[degrees]31.597'E, 1.i.2010, C. Haddad, night collecting, bark and foliage (NCA, 2009/3667); 1 [male] Rivierberg Range, Plessierivier, 43 km NE Willowmore at hwy R337, 33[degrees]08.31'S:23[degrees]50.4'E, 18.xi.1999, 650 m, E.I. Schlinger (CASC); 2 [male] 20 km W of Grahamstown, along N2 highway, 33[degrees]25.237'S:26[degrees]21.266'E, 13.vii.2005, C. Haddad & R. Lyle, under Eucalyptus bark (NCA, 2006/1490). Free State: 1 [male] Bethlehem District, Golden Gate National Park, Spelonken, 28[degrees]28'S: 28[degrees]38'E, 21.iv.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6546); 1 [female] same locality, 21.iv.1994, J. Irish, beating (NMBA, 6555); 3 [female] Bloemfontein district, "Hopefield" farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, 1.xii.2001, C. Haddad, under bluegum bark (NCA, 2006/1477); 2 [male] same locality, 4.xii.2001, C. Haddad, bluegum leaf litter (NCA, 2006/1481); 2 [female] Bloemfontein district, Maselspoort, 29[degrees]01.683'S:26[degrees]24.316'E, 2.ii.2005, C. Haddad, Eucalyptus bark (NCA, 2008/2018); 1 [female] Bloemfontein, Westdene, 29[degrees]06.088'S:26[degrees]12.506'E, 12.i.2002, C. Haddad, rolled up in dry leaves in shrubs (NCA, 2006/1503). Gauteng: 1 [male] Pretoria, 3.iv.2001, B. Sunkel, in garden (NCA, 2004/428); 1 [female] Johannesburg, Parktown North, 26[degrees]10'S:28[degrees]02'E, 19.xi.1986, S. Filmer, wall in lounge (NCA, 87/65); 1 [male] Roodeplaat Dam Nat. Res., 25[degrees]38'S:28[degrees]21'E, 23.i.1988, M. Filmer, ground under rock (NcA, 88/263); 1 [female] Suikerbosrand Nat. Res., near Heidelberg, 26[degrees]30'S:28[degrees]15'E, 23.i.1993, A. Leroy (NCA, 2006/1531). KwaZulu-Natal: 1 [male] 1 [female] Albert Falls, "Helenshoek" farm, x.1958, R.F. Lawrence (NMSA, 7023); 1 [male] 1 [female] Ashburton, 10 km SE of Pietermaritzburg, 2.i.1991, V.D. & B. Roth (CASC); 1 [male] Charter's Creek, Lake street, Lucia Forest, 28[degrees]12'S:32[degrees]26'E, 19-21.xi.1985, J. Doyen & C. & T. Griswold (NMSA); 1 [female] Drakensberg, Champagne Castle Hostel, iv.1948, R.F. Lawrence (NMSA, 5580); 1 [female] Dukuduku Forest, 22.i.1980, P. Reavell (NMSA, 13545); 1 [female] Durban, 29[degrees]59'S:30[degrees]58'E, vii.1915, W. Bell-Marley (SAMC, ENW- B001323); 1 [male] Empangeni, 28[degrees]45'S:31[degrees]54'E, xii.1986, P.E. Reavell, on wall in garden (NMSA); 1 [female] Empangeni, 28[degrees]45'S:31[degrees]54'E, 14.ii.1980, P.E. Reavell, in house (NMSA); Enseleni Game Reserve, Lower Umfolozi, 28[degrees]42'S:31[degrees]59'E, 12.xii.1994, L. Lotz (NMBA, 6932); 1 [female] Eshowe, 28[degrees]54'S:31[degrees]28'E, xi-xii.1943, L. Bevis (NMSA, 12162); 1 [female] Greater St. Lucia (iSimangaliso) Wetlands Park, False Bay Park, 20.x.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/794); 1 [female] Greater St Lucia (iSimangaliso) Wetlands Park, Hell's Gate, 25.i.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/814); 1 [female] same locality, 6.x.2003, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/818); 1 [female] same locality, 29.ix.2003, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/758); 1 [female] same locality, 8.ix.2003, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/759); 2 [female] 1 juv. same locality, 3.xi.2003, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/788); 1 [male] same locality, 27.x.2003, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/797); 1 [female] same locality, 10.iii.2003, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2004/798); 1 [female] same locality, 25.x.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2005/219); 1 [female] same locality, 3.v.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block A (NCA, 2005/210); 1 [male] same locality, 20.ix.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block A (NCA, 2005/217); 1 [male] same locality, 3.v.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block B (NCA, 2005/211); 1 [male] same locality, 9.viii.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block B (NCA, 2005/214); 1 [female] same locality, 1.ix.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block B (NCA, 2005/220); 2 [female] same locality, 8.xi.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block B (NCA, 2005/222); 1 [female] same locality, 19.iii.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/208); 1 [female] same locality, 26.ix.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/209); 1 [female] same locality, 26.vii.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/212); 1 [female] same locality, 2.vii.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/213); 1 [female] same locality, 13.ix.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps (NCA, 2005/215); 1 [female] same locality, 13.ix.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/216); 1 [female] same locality, 4.x.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/218); 1 [female] same locality, 1.xi.2004, J. Esterhuizen, tsetse fly traps, block C (NCA, 2005/221); 2 [female] Ithala Game Reserve, Doornkraal Camp, 27[degrees]30.735'S:31[degrees]12.231'E, 29.vi.2007, C. Haddad, night collecting (NCA, 2007/2849); 1 [female] same locality, Pongola River picnic site, Dakaneni Loop, 27[degrees]28.195'S:31[degrees]16.686'E, 30.vi.2007, C. Haddad, under bark, riverine forest (NCA, 2007/2835); 1 [male] Kosi Bay Nat. Res., 26[degrees]57.767'S:32[degrees]48.981'E, 15.iv.2006, C. Haddad, beats, coastal forest (NCA, 2006/749); 1 [female] Mtunzini, Garland Farm, 28[degrees]59'S:31[degrees]44'E, xi.1983, P. Atkinson, at light (NMSA); 1 [male] (together with [female] holotype of Ceto coenosa) Natal, C. Martin (MNHN, 71288); 1 [male] Natal National Park, 1950-1951, 1/4 S1 Doomey mus., ca 5500 ft, Swedish South Africa Expedition, Zoological Institute, University, Lund, Dr Brink & Dr Rudebeck (AMG); 1 [male] Ndumo Game Reserve, Start of game count transect 8, 26[degrees]50.183'S:32[degrees]13.135'E, 2.vii.2003, C. Haddad, under bark of fever tree (NCA, 2006/1483); 13 [female] same locality, SW shore Banzi Pan, 26[degrees]53.118'S:32[degrees]16.927'E, 28.vi.2003, C. Haddad, under bark, fever tree (NCA, 2006/1486); 1 [female] same locality, W shore of Nyamiti Pan, 26[degrees]53.767'S:32[degrees]16.557'E, 3.vii.2003, C. Haddad, under Acacia xanthophloea bark (NCA, 2006/1489); 1 [female] near Enseleni, 7.iii.1980, P. Reavell, dense Sandveld bush, on climbers (NMSA, 13123); 1 [male] same locality, 7.iii.1980, P. Reavell (NMSA, 13129); 1 [female] Pietermaritzburg, Botanical Garden, xii.1990, V.D. & B. Roth (CASC); 1 [male] 1 juv. Pongola River, vii.1936, R.F. Lawrence (NMSA, 131); 1 [male] same data (NMSA, 133); 1 [female] 10 km W Eshowe, "Cascades" farm, Ngotshe Forest, 28[degrees]53'S:31[degrees]28'E, 1800 ft, 17-18.i.1984, C. Griswold & T. Meikle-Griswold (NMSA). Limpopo: 4 [male] 1 [female] Entabeni, 23[degrees]03'S:30[degrees]15'E, 12.ii.2008, D. de Bakker, R. Jocque, W. Fannes & A. Henrard, canopy fogging, woodland (MRAC); 1 [female] Lajuma Mountain Retreat, Soutpansberg Mountains, 15.vi.1997, M. van der Merwe, pit traps (NCA, 98/28); 1 [female] same locality, 15.vi.1997, M. Mafadza, tall forest, pit traps (NCA, 2005/2020); 1 [male] 2 juv. same locality, 23[degrees]02.414'S:29[degrees]41.046'E, 6.ii.2008, R. Lyle & R. Fourie, beats, Afromontane forest (NCA, 2008/505); 1 [male] same locality, 15.ii.1999, S. Foord, grass, sweepnet (NCA, 2001/399); 1 [female] Polokwane Nat. Res., 23[degrees]53'S:29[degrees]44'E, 9.iii.2005, M.A. Modiba, active search, island 2, site 2, sample 3 (NCA, 2006/1544); 4 [male] 1 [female] Tshulu Research Reserve, 22[degrees]34'S:30[degrees]48'E, 17.ii.2008, D. de Bakker, R. Jocque, W. Fannes & A. Henrard, canopy fogging 15, Trichilia dregeana, riverine forest (MRAC); 7 [male] 1 [female] same locality, 17.ii.2008, D. de Bakker, R. Jocque, W. Fannes & A. Henrard, canopy fogging 16, Trichilia dregeana, riverine forest (MRAC); 6 [male] 6 [female] same locality, 18.ii.2008, D. de Bakker, R. Jocque, W. Fannes & A. Henrard, canopy fogging 17, Trichilia dregeana, riverine forest (MRAC). Mpumalanga: 1 [male] Badplaas, Embuleni Nat. Res., 25[degrees]57'12"S:30[degrees]33T5"E, 1100 m, 28.iii.2001, D. & S. Ubick, grass veld savannah, in wooded areas (CASC); 1 [male] Belfast, 31.v.1991, M. Filmer, under rock (NCA, 91/1498); 1 [male] Bergvliet State Forest, Sabie, 23.x.1984, A.M. van den Berg, tree trap (NCA, 87/667); 3 [female] Burgershall, 20.i.1989, M. van den Berg, beating, citrus orchard (NCA, 2008/2775); 1 [male] Kaapmuiden, 25[degrees]32'S:31[degrees]19'E, 1-12.xi.1918, R.W.E. Tucker (SAMC, ENW-B004273); 1 [male] Nelspruit, Lowveld National Botanical Garden, 25[degrees]26.586'S: 30[degrees]58.414'E, 17.xi.2007, A. Leroy, under bark of fever tree (NCA, 2008/1969); 1 [male] same data (NCA, 2008/1970); 1 [male] 1 [female] 7 km NW of Nelspruit, "Glenwood" farm, 27.U998, M. van den Berg, on macadamia trees (NCA, 98/886). Western Cape: 1 [male] Bellville, 33[degrees]54'S:18[degrees]38'E, 6-25.i.1989, R. Jocque, in and around house (MRAC, 169691); 1 [female] Betty's Bay, Harold Porter National Botanical Gardens, 34[degrees]20.915'S:18[degrees]55.183'E, 26.iii.2008, C. Haddad, walking on tree trunk (NCA, 2008/574); 1 [male] Cape of Good Hope Nat. Res., Teeberg, x.1998, H.G. Robertson, mesic mountain fynbos of NE rocky slope, Winkler litter trap (SAMC); 2 [female] Cape Town, Newlands Forest Reserve, SE of Table Mountain, 33[degrees]58'S:18[degrees]28'E, 4.iv.2001, N. Larsen, K. Muller, S. Prinsloo, D. & S. Ubick, indigenous forest (CASC); 1 [female] Cape Town, Newlands Forest, 33[degrees]55'S:18[degrees]25'E, 18.ix.1997, M. Kreuels (MRAC, 207454); 1 [female] Cape Town, Rondebosch, 1.ii.2006, M. Cumming, in garden (NCA, 2006/1557); 11 [female] Cape Town, Table Mountain, Cecilia Ridge, 33[degrees]59.629'S:18[degrees]25.193'E, 23.v.2008, C. Uys, sugar-baited ant trap, Pinus radiata plantation (NCA, 2008/2914); 2 [female] same locality, Cecilia Ridge, 33[degrees]59.629'S:18[degrees]25.193'E, 23.v.2008, C. Uys, decayed log, Pinus radiata plantation (NCA, 2008/2919); 1 [female] same locality, Cecilia Ridge, 33[degrees]59.629'S:18[degrees]25.193'E, 23.v.2008, C. Uys, sugar-baited ant trap, sandstone fynbos (NCA, 2008/2920); 1 [female] same locality, Fernwood Gully, 33[degrees]58'S:18[degrees]27'E, 150 m, 18.xii.1996, C.E. Griswold, indigenous forest (CASC); 1 [male] same locality, Rooikat Ravine, 33[degrees]59.629'S:18[degrees]25.193'E, 23.v.2008, C. Uys, sugar-baited ant trap, Afrotemperate forest (NCA, 2008/2916); 5 [male] De Hoop Nat. Res., Potberg, Eucalyptus forest, 34[degrees]22.487'S:20[degrees]31.980'E, 3-10.vi.2004, C. Haddad, pitfall traps (NCA, 2006/1512); 3 [female] 15 juv. same locality, 6.iv.5004, C. Haddad, searching under bark (NCA, 2006/1501); 1 [male] 2 [female] same locality, Cupido's Kraal, Eucalyptus forest, 34[degrees]25.222'S:20[degrees]37.904'E, 26.ix.2007, C. Haddad & R. Lyle, under bark (NCA, 2007/2856); 2 [male] Fisherhaven, 34[degrees]21.430'S:19[degrees]07.557'E, 26.xii.2000, C. Haddad, sieving leaf litter (NCA, 2006/1504); 1 [male] Jakobsbaai, 32[degrees]57.734'S: 17[degrees]53.520'E, 2.x.2007, C. Haddad & R. Lyle, night collecting (NCA, 2008/220); 2 [female] Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens, Skeleton Gorge Forest, Table Mountain, 33[degrees]59'S:18[degrees]26'E, 800 ft, 7.i.1985, C. Griswold & T. Meikle-Griswold, under rocks and logs (NMSA); 1 [female] same locality, 700 ft, 7.i.1985, C.E. Griswold (NMSA); 1 [male] Malmesburg, Rondeberg 567 (Part 2), 33[degrees]24'S: 18[degrees]16'E, 26.x.1987, L.N. Lotz, in tent (NMBA, 2231); 1 [male] 1 juv. Robben Island, 20.ix.2004, University of Cape Town, bush, Australian Acacia (NCA, 2005/2126). TANZANIA: 1 [female] Tanga, W. Usambara Mountains, Mazumbai forest, 04[degrees]49'S:38[degrees]30'E, 1400-1800 m, 10-20.xi.1995, C.E. Griswold, N. Scharff & D. Ubick (CASC).

[FIGURE 42 OMITTED]

Distribution: Predominantly known from southern, central and north-eastern South Africa, and Lesotho, as well as a single locality in East Africa (Fig. 42).

Afroceto arca sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 43-49

Etymology: From Latin arcus (arch), referring to the arch-like structure of the anterior epigynal hood.

Diagnosis: This species can be recognised by the arch-shaped anterior hood of the epigyne and the two bulbous spermathecae that flank the copulatory openings (Fig. 43). The males can be recognised by the curve of the embolus and the rounded tip of the subtriangular retrolateral tibial apophysis (Figs 47, 49). The sperm duct of this species is U-shaped and narrows towards the tip of embolus, either branching or not. The two variations of the male palp had largely overlapping ranges. However, no variation in female epigyne structure was observed in these populations, suggesting that these specimens are all conspecific.

Description:

Female.

Measurements: CL 1.98-3.00, CW 1.70-2.50, AL 2.25-4.60, AW 1.45-2.90, TL 4.10-8.10, FL 0.10-0.15, SL 1.13-1.70, SW 0.98-1.38, AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.05, ALE-ALE 0.55, PME-PME 0.18, PME-PLE 0.20, PLE-PLE 0.88. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.40 + 1.13 + 1.88 + 1.55 + 1.15 = 8.21; II 2.20 + 1.18 + 1.70 + 1.48 + 1.18 = 7.74; III 1.53 + 0.90 + 1.13 + 1.40 + 0.58 = 5.54; IV 2.28 + 1.03 + 1.85 + 2.15 + 0.65 = 7.96.

Carapace orange to dark brown (Fig. 3); slightly raised to midpoint, with relatively gradual decline posteriorly; surface smooth, covered in short fine setae; fovea short, thickened, distinct, at 2/3 CL. Ocular region dark orange to brown with dark brown rings around eyes; AER very slightly recurved, nearly straight, AME slightly larger than ALE; clypeus height equal to AME diameter; AME separated by distance approximately equal to their diameter; AME separated from ALE by 0.25 AME diameter; PER slightly recurved, PLE slightly larger than PME; PME separated by distance approximately equal to their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance slightly larger than PME diameter. Chelicerae orange, dark brown towards border; dark long setae scattered on the anterior surface; fangs bright orange; three promarginal teeth, median tooth largest, distal tooth smallest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth slightly larger. Sternum orange, brown towards border; surface with long brown setae and short, light fine setae scattered throughout. Abdomen cream to pale yellow dorsally with grey chevron markings, with darkened median line and light grey transverse branches up to midpoint; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; venter cream. Legs I to IV uniform orange; tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with dense ventral scopulae; remaining leg segments covered with fine, less dense setae. Anterior legs slightly more robust than posterior. Leg spination: femora: I pl 3; patellae spineless; tibiae: III pl 1 vt 1, IV plv 2 vt 1; metatarsi: III pl 1 rl 1. Genitalia weakly sclerotised; epigynal anterior hood arched-shaped; copulatory openings situated mediolaterally, flanked by ST I and ST II; ST II large, globular, extending to approximately midpoint of epigyne; ST I small and globular, partially hidden by copulatory openings; ST I linked by narrow transverse duct (Figs 43, 44).

[FIGURES 43-49 OMITTED]

Male.

Measurements (eye and leg measurements taken from second largest specimen): CL 1.76-3.70, CW 1.45-3.00, AL 1.90-3.90, AW 1.30-2.70, TL 3.70-7.60, FL 0.100.35, SL 1.10-1.75, SW 0.90-1.75, AME-AME 0.15, AME-ALE 0.10, ALE-ALE 0. 73, PME-PME 0.25, PME-PLE 0.28, PLE-PLE 1.13. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 3.00 + 1.50 + 2.70 + 1.80 + 1.30 = 10.30; II 2.60 + 1.35 + 2.33 + 1.65 + 1.08 = 9.01; III 1.70 + 1.05 + 1.10 + 1.58 + 0.58 = 6.01; IV 2.40 + 1.15 + 2.03 + 2.30 + 0.73 = 8.61.

Carapace orange to brown (Fig. 4); first third of carapace slightly raised with gradual decline in last two thirds; surface covered in short, fine setae; fovea short, thickened, distinct, at two thirds CL. Ocular region dark orange to brown with dark brown to black rings around eyes; AER very slightly procurved, AME slightly larger than ALE; AME separated by distance approximately equal to their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance equal to half AME diameter; PER slightly recurved, PLE slightly larger than PME; PME separated by distance equal to 1.2 diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance equal to PLE diameter. Chelicerae orange to dark brown near fang base; anterior surface with scattered black setae; fangs orange at tip, dark brown at fang base; three promarginal teeth, median tooth largest, distal and proximal teeth subequal in size; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest. Sternum orange, brown towards border; surface with scattered long brown and short pale setae. Abdomen cream dorsally with orange scutum covering entire dorsum; dorsum with pale brown chevron with thickened median line and pale brown transverse branches and dark grey lines laterally; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; surface smooth with fine short dark setae throughout; venter cream. Legs I to IV uniform orange to brown; anterior legs slightly more robust than posterior legs; tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with dense scopulae ventrally, remaining leg segments covered in fine, short dark setae. Leg spination: femora: I pl 2-3, II pl 3-4; patellae spineless; tibiae: I plv 15 vt 1 cusps, II plv 8 rlv 2 vt 2 cusps, III pl 1 plv 2-4 vt 1, IV plv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 3-12 cusps, II plv 2-8 cusps, III plv 2 rlv 1, IV rl 1 plv 2 rlv 1; tarsi: I plv 6 rlv 9 cusps, II plv 5-7 rlv 7 cusps (Fig. 45). Palp yellow-brown; embolus curved, distally located on tegulum, slightly coiled; sperm ducts U-shaped, unbranched (Fig. 46) or branched (Fig. 48) distally near embolus base; tibial apophysis prominent, subtriangular with rounded point (Figs 47, 49).

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Gauteng: Knoppieslaagte [25.93[degrees]S:28.05[degrees]E], 13.ii.1980, D. Uys, pitfalls (NCA 84/605).

Allotype: [male] LESOTHO: Mohale Dam, Island 2, 29[degrees]25.396'S:28[degrees]05.903'E, 14.xii.2003, C. Haddad, under rocks on hillside (NCA, 2006/1515).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Free State: 2 [female] Bloemfontein district, "Deelhoek" farm, 28[degrees]51'S:26[degrees]07'E, 1999, C. Haddad, abandoned Trinervitermes trinervoides mound (NCA, 2006/1498); 1 [male] same locality, 4.xi.2001, C. Haddad, under dung pad (NCA, 2006/1479). Gauteng: 1 [female] Kloofendal Nat. Res., Roodepoort, 16.ii.1989, A. Leroy, under stone, exposed hillside (NCA, 89/741). Western Cape: 1 [female] Anysberg Nat. Res., Vrede Cottages, 33[degrees]27.934'S:20[degrees]35.218'E, 23.ix.2005, C. Haddad & R. Lyle, night collecting (NCA, 2007/3936).

Other material examined: LESOTHO: 2 [female] 2 [male] 4 juv. Mohale Dam, Island 1, 29[degrees]25.255'S:28[degrees]05.985'E, 13.xii.2003, C. Haddad, among roots of fern (NCA, 2006/1517); 1 [male] Mohale Dam, Island 4, 29[degrees]25.349'S: 28[degrees]06.253'E, 15.xii.2003, C. Haddad, under rocks (NCA, 2006/1516); 1 [female] Mohale Dam, Island 5, 29[degrees]25.396'S:28[degrees]05.903'E, 16.xii.2003, C. Haddad, under rocks (NCA, 2006/1514); 1 [male] near Ha Thlaku Village, 30[degrees]09.718'S:28[degrees]14.175'E, 2122 m, 14.xi.2003, C. Haddad, under rocks, near stream (NCA, 2006/1533); 1 [female] Quthing, 17.iii.1949, Dr Brink, Dr Rudebeck, Swedish South Africa Expedition 1950-1951, Zoological Institute, University, Lund, rich meadows on horizontal layers of sandstone (AMG). NAMIBIA: 1 [male] Vogelfederberg, 20.iv-18.v.1999, B. Wharton, pitfall trap (CASC). SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 1 [male] Alicedale, F. Cruden (AMG); 1 [male] Fort Brown, xii.1915, Walton (AMG); 1 [male] Grahamstown, 33 Oatlands road, 33[degrees]18'S:26[degrees]32'E, 17.xii.1979, P.M.C. Croeser, in house (NMSA); 1 [female] 1 [male] 5 imm. Jansenville district, "Klipfontein" farm, 32[degrees]54.492'S:24[degrees]45.436'E, 29.ix-1.x.2008, R. Lyle, active searching (NCA, 2008/2858); 1 [male] 1 [female] 1 juv. near Kirkwood, Dunbrody, 1902, J. O'Neil (SAMC, 697); 1 [male] Sundays River Valley, 23.xi.1999, H. Potgieter, citrus pitfall trap (NCA, 2000/234). Free State: 1 [male] 1 juv. Bloemfontein district, "Hopefield" farm, 28[degrees]54'S:26[degrees]14'E, 15.xii.2001, C. Haddad, bluegum leaf debris (NCA, 2006/1497); 1 [female] Brandfort, Florisbad, 28[degrees]46'S:26[degrees]05'E, 1250 m, 30.iii-26.iv.1988, L.N. Lotz, pres. traps (NMBA, 3987); 1 [female] same data (NMBA, 8501); 1 [female] Bloemfontein, 29[degrees]08'S:26[degrees]10'E, 1440 m, 18.ii.1993, L.N. Lotz, in house (NMBA, 5782); 1 [female] Brandfort, Krugersdrift Dam, 28[degrees]42'S:25[degrees]55'E, 1.i.1987, Museum staff, in canal (NMBA, 9057); 1 [female] Fauresmith, Boschrand 208, 29[degrees]56'S:24[degrees]48'E, 22.iii.2005, L. Lotz, sweeping, beating (NMBA, 10007); 1 [female] Kimberley district, Benfontein Nat. Res., 28[degrees]49.259'S:24[degrees]50.155'E, 9.iii.2010, C. Haddad, base of grass tussocks (NCA, 2010/295). Gauteng: 1 [male] Witwatersrand, Marievale Bird Sanctuary, 26[degrees]20'S:28[degrees]32'E, 8.xii.1990, V.D. & B. Roth (CASC). KwaZulu-Natal: 1 [female] Pietermaritzburg, Scotsville, vii.1951, R.F. Lawrence, in dry leaves of garden (NMSA, 5649). North West: 1 [male] Potschefstroom district, Thabela Thabang Mountain Retreat, 26[degrees]51.828'S:28[degrees]17.805'E, 29.x-5.xii.2009, R. Fourie & A. Grobler, pitfall traps, Vaal River bank (NMSA, 22680). Northern Cape: 1 [male] 8.9 mi W of Hanover, Eierfontein, i.1902, S.C. Cronwright-Schreiner (SAMC, 10051); 1 [male] same locality, xii.1901-ii.1902, Schreiner (SAMC, 11964); 1 [female] Kathu District, "Sacha" farm, 27[degrees]42.500'S:22[degrees]57.967'E, 24-27.ii.2003, C. Haddad, pitfall traps (NCA, 2006/1500); 1 [male] Lime Acres district, "Klien Papkuil" farm, 28[degrees]28.638'S:23[degrees]43.461'E, 12-17.i.2008, R. Lyle, leaf litter (NCA, 2008/2855); 3 [female] same data (NCA, 2008/2856); 1 [female] same data (NCA, 2008/2857); 3 [male] Prieska District, Green Valley Nuts Estate, 22[degrees]56.683'S:29[degrees]35.183'E, 23.xi-18.xii.2001, C. Haddad, leaf litter, Eucalyptus trees (NCA, 2006/1502). Western Cape: 2 [male] 1 juv. Buffels Bay, near Knysna, i.1910, W. Purcell (SAMC, B2315); 3 [male] Cape Town, dunes near Khayelitsha, 33[degrees]55'S:18[degrees]25'E, 19.i.1989, R. Jocque, fore dunes, sieved litter of shrub (MRAC, 169681); 1 [female] same data, 20.i.1989 (MRAC, 169815); 1 [female] Cape Peninsula, Muizenberg, 34[degrees]06'S:18[degrees]27'E, 5-19.v.1991, R. Legg, dunes to the north (MRAC, 173716); 1 [female] same data, 18.vii-11.viii.1991 (MRAC, 173801); 3 [female] De Hoop Nat. Res., Potberg, 34[degrees]22.487'S:20[degrees]31.980'E, 6.iv.2006, C. Haddad, leaf litter (NCA, 2006/1511); 1 [female] Kalk Bay Mountains, iii.1898, R.M. Lightfoot (SAMC, 3136); 1 [female] Kommetjie, 30 km S of Cape Town, 34[degrees]09'S:22[degrees]10'E, 5.iv.2001, K. Muller, S. Prinsloo, D & S. Ubick, coastal strand, intertidal zone (CASC); 1 [female] Le Roux River, 10 km W Cango Caves, 33[degrees]30'S:22[degrees]10'E, 4.ii.1991, V.D. & B. Roth (CASC); 1 [male] 3 [female] 1 juv. Swartberg Nat. Res., Gamkaskloof, 15.ii.2001, Z. van der Walt, on soil (NCA, 2002/201); 1 [female] same locality, 14.iv.1995, M. de Jager, on soil, on slides (NCA, 95/252); 1 [male] Swartberg Nat. Res., Gamkaskloof, Die Hel, 33[degrees]21.0'S:21[degrees]40.2'E, iii.2006, Z. van der Walt, collected by hand (NCA, 2009/3678).

[FIGURE 50 OMITTED]

Distribution: Found in Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa. In South Africa recorded predominantly in grassland, karoo and fynbos habitats (Fig. 50).

Afroceto bisulca sp. n.

Figs 5, 51-53

Etymology: From Latin bis (double) and sulcus (a furrow); refers to the split in the retrolateral tibial apophysis, which forms two subtriangular excrescences.

Diagnosis: The male can easily be recognised by the broad tongue-like embolus and the retrolateral tibial apophysis split into two excrescences, of which the most dorsally situated one has a sharper point (Figs 52, 53). Female unknown.

Description:

Male.

Measurements: CL 2.40, CW 1.80, AL 2.20, AW 1.45, TL 4.60, FL 0.13, SL 1.23, SW 1.30, AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.03, ALE-ALE 0.28, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.15, PLE-PLE 0.63. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.10 + 0.93 + 1.70 + 1.23 + 0.98 = 6.94; II 1.78 + 0.78 + 1.38 + 1.28 + 0.88 = 6.10; III 2.05 + 0.65 + 0.78 + 1.13 + 0.50 = 5.11; IV 1.75 + 0.75 + 1.60 + 1.65 + 0.53 = 6.28.

Carapace pale yellow, orange posteriorly (Fig. 5); first third of carapace evenly high, second third with gradual decline and last third with relatively steep decline; surface covered in fine, short setae; fovea short, distinct, at two thirds CL. Ocular region orange with light rings around eyes; AER slightly recurved, AME larger than ALE; clypeus height equal to AME diameter; AME separated by distance equal to 0.8 their diameter; AME separated from ALE by 0.2 AME diameter; PER slightly recurved, PLE slightly larger than PME; PME separated by distance equal to their diameter; PME separated from PLE by 0.8 PME diameter. Chelicerae orange; long, pale orange setae scattered on anterior surface; fangs light orange to pale yellow near tip; two promarginal teeth, distal tooth largest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest. Sternum pale yellow, slightly darker yellow towards border; fine, pale setae scattered on surface. Abdomen very pale yellow dorsally, without distinctive markings or sigilla; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; venter pale yellow. Legs I to IV uniform pale yellow; leg spines and cusps present. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1; patellae spineless; tibiae: I plv 4 rlv 1 cusps, II plv 2 cusps, III pl 2 rl 1 vt 1; metatarsi: I plv 10 rlv 2 vt 1 cusps, II plv 7 rlv 5 cusps, III pl 1 rl 1; tarsi: I plv 1 cusp, II plv 1 rlv 1 cusps (Fig. 51). Palp yellow; embolus broad, tongue-like (Fig. 52); retrolateral tibial apophysis prominent, with short, well-rounded ventral excrescence and sharply pointed dorsal excrescence (Fig. 53).

[FIGURES 51-54 OMITTED]

Holotype: [male] SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Cape Peninsula, Bergvliet, near Diep Rivier [34.04[degrees]S:18.47[degrees]E], x.1898, F. Purcell (SAMC, 6238).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 55).

Afroceto bulla sp. n.

Figs 6, 54

Etymology: From Latin bulla (a bubble); refers to the bubble-shaped ST II.

Diagnosis: This species can be recognised by the bubble-shaped ST II and the ducts linking the spermathecae, which converge at a 45[degrees] angle to the epigastric fold (Fig. 54). Male unknown.

Description:

Female.

Measurements: CL 2.90, CW 2.30, AL 3.80, AW 2.20, TL 6.70, FL 0.23, SL 1.80, SW 1.48, AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.30, ALE-ALE 0.30, PME-PME 0.20, PME-PLE 0.53, PLE-PLE 0.90. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.50 + 1.78 + 2.35 + 2.03 + 1.18 = 9.84; II 2.48 + 1.40 + 2.08 + 1.65 + 1.05 = 8.66; III 2.90 + 1.50 + 2.70 + 2.90 + 1.10 = 11.10; IV 2.18 + 1.20 + 1.68 + 1.55 + 0.80 = 7.41.

Carapace orange to light brown posteriorly (Fig. 6); first two-thirds of carapace even and high, last third with relatively steep decline; fovea short, distinct, at two thirds CL. Ocular region light brown with dark rings around eyes; AER nearly straight, slightly procurved, ALE slightly larger than AME; clypeus height 0.8 AME diameter; AME separated by distance slightly less than their diameter; AME separated from ALE by approximately 0.3 ALE diameter; PER slightly recurved, ALE larger than AME; PME separated by distance equal to 1.4 their diameter; PME separated from PLE by twice PME diameter. Chelicerae dark brown, paler towards fang base; anterior surface covered in long scattered setae, denser toward fang base; fangs appear longer than other species, bright orange in colour; two promarginal teeth, equal in size; two retromarginal teeth, proximal tooth largest. Sternum pale yellow, orange near border; surface covered in long, fine setae. Abdomen creamy yellow dorsally, mottled with dark brown, with grey chevron markings; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; surface covered in fine, light setae; venter cream. Legs I to IV uniform yellow to orange, with irregular leg spines. Leg spination: femora: I pl 3, IIpl 1, III pl 1 do 2 rl 1, IV do 1 rl 1; patellae spineless; tibiae: II pl 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, III pl 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: II pl 1 rl 3 plv 3 rlv 2, III pl 3 rl 2 plv 3 rlv 3. Epigyne weakly sclerotised; ducts linking spermathecae at 45[degrees] angle to epigastric fold; extending into small triangular ST I; ST II large, globular (Fig. 54).

[FIGURE 55 OMITTED]

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: East London [33.0[degrees]S:27.9[degrees]E], v.1916, Rattray (AMG).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality (Fig. 55).

Afroceto capensis sp. n.

Figs 7, 8, 56-61

Etymology: This species is named after the Western Cape Province, where the entire type series was collected.

Diagnosis: The female can easily be recognised by the M-shaped anterior epigynal hood (Fig. 56). It has ST II that appear bilobed and are obscured by the large posterior subtriangular ST I (Figs 57, 58). The male of this species can easily be recognised by the well curved retrolateral embolus and the sharply pointed tapering prolateral tegular extension (Fig. 60).

Description:

Female.

Measurements: CL 2.60-2.70, CW 2.10-2.28, AL 2.80-3.80, AW 1.90-2.50, TL 5.80-6.50, FL 0.15-0.20, SL 1.60-1.65, SW 1.25-1.38, AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.08, ALE-ALE 0.45, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.18, PLE-PLE 0.75. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.43 + 1.10 + 1.85 + 1.55 + 1.10 = 8.03; II 2.20 + 1.05 + 1.51 + 1.50 + 1.00 = 7.26; III 1.58 + 0.83 + 1.10 + 1.40 + 0.58 = 5.49; IV 2.38 + 0.98 + 1.85 + 2.23 + 0.68 = 8.12.

Carapace reddish brown to dark brown (Fig. 7); first third of carapace rising gradually to highest point, declining gradually in last two thirds; surface slightly granulated, covered in short, fine setae; fovea at two thirds CL. Ocular region dark brown to almost black with black rings around eyes; AER slightly recurved, AME slightly larger than ALE; clypeus height equal to AME diameter; AME separated by distance equal to their diameter; AME separated from ALE by 0.4 AME diameter; PER recurved, PLE slightly larger than PME; PME separated by distance equal to their diameter; PME separated from PLE by 1.2 PME diameter. Chelicerae reddish brown, dark brown near fang base; anterior surface with scattered black setae, setae longer towards fang base; fang dark orange at base, bright orange at tip; three promarginal teeth, median tooth largest, distal tooth smallest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest. Sternum dark brown, almost black near border, appearing mottled; surface texture granular, covered in scattered long, dark setae. Abdomen creamy yellow dorsally, with dark grey mottled pattern over entire abdomen; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; surface smooth, with short fine setae throughout; venter cream. Legs I to IV uniform yellow to brown; anterior legs darker, more robust than posteriors; femora to metatarsi with incomplete grey bands covering almost entire segment on legs I to IV; bands on anterior leg segments grey, light brown on posterior leg segments; tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with dense scopulae. Leg spination: femora: I pl 2; patellae spineless; tibiae: IV rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: III pl 1 plv 2 vt 2, IV pl 1 plv 2. Palpal spination: tibia pl 1 do 1. Epigyne weakly sclerotised; anterior epigynal hood M-shaped; epigynal ridges funnel-shaped, with copulatory openings extending into bilobed ST II, partly obscured by larger posterior subtriangular ST I (Figs 56-58).

[FIGURES 56-61 OMITTED]

Male.

Measurements: CL 2.30, CW 1.93, AL 2.70, AW 1.63, TL 4.80, FL 0.15, SL 1.40, SW 1.15, AME-AME 0.08, AME-ALE 0.05, ALE-ALE 0.38, PME-PME 0.10, PME-PLE 0.13, PLE-PLE 0.63. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.10 + 0.95 + 1.65 + 1.55 + 1.38 = 7.06; II 1.80 + 0.85 + 1.48 + 1.28 + 0.90 = 6.31; III 1.33 + 0.68 + 0.90 + 1.15 + 0.45 = 4.51; IV 1.90 + 0.75 + 1.53 + 1.75 + 0.63 = 6.56.

Carapace reddish brown to dark brown (Fig. 8); first third of carapace rising gradually to highest point, declining gradually until last quarter, declining steeply in last quarter; surface slightly granulated, covered in short, fine setae; fovea at two thirds CL. Ocular region dark brown with black rings around eyes; AER recurved, ALE slightly larger than AME; clypeus height equal to AME diameter; AME separated by distance equal to 0.6 their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance equal to 0.4 AME diameter; PER very slightly recurved, PME subequal to PLE; PME separated by distance equal to 0.84 their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 0.9 PME diameter. Chelicerae brown, dark brown near fang base; anterior surface with scattered black setae; three promarginal teeth, median tooth largest, proximal tooth smallest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest. Sternum orange-brown, darkening near border; surface texture smooth, covered in scattered long, fine setae. Abdomen creamy yellow dorsally, with dark grey mottled pattern over entire abdomen; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; dark brown scutum extends over almost entire length of abdomen; surface smooth, with short fine setae throughout; venter cream. Legs I to IV uniform orange to brown; anterior legs darker, more robust than posteriors; tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with dense scopulae. Leg spination: femora: I pl 3, II pl 2; patellae spineless; tibiae: I plv II cusps, II plv 3 cusps, III plv 3 vt 2, IV plv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 9 rlv 7 vt 1 cusps, II plv 11 rlv 6 vt 1 cusps, III pl 1 plv 3, IV pl 1 plv 2; tarsi: I plv 7 rlv 10 cusps, II plv 5 rlv 4 cusps (Fig. 59). Palp brown; embolus originating prolaterally, curving beneath large tapering curved prolateral tegular extension, emerging retrolaterally, curving and extending along retrolateral margin to cymbium tip (Fig. 60); retrolateral tibial apophysis parallel sided, directed dorsally, with sharp anterior point (Fig. 61).

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: De Hoop Nat. Res., De Hoop Vlei, 34[degrees]29.425'S:20[degrees]25.762'E, 8.iv.2004, C. Haddad, litter under cut fynbos (NCA, 2006/1530).

Allotype: [male] same locality as holotype, 2.i.1951, Swedish South Africa Expedition, Zoological Institute, University Lund, 1950-51, Dr. Brink & Sr. Rudebeck, soon Endan, under fern (AMG).

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: 1 [female] Hermanus, Petshus Park, 21.ii.1902, P. Lightfoot (SAMC, 11662); 1 [female] Cape Peninsula, Kalk Bay Mtn., i.1900, W. Purcell (SAMC, 8657).

Distribution: Endemic to the Western Cape Province, South Africa (Fig. 67).

Afroceto coenosa (Simon, 1897), comb. n

Figs 9, 62, 63

Ceto coenosa Simon, 1897c: 11; Simon 1897b: 179, fig. 183.

Diagnosis: This species may be recognised by the short curved entrance ducts that extend from the copulatory openings to ST II, and short diverging tubes leading to ST I (Fig. 62).

Remarks: Simon (1897b) illustrated the palp of A. coenosa. However, no males of this species could be traced in MNHN or other collections, and thus no redescription of the male is given. The holotype female of A. coenosa is deposited with a male of A. martini, which he may erroneously have interpreted as its matching male. As such, the true male of A. coenosa is unknown. It is possible that A. gracilis sp. n., known only from the male, is the matching male of A. coenosa, but specimens have not been collected together at the same locality and they are regarded as separated species until additional material can be sampled.

Redescription:

Female.

Measurements: CL 2.00-2.30, CW 1.70-1.93, AL 2.10-3.00, AW 1.95-2.10, TL 4.20-5.30, FL 0.13-0.15, SL 1.23-1.28, SW 0.98-1.05, AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.05, ALE-ALE 0.30, PME-PME 0.18, PME-PLE 0.15, PLE-PLE 0.68. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 1.60 + 0.75 + 1.18 + 1.00 + 0.75 = 5.28; II 1.48 + 0.70 + 1.03 + 0.95 + 0.95 = 4.79; III 1.13 + 0.63 + 0.73 + 0.95 + 0.43 = 3.87; IV 1. 13 + 0.73 + 1.43 + 1.43 + 0.53 = 5.35.

Carapace brown to reddish brown (Fig. 9); rounded with highest point in second third of carapace length; surface smooth, covered in short, fine setae; fovea small, distinct and slightly thickened, at two thirds CL. Ocular region dark brown, eyes with black rings; AER slightly recurved, ALE larger than AME; clypeus height equal to AME diameter; AME separated by distance equal to their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance equal to half AME diameter; PER very slightly recurved, almost straight, PME and PLE equal in size; PME separated by 1.2 their diameter; PME separated from PLE by 1.2 PME diameter. Chelicerae bright orange, with short, light setae scattered over anterior surface; two promarginal teeth, proximal tooth largest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest, proximal tooth slightly smaller. Sternum dark orange, brown towards border; covered in short, fine setae, with longer setae towards border. Abdomen creamy white to pale yellow dorsally, with mottled grey pattern over entire abdomen; brown and grey mottled mark situated anteriorly; abdomen broader anteriorly and tapering posteriorly; scutum small, extending one quarter abdomen length; dorsal surface smooth, covered in fine setae; venter pale grey, covered in fine setae. Legs I to IV uniform yellow to light brown, dense ventral setae on tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi; anterior legs more robust than posteriors; femora with large incomplete band covering almost entire segment, patellae with incomplete dorsal band, tibiae and metatarsi with two incomplete bands, situated proximally and distally. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1; patellae and tibiae spineless; metatarsi IV vt 1. Epigyne with semi-circular lateral ridges, which extend into relatively large medially located copulatory openings and copulatory ducts; copulatory ducts large, curving anteriorly into broad, curved ST II, with narrow ducts running posteriorly, diverging to posterior ST I; ST I small and oval, situated at epigastric fold (Figs 62, 63).

[FIGURES 62-63 OMITTED]

Holotype (examined): [female] deposited together with 1 [male] A. martini: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal [no specific locality], C. Martin (MNHN, 71288).

Other material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1 [female] Durban, Bluff, 14.iv.1976, F. Wanless & A. Russell-Smith, coastal dune scrub, shrub layer (BMNH); 1 [female] Pietermaritzburg, Town Bush, 15.iv.1976, F. Wanless & A. Russell-Smith, on pine trunk (BMNH). Mpumalanga: 1 [female] 11 km South East from Pilgrims Rest, 1400 m, 11-31.xii.1985, S. & J. Peck, relict native forest edge, FIT-malaise (AMNH).

Distribution: Known from scattered localities in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa (Fig. 67).

Afroceto corcula sp. n.

Figs 10, 64-66

Etymology: From Latin corcullum (little heart); refers to the heart-shaped structure of the epigynal ridges.

Diagnosis: This species is easily recognised by the heart shape of the anterior epigynal ridges. It can be further recognised by the small globular shape of ST I and ST II, linked by a curved duct (Figs 65, 66). Ventral cusps are present on the anterior metatarsi and tarsi (Fig. 64). Male unknown.

[FIGURES 64-66 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Measurements: CL 2.80-2.95, CW 2.30-2.48, AL 2.60-3.50, AW 2.20-2.23, TL 5.70-6.40, FL 0.18-0.20, SL 1.60-1.78, SW 1.33-1.38, AME-AME 0.15, AME-ALE 0.08, ALE-ALE 0.48, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.20, PLE-PLE 0.83. Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 2.40 + 1.08 + 1.98 + 1.60 + 1.08 = 8.14; II 2.25 + 1.10 + 1.68 + 1.53 + 1.03 = 7.59; III 1.78 + 0.88 + 1.13 + 1.45 + 0.55 = 5.79; IV 2.50 + 1 .05 + 1.95 + 1.80 + 0.70 = 8.00.

Carapace bright orange to brown (Fig. 10); first two thirds of carapace convex, last third with relatively steep decline; surface smooth, covered in short, fine setae; fovea short, distinct, at two thirds CL. Ocular region brown with dark brown rings around eyes; AER slightly recurved, AME slightly larger than ALE; clypeus height equal to AME diameter; AME separated by distance slightly less their diameter; AME separated from ALE by 0.4 AME diameter; PER recurved, PLE slightly larger than PME; PME separated by 1.2 their diameter; PME separated from PLE by 1.6 PME diameter. Chelicerae orange, slightly darker at fang base; scattered long setae on anterior surface, increasing slightly in length towards fang base; fang pale orange; two promarginal teeth, distal tooth largest; one retromarginal tooth, situated distally. Sternum pale orange, brown towards border; surface covered in fine, long, pale setae. Abdomen cream dorsally, with very pale grey chevron with few lateral branches; abdomen broader anteriorly, tapering posteriorly; two pairs of pale grey sigilla, anterior and posterior to midpoint of abdomen; fine scattered setae covering abdomen; venter cream. Legs I to IV uniform brown to pale yellow; anterior legs more robust than posterior pairs; relatively dense scopulae on ventral surface of tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi; remaining leg segments covered in fine, pale setae; leg spines and cusps present. Leg spination: femora: I pl 2; patellae spineless; tibiae: III pl 1 vt 1, IV plv 1 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 5 cusps, II plv 5 cusps, III pl 1 rl 1 plv 1, IV pl 1 rl 1 plv 2; tarsi: I plv 4 cusps, II plv 3 cusps (Fig. 64). Epigyne weakly sclerotised; epigynal ridges meeting anteriorly medially, heart-shaped, extending laterally to median copulatory openings (Fig. 65); ST II globular, situated slightly anterior to copulatory openings, with curved narrow duct leading to slightly larger globular lateral ST I; ST I situated posterior to copulatory openings (Figs 65, 66).

[FIGURE 67 OMITTED]

Holotype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Northern Cape: Horingsgat, ca 4 km N of Leliefontein in Kamiesberg, 30[degrees]18'S:18[degrees]05'E, 24-25.ii.1979, B. Lamoral (NMSA, 11891).

Paratype: [female] SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Clanwilliam, Dwars Rivier 330, 32[degrees]31'S:19[degrees]16'E, 13.iii.1993, L.N. Lotz, night in house (NMBA, 5940).

Distribution: Known from the Western and Northern Cape provinces, South Africa (Fig. 67).
AMG--Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (A. Kirk-Spriggs);
AMNH--American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA (N. Platnick);
BMNH--Natural History Museum, London, UK (J. Beccaloni);
CASC--California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA (C.
      Griswold);
MHNG--Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de la Ville de Geneve, Geneva,
      Switzerland (P. Schwendinger);
MNHN--Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (C.
      Rollard);
MRAC--Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium (R. Jocque);
NCA--National Collection of Arachnida, ARC-Plant Protection Research
      Institute, Pretoria, South Africa (A. Dippenaar-Schoeman);
NMBA--National Museum, Bloemfontein, South Africa (L. Lotz);
NMSA--Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (A. Ndaba);
PCJB--Personal collection of Jan Bosselaers;
SAMC--Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa (M.
      Cochrane);
SMF--Naturmuseum und Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt am
      Main, Germany (P. Jager);
TMSA--Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (former Transvaal
      Museum), Pretoria, South Africa (R. Lyle).
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