A revision of Afrotropical Chyromyidae (excluding Gymnochiromyia Hendel) (Diptera: Schizophora), with the recognition of two subfamilies and the description of new genera.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Zoology (Identification and classification)
Zoology (Research)
Author: Ebejer, Martin J.
Pub Date: 12/01/2009
Publication: Name: African Invertebrates Publisher: The Council of Natal Museum Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Zoology and wildlife conservation Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 The Council of Natal Museum ISSN: 1681-5556
Issue: Date: Dec, 2009 Source Volume: 50 Source Issue: 2
Topic: Event Code: 690 Goods & services distribution; 310 Science & research Advertising Code: 59 Channels of Distribution Computer Subject: Company distribution practices
Geographic: Geographic Scope: South Africa Geographic Code: 6SOUT South Africa
Accession Number: 219376294
Full Text: Oroschyromya elongata sp. n. Figs 19, 20

Etymology: From Latin longus (long), and refers to the unusually long cerci and pregonites of this species.

Diagnosis: Relatively large species of deep yellow colour heavily marked with dark brown or black; parafacial densely silvery white pruinose; 1+4 dc setae and in male, elongate cerc and very long curved prg.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, a little broader than thorax; oc triangle black between ocelli; fr narrow, strongly converging, at level of antenna 0.4 width of that at anterior oc and 0.14 width of head, about 14 minute pale brown setulae scattered on fr; ocp yellow, in profile, flat and not visible behind eye margin, short postocular setulae in one irregular row; eye, elongated oval, 1.5 times as long as high, lying obliquely, anterior facets about 3x size of posterior facets; gena, slightly recessed and broad, below in profile about 0.8 height of eye at middle; pale setulose with 3 long setae on oral margin just below vibrissal angle, isolated lower postgenal seta pale and as long as anterior orb; mouthparts yellow, palp round; face short, depressed and no carina visible, parafacial with dense silvery white pruinosity when viewed at an angle; antenna with all segments yellow, second with long dark seta dorsally; segment 3 abort 0.25 length of horizontal diameter of eye, finely pubescent, pubescence as long as diameter of arista at base; arista black except on segments 1 and 2, where it is yellow. Chaetotaxy: 3 orb, anterior inclinate, middle and posterior orb reclinate, all equidistant from each other; 1 vti and 1 vte a little longer than hindmost orb; pvt crossed, about as long as anterior orb, ocellars a little more than half length of vt; all setae brown.

Thorax: Yellow with sparse pruinosity on scutum; scutum deeper yellow, scut, mtn and pleura all yellow. Chaetotaxy: 2 pprn, one short, and fine setula adjacent, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, absent pra, 1 sa, 1 pa, 1 short post ia, 1+4 dc, anterior 2 short and difficult to separate from other scutal setulae, scutal setulae in 8 irregular rows between dc lines, prscut pair longer; scut 4 marginals, subapical pair about twice length of scut; 1 anepisternal at middle of hind margin with shorter seta above it, 1 katepisternal close to upper hind corner; both sclerites with additional pale setulae in front of setae and katepisternum with long white setulae above coxa; all other setae on thorax brown. Wing: Hyaline with pale yellow tinge over entire membrane; veins yellow; vein closing anal cell convex, distance between crossveins about 1.8x length of posterior crossvein and about 0.9 length of apical section of vein Cu; costa without break near hu crossvein; costal setulae along anterior margin with several dark spine-like setulae interspersed and about 7 similar setulae on dorsal aspect of costa; distance on costal margin between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.7 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], latter two veins parallel up to apex of wing. Haltere yellow, concolourous with pleura.

Legs: Yellow, all segments slender and rather long; tarsomere 5 of all legs dark brown in apical half to 2/3; fine setulae scattered on all pairs of legs, in addition longer setae present on dorsal and posterior aspect of fore femur; mid tibial apicoventral seta absent; all setae and setulae pale brown to yellow; claws black except at extreme base and pulvilli normal.

[FIGURE 19 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 20 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Yellow, rather elongate and narrow; tg with comparatively long setulae and setae, several about 0.75 length of tg; st pale yellow, sclerotized and with a few long setae; tg 6 clearly visible, about half length of tg 5 and 0.8 length of ep; st 6 distinguishable as narrow V-shaped sclerite, st 5, on each side with a lobe projecting backwards and long setae.

Postabdomen: ep yellow, large and higher than long; cerc narrow, very elongate and distinctly setulose; surs short and broad; prg very long curved with a single strong seta at base.

Female.

As in male, but palp spatulate and larger; scutum often with 4 longer acrs; abdomen darker from deep yellow to dark brown, with most specimens showing distinctive pale longitudinal stripe giving appearance of divided tg at least on apical segments. Postabdomen: tg 7 sclerotized only at middle apically, tg 8 with partly desclerotized central section and not setulose; st 8 oval in ventral view and with setae only along medial margin; hypr large thinly sclerotized and at middle with parallel series of microtrichia; cerc elongate and narrow.

Length: [male] body 2.0 mm, wing 2.2 mm; [female] body 2.1 mm, wing 2.5 mm.

Holotype: [male] ETHIOPIA: Gonder, Goha Hotel, 12[degrees]37'N:37[degrees]28'E, alt. 2360 m, 1.x.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI). Paratypes: ETHIOPIA: 4 [male] 1 [female] same data as holotype (TAUI); 1 [female] Gonder Province, Simien Mts National Park, 17 km NE Debark, 13[degrees]13.91'N:30[degrees]01.86'E, 3200 m, 25.iii.1995, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [female] Kefa Jimma, 35 km S, 2700 m, 12.ii.2000, A. Freidberg & I. Yarom; 1 [female] Bale, Bale Mts, Robe, 30 km W, 2900 m, 3.ii.2000, A. Freidberg & I. Yarom; 4 [male] 3 [female] Shewa, Debre Tsige, 09[degrees]39'N:38[degrees]49'E, 2660 m,28.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (all TAUI); 2 [male] 2 [female] same data (NMWC); 2 [male] 2 [female] same data (BMNH); 2 [male] 2 [female] same data (NMSA); 2 [male] 1 [female] Shewa, Chancho, 09[degrees]23'N:38[degrees]48'E, 2500 m, 28.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI).

Oroschyromya fusciceps sp. n. Fig. 21

Etymology: From Latinfuscus (dark) and caput (head), and refers to the dark colouration of the frons and antennae of this species.

Diagnosis: Dull yellow species with pale brown fr and third antennal segment; 6 scutal stripes, 0+2 dc setae, distal three tarsomeres of all legs brown and strongly setose cerc.

Description:

Male.

Head: fr narrow almost parallel sided, at level of antenna 0.8 width that at level of anterior oc and at this level 1.2x width of eye; fr, ocp and third antennal segment brown, second segment yellow with narrow brown line on dorsal ridge, lunule and first antennal segment yellow; arista with first segment brown and second segment black; eye elongate oval; gena dull yellow, 0.8 height of eye, pale setulose, 3 setae on oral margin just below vibrissal angle, mouthparts yellow except sclerite inside buccal cavity dark brown, palp small oval; postgenal seta short but distinct. Chaetotaxy: 3 usual orb (hind pair broken), vti and vte long, oc and pvt half length of vti, postocular setae in one irregular row.

Thorax: Predominantly yellow, small brown patch anteriorly at neck extending laterally to just below pprn; scutum pale brown with 6 longitudinal stripes from transverse suture to posterior margin; dc setae on pale line; scut yellow with brown lateral margin; mtn brown, pleura dull yellow. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, no pra, 1 sa and 1 pa, 1 short post ia, 0+2 dc, the anterior short, scutal setulae in 6 irregular rows between dc lines, no prscut, 4 usual marginals on scut, 1 anepisternal and 1 katepisternal with setulae in front of each.

[FIGURE 21 OMITTED]

Wing: Hyaline with uniform pale yellowish brown tinge to membrane, veins pale brown, distance between crossveins 1.2x length of posterior crossvein, apical section of Cu 3x length of posterior crossvein and twice length of distance between crossveins; distance on costal margin between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.6 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], latter two veins slightly convergent towards wing apex. Anal cell with stump vein reduced to a thickening on the vein. Haltere pale yellow.

Legs: Yellow except for distal 3 tarsomeres brownish; setae and setulae brown, legs relatively long, femora not dilated, but thicker than in elgonae; ventral apical spur on tibia 2 absent. Claws black, pulvilli normal, hind trochanter unmodified.

Abdomen: tg brown with longer setae along apical margin and on sides; st 5 with only a few setae grouped close together on posterolateral corner.

Postabdomen: ep brown, tg 6 a little less than half length of tg 5 and 0.6 length of ep which is higher than long, but not as much as in elongata, cerc narrow, elongate and somewhat pointed with distinct setae; prg large with setae directed anteriorly, psg narrow and about as long as surs, surs with rounded apex.

Female. Unknown.

Length: [male] body 2.2 mm, wing 2.0 mm.

Holotype: [male] RWANDA: Rusumu [02[degrees]22'S:30[degrees]47'E], Ibanda Makera, 9-24.x.1993, fogging of Carapa grandiflora (Meliaceae), T. Wagner (in alcohol, ZSMC).

Oroschyromya gracilipes sp. n. Fig. 22

Etymology: From Latin gracilis (slim) and pes (foot), and refers to the relatively long slim legs of this species.

Diagnosis: Orange species with black rectangular patch at anterior margin of scutum above ocp foramen and pair of broad dark brown stripes on posterior half of scutum; femora are long and slender, basitarsus of middle leg ventrally with modified setulae.

Description:

Male.

Head: Orange-yellow except for brown oc triangle; fr long and narrow, at anterior oc about 0.8 width of eye; at level of antennae 0.4 width that at level of anterior oc. Gena: narrow, about 0.3 height of eye; yellow and pale haired; ocp in profile slightly convex; few short postocular setulae in one irregular row; isolated lower postgenal seta absent. Mouthparts small, all yellow; vibrissal setulae all short. Face poorly sclerotized and depressed. Antenna yellow with dark brown line along anterior and dorsal margin and pale brown infuscation laterally near base of arista; second segment yellow with distinct short dark seta dorsally; third segment round, finely pubescent: hairs not quite as long as diameter of arista at base; second segment black almost throughout and first and second segments light brown and shorter than usual for this family. Chaetotaxy: 3 strong orb, all inclinate, pvt distinct and crossed; 1 vti and 1 vte strong; ocellars lateroclinate; about 12 very short black setulae across middle of fr.

Thorax: Deep orange-yellow and somewhat elongated; a pale brown line runs from just medial to pprn to transverse suture; another dark brown stripe runs from behind suture to edge of scut along dc line, becoming broader posteriorly. scut with dark brown line

along superior lateral margin; on meron at base of haltere with brown spot, otherwise all pleura orange-yellow. Chaetotaxy: prpl absent, 0+2 strong dc, scutal setulae few in number and very irregular, approximately in 4-6 rows with one short but distinct prscut pair; 3 or 4 irregular rows of setulae also between dc and sa lines; 1 pprn, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, 1 sa and 1 pa, 1 post ia; 2 pairs of marginal scut setae: one subapical and one basal, no setulae on margin or on disc; anepisternum with 1 strong seta directed backwards at middle of posterior margin and about 10 short setulae in front, katepisternum with 1 strong seta at upper posterior corner and 3 short setulae in front; tuft of setulae at ventral angle with fewer, finer shorter and very pale; all other setae and setulae brown to black.

Wing: Uniformly pale brown infuscated and with pale brown veins; anal cell with minute stump vein; distal section of Cu about 3.5x length of posterior crossvein; distance between crossveins about 1.7x length of posterior crossvein and 0.8x length of apical section of Cu; distance on costal margin between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.8 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], latter two veins slightly convergent towards wing apex. Haltere yellow. Legs: Modified, rather longer and slimmer than is usual for this family; fine setulae scattered on all pairs of legs; in addition longer setae present on fore femur, but these are not as long as is usual in this family; setulae on dorsal aspect of tarsomeres of all legs distinctly longer; basitarsus of middle leg, ventrally with 3 irregular rows of spinescent setae, most of which are longer than diameter of basitarsus; hind femur with a row of fine setae on anteroventral and posteroventral aspect; hind tibia with 2 parallel rows of ventral setae in apical 2/3; mid tibial apicoventral seta absent; claws black and pulvilli normal; hind trochanter normal.

[FIGURE 22 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Orange, slightly compressed laterally and with well sclerotized brownish dorsal tg plates; tg 6 narrow but separate from ep; st thinly sclerotized; st 5 with ventrally directed pair of narrow projections and long setae on sides of posterior margin. Short setae on disc of tg and on hind margin with setae almost as long as tg; st 4 and 5 also with very long marginal setae.

Postabdomen: ep well-developed and elongated dorsoventrally with distinctly rounded dorsal aspect; large posteroventrally directed opening; cerc large, long, narrow and sclerotized with a few very fine setulae, hyp distinct and broad, ph apd curved and at apex divided into lateral lobes, ej apd not identified; prg in form of large, heavily sclerotized, anteroventrally directed spine; surs similarly long, but curved posteroventrally; distiph large with sclerotized and membranous components.

Female: Unknown.

Length: [male] body 2.1 mm, wing 1.9 mm.

Holotype: [male] UGANDA: Budongo forest, Masindi District, 01[degrees]45'N:31[degrees]35'E, alt. 1200 m, seasonal rain forest, fogged from Cynometra alexandri (Caesalpiniaceae), nr Somso R., vi.1995, Wagner (in alcohol, ZSMC).

Oroschyromya peruncinata sp. n. Fig. 23

Etymology: From Latin per (a prefix denoting superlative) and uncinata (hooked or spined) referring to the structures of the postabdomen and the spinose cerc.

Diagnosis: Yellow species with very large hypopygium with complex structures easily visible externally; spinose elongate cerc; anterior orb reclinate, posterior 2 orb lateroclinate; 1 strong posterior dc with shorter seta anterior to it.

Description:

Male.

Head: All yellow except for black oc triangle; twice as broad as long; fr strongly narrowed anteriorly: at level of antennae 0.4 width that at level of anterior oc and 0.4 width of one eye viewed from in front. Gena: narrow in front, deeper behind; in profile, below middle of eye, about 0.2 height of eye; yellow and pale haired; ocp in profile barely visible behind eye; short postocular setulae in one irregular row; isolated lower postgenal seta present, but little longer than other setulae. Mouthparts small, all yellow; vibrissal setulae moderately developed. Face poorly sclerotized and depressed. Antenna yellow; second segment pale yellow with distinct short dark seta dorsally; third segment round, finely pubescent: hairs as long as diameter of arista at base; arista black almost throughout and completely bare. Chaetotaxy: 3 strong orb, the anterior slightly reclinate, not at all inclinate, middle and posterior orb reclinate and lateroclinate; pvt distinct and crossed; 1 vti and 1 vte strong; oc short and strongly lateroclinate; about 8 short setulae across middle of fr.

Thorax: Pale yellow and somewhat elongated with dorsal aspect more flattened than is usual in this family. scut with flat dorsal aspect occupying little more than half the area as viewed from above. Chaetotaxy: prpl absent, 0+2 strong dc, scutal setulae in 4-6 irregular rows between dc lines, with one short but distinct prscut pair; 3 or 4 irregular rows of setulae also between dc and sa lines; 1-2pprn, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, 1 sa and 1 pa, 1 post ia; 2 pairs of marginal scut setae: one subapical and one basal, no setulae on margin or on disc; anepisternum with 1 strong seta directed backwards at middle of posterior margin, katepisternum with 1 or 2 strong setae at upper posterior corner and a tuft of numerous, fine, long setae at ventral angle. All setae and setulae pale. Wing: Hyaline with pale yellow veins; discal cell widest at apex; distance between crossveins about equal to apical section of vein Cu; distance between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.5 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2]; [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2] parallel towards wing apex. Haltere pale yellow.

Legs: Not modified except for slightly thicker femora; fine setulae scattered on all pairs of legs; in addition longer setae present on fore femur; mid tibial ventral apical seta absent; claws and pulvilli normal; hind trochanter normal.

Abdomen: Entirely yellow and compressed laterally; 5 visible tg, tg 6 very narrow and incorporated as an infolded ridge along anterior margin of ep in its upper half (visible only after dissection). st sclerotized; st 5 with ventrally directed pair of narrow projections and 3 long setae on side of posterior margin. Short setae on disc of tg and some st; marginal setae on tg 3 and tg 4 longer.

Postabdomen: ep well-developed and elongated dorsoventrally with relatively large posteroventrally directed opening; cerc large with 4 strong, but short spines in addition to several fine setulae, hyp distinct with long flange directed towards base of abdomen, ph apd long and free from hyp, ej apd not recognisable (not sclerotised at all), prg in form of large, heavily sclerotized, anterolaterally directed spine and psg modified into a large sclerotized multilobed structure. An elongate sclerite articulating with ventral margins of tg 5 and ep may be a composite of st 5 and prg; distiph very large with sclerotized and membranous components and with some asymmetry at apex.

[FIGURE 23 OMITTED]

Female.

Similar to male. Postabdomen: tg 8 consisting of two lateral, discoid-shaped, sclerotized, strongly setose plates as in sibling species affinis sp. n.; margin of tg 5 with complete row of setulae and strong setae.

Length: [male] body 2.3 mm, wing 2.2 mm; [female] body 2.1 mm, wing 2.2 mm.

Variation: The male paratype has 1 pprn and a setula adjacent to it; and only one katepisternal. It is a little smaller than the type, but in all other respects identical.

Holotype: [male] TANZANIA: Kimani [08[degrees]51'S:34[degrees]10'E], Rt A104, alt. 1400 m, 29.viii.1996, A. Freidberg (TAUI).

Paratypes: KENYA: 1 9 Hunter's Lodge, nr Kiboko, 02[degrees]14'S:37[degrees]43'E, 8-9.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [female] Rt A104, Gilgil, 00[degrees]34'S:36[degrees]21'E, 1962 m, 24.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [female] Awasi, Uguedhi, 30 km E of Kisumu, 00[degrees]09'S:35[degrees]02'E, 1200 m, 26.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI). UGANDA: 1 [male] Kasese, 10 km S, 1500 m, 7.i.1996, I. Yarom & A. Freidberg (TAUI).

Genus Somatiosoma Frey, 1958

Somatiosoma: Frey 1958: 32.

Type species: Somatiosoma nitescens Frey, 1958: 32, by original designation.

Frey (1958) initially described Somatiosoma as a subgenus of Chyromya, on the basis of absent presutural dc setae and absent additional marginal setae on the scut, but with setulae on the disc (although Frey describes these as setae, a better description might be fine setulae, since these are the same as those on the scutum, and which Frey refers to as hairs). Frey also drew attention to the fine scutal vestiture.

Diagnosis: Head more or less round with ocp flat or only slightly convex when viewed from above or from side. Disc of ocp entirely or largely bare. Eyes round or almost so and fr about 1/3 width of head and not protruding above antennae, thus not visible in profile. No pra and no post ia setae, only one dc seta; these setae are present separately or together in some other genera. scut with several scattered fine setulae on disc in addition to usual four marginal setae. Short apicoventral seta on mid tibia indistinct and not as long as diameter of tibia at apex. Male postabdomen: ph apd stout and psg highly modified. In female postabdomen, 8th segment narrow dorsally and membranous; ventral part with two poorly sclerorized plates.

Description:

Head: Yellow, fr not protruding beyond anterior eye margin, sides moderately converging towards antennae, across middle, often with very fine pale setulae; ocp flat to slightly convex when viewed from above, in profile slightly convex and narrowly visible behind eye margin; short setulae on postocular margin and just above ocp foramen, but none on disc of ocp; gena narrow, finely, but distinctly setulose; on lower part, behind with a distinct pale seta directed downwards; vibrissal angle very poorly differentiated; 2 or 3 short vibrissal setulae; face short and depressed, poorly sclerotized, except for a narrow median line, carina never properly developed although this sclerotized median line may give the impression in some specimens that a shallow carina exists; eye round or slightly oval, upper and lower facets of ommatidia almost equal in size; antenna with round third segment, first and second segments short, latter with seta dorsally; arista 3-segmented, usually bare, sometimes very short pubescent; mouthparts small but normally developed, palp short and broad oval to almost round. Chaetotaxy: 3 well-developed orb, anterior inclinate; 1 strong vti and 1 strong vte, oc divergent, pvt distinct and convergent or crossed.

Thorax: Ground colour yellow; scutum with or without slightly darker yellow stripes; mtn and pleura yellow; scutum uniformly covered with short fine setulae. Chaetotaxy: 1- 2pprn, 1 posthu, 0+1 dc, scutal setulae in 8-12 rows between dc lines, with a longer prscut pair, 1 sa and 1 pa, 2 ntpl, ia and pra absent; 1 anepisternal at middle of hind margin and 1 katepisternal at upper posterior corner, sometimes with additional short setae or setulae adjacent to these, prpl absent.

Wing: Hyaline, uniformly microtrichose except for basal half of subcostal cell; costa thinner or broken just distal to weakly sclerotized hu crossvein and broken at [R.sub.1]; subcosta merges with [R.sub.1] just before this reaches costa; veins [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2] parallel to wing margin or very slightly convergent; costa ends just beyond end of vein [R.sub.4+5]; costal setulae very short and of uniform length, sometimes a few setulae are longer than others at base of wing along anterior edge just before [R.sub.1] merges with costa; mixed in randomly amongst the pale costal setulae are darker and thicker setulae appearing as minute spines; 2-8 dark setulae set at intervals along dorsal aspect of costa between [R.sub.1] and apex of [R.sub.2+3].

Legs: Yellow and short setulose except front femur where longer posterodorsal and posteroventral setae may be present; mid tibia with short and inconspicuous apicoventral seta; claws black in apical half or more, pulvilli normal.

Abdomen: Predominantly pale yellow in most species; sparse short setulose on all segments; tg sclerotized; st from poorly sclerotized to wholly membranous and very thinly and microscopically setulose.

Male postabdomen: tg 6 distinct from ep, but narrower than tg 5 and ventral margin may be narrowed almost to a point; pregenital st not usually modified; prg always distinct, often highly modified, fused to or articulated with hyp laterally; psg and bac scl both short and difficult to see; ej apd often sclerotized and large; tubule to basiph sometimes visible; distiph large and of complicated structure, partly membranous, but with several sclerotized components; cerc always small, narrowly separated and finely setulose; surs usually separated from ep.

Female postabdomen: Segment 8 with only st sclerotized and this is divided into two lateral plates which, when viewed from below, appear velvety owing to a dense pruinosity; each structure extends medially to form a translucent membranous lobe, which serve to close the genital opening; hypr present, small, membranous or very poorly sclerotized, usually bare or with microtrichia; epiproct not developed; 2 small (0.04-0.07 mm) s, dark coloured (grey, brown or black), lying deep to lateral aspect of tg 6 or 7; s ducts not sclerotized or pigmented.

Length: [male] and [female] body 1.5-2.2 mm, wing 1.5-2.0 mm.

Distribution (Fig. 68): Parts of the Middle East (Arabia, Israel, Oman, Palestine and Yemen) and throughout Africa and many of its islands. It has not been recorded from the Indian subcontinent, but could well occur there.

Ecology: This genus appears to be the most arid-tolerant in the family, and species are more likely to be found in scrub vegetation in eremic zones than species of the other genera. It appears to be the only member of its subfamily to occur in deserts.

Key to the Afrotropical species of Somatiosoma

[Note: awashensis is only known from the male; hirtiscutellatum and an undescribed species from Madagascar are only known from females.]

Somatiosoma awashensis sp. n. Fig. 24

Etymology: From the type locality, Awash National Park in Ethiopia.

Diagnosis: Pale yellow species with orb set far forward; gena about 1/4 diameter of eye and not significantly receding in profile; prg small, narrow, not visible externally; male has distinctive hypopygium, but features not easily appreciated from external examination.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, oc triangle black; fr not visible in profile, at anterior oc 0.4x width of head, narrowed anteriorly, at level of antenae about 0.35x width of head; ocp in profile broadly visible behind eye margin and convex; face depressed and with distinct but shallow carina in upper half; gena slightly receding, 0.35x height of eye and with several minute pale setulae; mouthparts yellow, palp oval; antenna all yellow except third segment of arista which is dark in apical 3/4; third antennal segment round, about equal to height of gena at middle and about 0.28 diameter of eye, second segment with dorsal seta; 3 orb, all set far forward such that hind orb inserted half way from level of lunule to level of vertex, 1 vte and 1 vti, oc strongly divergent, pvt short, about 1/3 length of anteior orb and crossed, about 6 minute white setulae scattered on fr, postocular setulae very short and in 1 row, and postgenal seta short.

Thorax: Entirely pale yellow with most setae pale brown on dorsum and pale yellow on pleura. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn with 1 setula adjacent to it, 1 strong dc and another about 1/3 its length just in front of it, acrs very short and undifferentiated from scutal setulae, setulae forming 8 irregular rows at level of transverse scutal suture between dc lines, prscut pair present but only a little stronger than other scutal setulae; 1 posthu, 1 short sa and 1 strong pa, scut with 2 pairs of marginals, subapical pair long, about twice length of basal pair, disc of scut with 8 scattered setulae, no fine crossed apical scut setulae; anepisternum with 1 seta at middle of posterior margin and katepisternum with 1 seta at upper margin, each with several pale setulae in front, more numerous on anepisternum.

Wing: Hyaline with pale yellow veins, costa with minute yellow spine-like setulae from [R.sub.1] to [R.sub.2+3], distance on costa between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.7 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], apical section of Cu about 2x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow.

[FIGURE 24 OMITTED]

Legs: All yellow, only fore femur a little dilated, all setae and setulae pale yellow, longest on posterior aspect of fore femur, claws black, a little shorter than length of tarsomere 5, apicoventral seta on mid tibia yellow and distinctly shorter than diameter of tibia at apex.

Abdomen: Entirely yellow with a few short and fine pale yellow setulae on each tg, those on tg 5 about 1/3 length of tg.

Postabdomen: All yellow with small hypopygium and distinctive projecting lobes on st 6.

Female: Unknown.

Length: [male] body 1.7 mm, wing 1.5 mm.

Holotype: [male] ETHIOPIA: Awash National Park, ESE Metahara, 08[degrees]50'91"N:40[degrees]00'32"E, 16.iii.1995, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC).

Somatiosoma eremicolum Ebejer, 2008 Fig. 25

Somatiosoma eremicolum: Ebejer 2008a: 692.

Diagnosis: Pale yellow species without crossed apical setulae on scut; male has characteristic long, stalked prg ending in fan of setae; female has pair of small black spots on tg 7 and usually also on tg 8. Female postabdomen: st 8 large, microtrichose and with distinct fleshy medial lobes; hypr membraneous, bare; cerc small; spermatheca small, black and with membraneous spermathecal ducts.

Material examined: NAMIBIA: 4 [female] (W33), Sesriem Canyon, 5 km W Sesriem, 21-22.i.1972, British Museum Southern African Expedition 1972 (BMNH); 1 [male] Kahn R., 8 km N Usakos, 30-31.i.1972, Southern African Expedition, British Museum 1972 (BMNH); 4 [male] 2 [female] 2315Ca, Namib Desert Park, Kuiseb R. at Gobabeb, 400 m, riverine forest and sand, 12.ii.1974, M.E. & B.J. Irwin (NMSA); 1 [male] Mariental District, Viljoenskroon, 26[degrees]08'39"S:19[degrees]57'11"E, 7-9.ii.1998, Malaise trap, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 5 [male] 16 [female] Brandberg, Messum Valley, 700 m, 21[degrees]13'29"S:14[degrees]30'98"E, Malaise trap, bushy Karoo-Namib shrubland, 5-17.iv.1999, S. Van Noort & S.G. Compton (NMNW); 1 [female] Brandberg, Hungorob R., 1200 m, 21[degrees]13'5"S:14[degrees]31'01"E, light trap, plateau edge, 9.ix.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [female] Brandberg, Hungorob Valley, 1180 m, 21[degrees]11'40"S: 14[degrees]31'69"E, Malaise trap, bushy Karoo-Namib shrubland, 5-16.iv.1999, S. Van Noort & S.G. Compton (NMNW); 1 [male] 4 [female] Karibib District, Tsaobismund 85, 22[degrees]22'40"S:15[degrees]44'58"E, Malaise traps, 13- 15.iv.2001, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais (NMNW); 1 [male] 4 [female] Brandberg, Mason Shelter, 21[degrees]04'42"S 14[degrees]35'33"E, 514.iii.2002, 1750 m, light trap, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW). OMAN: 29 Muscat, Al Khuwair, 10-11.i.1988 & 22-23.ii.1988, M.J. Ebejer (NMWC); 6 [female] Muscat, Ruwi, Wattayeh, 1-7.iv. 1988, M.D. Gallagher (NMWC); 2 [female] same data but 17-20.iv.1988 (NMWC); 2 [male] 6 [female] Muscat, Haramel, 13.iii.1995 14.iii.1995 (4 [female]), 23.iii.1995 (1 [female]), 26.iii.1995 (1 [female]), 28.iii.1995 S.P. Dance (all NMWC). SAUDI ARABIA: 3 [male] Aseer, Maraba, 1-30.v.2004 5.x-30.xi.2004 (2 [male]), Malaise trap, H.A. Dawah (NMWC). YEMEN: 19 Ta'izz, 5.i-2.ii.1998, light trap, A. van Harten & M. Mahyoub (NMWC); 2 [male] 3 [female] Al-Kowd, viii.2000 (1 [male] 2 [female]), x.2000 (1 [female]), xi.2000 light trap, A. van Harten & S. Al Haruri (all NMWC).

[FIGURE 25 OMITTED]

Distribution: Widespread in the Afrotropical Region and the Middle East.

Somatiosoma grandicornis sp. n. Fig. 26

Etymology: From Latin grandis (large) and cornu (horn), and refers to the large third antennal segment.

Diagnosis. Uniformly yellow species that has no crossed apical setulae on scut and no spots on apical tg of female abdomen; third antennal segment distinctly enlarged; in male, viewed in profile, about half diameter of eye, in female, just a little less. Male postabdomen: prg greatly elongated, external to lower margin of ep and ending in two broad setae.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, oc triangle black; fr not visible in profile, at anterior oc 0.4 width of head, narrowed anteriorly; face depressed and with distinct carina in upper half; gena strongly receding, 0.3 height of eye and with several minute pale setulae; ocp in profile broadly visible behind eye margin and convex; mouthparts yellow; antenna all yellow except third segment of arista which is black; third antennal segment large and round, reaching almost half diameter of eye, second segment with dorsal seta; 3 orb, the anterior inclinate, 1 vte and 1 vti, oc divergent and long,pvt short but distinct and crossed, about 30 minute pale brown setulae scattered on fr and between orb, postgenal seta long.

Thorax: Entirely pale yellow with most setae pale brown on dorsum and pale yellow on pleura. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn with 4 setulae around it, 1 strong dc and another about 1/3 its length just in front of it, acrs undifferentiated from scutal setulae except short prscut pair, setulae in 10 irregular rows at level of transverse scutal suture between dc lines, 1 posthu, 1 short sa and 1 strong pa, scut with 3 pairs of marginals, subapical pair longest and basal pair short, about 1/4 length of subapicals, lateral pair intermediate in size, disc of scut with 6-17 scattered setulae, anepisternum with 1 seta at middle of posterior margin and katepisternum with 1 seta at upper posterior corner, each with several pale setulae in front, more numerous on anepisternum.

Wing: Hyaline with pale yellow veins, costa with minute black spine-like setulae from base to [R.sub.2+3] . Haltere yellow.

Legs: All yellow, only fore femur a little dilated, all setae and setulae pale brown, longest on posterior aspect of fore femur, claws black, apicoventral seta on mid tibia distinctly shorter than diameter of tibia at apex.

[FIGURE 26 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Entirely yellow with a few short and fine brown setulae on each tg. Postabdomen: All yellow with small hypopygium and distinctive elongated prg ending in 2 stout setae.

Female.

As male, but tending to have darker brown setae and setulae; also, third antennal segment not so obviously enlarged, but about 1/3 or slightly more than diameter of eye. Postabdomen: st 8 not as clearly oval as in eremicolum, setulose along lateral margin, and along midline of long axis distinctly more sclerotized; hypr bare but with minute tubercles; spermatheca small and dark and duct not sclerotized.

Length: [male] body 2.0 mm, wing 1.8 mm; [female] body 2.1 mm, wing 1.9 mm.

Variation: Very little variation noted other than the number of setulae on the dorsum of the scut.

Holotype: [male] NAMIBIA: Brandberg, Mason Shelter, 21[degrees]04'42"S:14[degrees]35'33"E, 5-14.iii.2002, alt. 1750 m, light trap, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW).

Paratypes: 2 [male] 10 [female] same data (NMNW); 1 [male] 2 [female] same data (NMSA); 1 [female] Brandberg, Hungarob R., 1200 m, 21[degrees]13'05"S:14[degrees] 31'01"E, light trap, 9.xi.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs; 1 [male] 1 [female] Brandberg, Messum Valley, 700 m, 21[degrees]13'29"S:14[degrees]30'98"E, Malaise trap, bushy Karoo-Namib shrubland, 5-17.iv.1999, S. Van Noort & S.G. Compton (in alcohol, NMNW); 49 Karibib District, Tsaobismund 85 at 22[degrees]22'40''S:15[degrees]44'58''E, 1315.iv.2001, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais, Malaise traps (NMNW). MADAGASCAR: 1 [male] 3 [female] coastal dry scrub north of Toliara, 15.ii.1984, M.von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [male] between Ambrorompotsy (west) and Tranoroa (east), 23 km E Ampanihy, 24[degrees]41'S:44[degrees]55'E, 22.ii.1984, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, FBUB). YEMEN: 2 [male] 2 [female] Ta'izz, 5.i-2.ii.1998, light trap, A.van Harten & M. Mahyoub (NMWC).

Somatiosoma hirtiscutellatum (Lamb, 1914), comb. n.

Chiromyia hirtiscutellata: Lamb 1914: 355.

Lamb wrote that he had two males. The holotype (BMNH) is a female, but I was unable to recognize any external characters that would allow me to assign any of the new species to hirtiscutellatum. The paratype (CUMZ), on the other hand, is a headless male of a different species and it fits well the current concept of nitescens Frey, for which a diagnosis is given below. Therefore, for the time being, the species hirtiscutellatum is known only from the holotype.

Diagnosis: Orange-yellow species with deeper yellow scutal stripes: scut without crossed apicals, but with discals and additional marginals, scutal setulae in 10 rows between dc lines; mtn dark on sides with middle two thirds yellow; all abdominal tg with brown bands. Postabdomen not dissected and no external distinguishing features noted.

Distribution: Seychelles.

Somatiosoma messumensis sp. n. Fig. 27

Etymology: From the type locality, MessumValley in Namibia.

Diagnosis. A completely yellow species that has a small third antennal segment which is a little narrower than height of gena at middle; female has one pair of black spots on tg 7. In some males, distinctive Y-shaped prg visible without dissection.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, oc triangle yellow; fr not visible in profile, at anterior oc 0.4 width of head, narrowed anteriorly, at level of antenae 0.28 width of head; face depressed and with distinct carina in upper half; gena strongly receding, 0.4 height of eye and with several minute pale setulae; ocp in profile broadly visible behind eye margin and almost straight; mouthparts yellow, palp short about half length of proboscis; antenna all yellow except third segment of arista which is brown; third antennal segment round, about equal to height of gena at middle and about 1/3 diameter of eye, second segment with dorsal seta; 3 orb, the anterior inclinate, 1 vte and 1 vti, oc strongly divergent and long, pvt long and crossed, about 10 minute pale yellow setulae scattered on fr and between orb, postocular setulae in 1 row and postgenal seta long.

Thorax: Entirely pale yellow with most setae pale brown on dorsum and pale yellow on pleura. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn with 5 setulae around it, 1 strong dc and another about half its length just in front of it, acrs undifferentiated from scutal setulae except short prscut pair, setulae in 8-10 irregular rows at level of transverse scutal suture, prscut pair only a little stronger than other scutal setulae; 1 posthu, 1 short sa and 1 strong pa, scut with 3 pairs of marginals, subapical pair longest, disc of scut with 18 scattered setulae, anepisternum with 1 seta at middle of posterior margin and katepisternum with 1 seta at upper margin, each with several pale setulae in front, more numerous on anepisternum.

Wing: Hyaline with pale yellow veins, costa with minute yellow spine-like setulae from base to [R.sub.2+3], distance on costa between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.7 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], apical section of Cu about 2.5x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow. Legs: All yellow, only fore femur a little dilated, all setae and setulae pale yellow, longest on posterior aspect of fore femur, claws black, short, about 0.5 length of tarsomere 5, apicoventral seta on mid tibia yellow and distinctly shorter than diameter of tibia at apex.

[FIGURE 27 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Entirely yellow with a few short and fine pale yellow setulae on each tg, those on tg 5 about 1/4 length of tg.

Postabdomen: All yellow with small hypopygium and distinctive Y-shaped prg.

Female.

As in male, but tending to have brown setae and setulae; also, third antennal segment not so enlarged, but a little less than 1/3 diameter of eye. Postabdomen: st 8 relatively large compared to congeners, thinly sclerotized laterally and with few microtrichia along this margin; hypr entirely membraneous and barely visible, bare and without tubercles; cerc small, oval.

Length: [male] and [female] body 1.5 mm, wing 1.7 mm.

Variation: Very little variation noted other than the number of setulae on the dorsum of the scut and setae on the lateral margin.

Holotype: [male] NAMIBIA: Brandberg, Mason Shelter, 21[degrees]04.42'S:14[degrees]35.33'E, 5-14.iii.2002, alt. 1750 m, light trap, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW).

Paratypes: NAMIBIA: 5 [male] 19 [female] Karibib District, Tsaobismund 85, 22[degrees]22'40''S:15[degrees]44'58''E, 13- 15.iv.2001, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais, Malaise traps (NMNW); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (BMNH); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (NMSA); 2 [male] 4 [female] same data (NMWC); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (TAU); 3 [male] 16 [female] Brandberg, Messum Valley, 700 m, 21[degrees]13'29"S:14[degrees] 30'98"E, Malaise trap, bushy Karoo-Namib shrubland, 5-17.iv.1999, S. Van Noort & S.G. Compton (NMNW).

Somatiosoma nitescens Frey, 1958 Fig. 28

Somatiosoma nitescens: Frey 1958: 32.

Diagnosis. Uniformly pale yellow species with pair of minute crossed setulae at apex of scut. Third antennal segment narrower than height of gena at middle viewed in profile. Male postabdomen has no distinguishing external features. Female abdomen has no dark spots on any of apical segments. Postabdomen: characteristically has long setulae on st 8; s (when cleared in KOH) with two internal tubules, s ducts not sclerotized; hypr membraneous, but distinct, bare and without tubercles.

Material examined: ANGOLA: 2 [female] Dolondolo, 13[degrees]49'S:13[degrees]07'E, 29-30.xi.1974, Malaise trap (NMSA). CAPE VERDE: 2 [male] Valle Sao Jorge (Santiago), 8.ix.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [female] Santiago, San Domingos- Praia, from Prosopis tree, 27.x.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 2 [female] S. Vincente, 26.i.1985, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [male] 4 [female] garden near Mindelo, 27.i.1985, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [female] Fogo, Sao Jorge, 250 m, 19.x.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [female] Fogo, below Caldeira, Mt Velha, 950 m, 22.x.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [male] Santiago, Ribeiro Principal, 100 m, 29.x.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, FBUB); 6 [female] Santiago, Variante, 2.xi.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 4 [male] 5 [female] Santiago, Cidade Velha, 3.xi.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [male] 2 [female] St. Antao, Ribeiro Grande, 15.xi.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, FBUB); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (in alcohol, MJE); 1 [male] Sao Jorge de Orgaos, viii.1988, A.van Harten (in alcohol, NMWC); 2 [female] Sao Jorge de Orgaos, ix.1988, A.van Harten (in alcohol, NMWC); 1 [male] 5 [female] Sao Jorge de Orgaos, 24.viii-7.ix.1989, A.van Harten (in alcohol, NMWC); 2 [male] 4 [female] same data (in alcohol, MJE). ETHIOPIA: 1 [female] Shewa, Debre Zeit, 1890 m, 08[degrees]41'N:39[degrees]02'E, 27.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [female] Welo, Lalibela, 2470 m, 12[degrees]01'N:39[degrees]03'E, 8.x.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI). THE GAMBIA: 1 [female] Bakau, at Tropic Bungalow, 25.xi.1977, indoors and in hotel area, Lund University Systematics Department, Cederholm, Danielsson, Hammarstedt, Hedqvist, Samuelsson (MZLU). GHANA: 1 [female] Accra, on window, iv.1920, J.W. Scott Macfie (BMNH); 2 [female] Accra, laboratory windows, xi.1920, A. Ingram (BMNH); 1 [male] Accra, i.1921, J.W. Scott Macfie (BMNH); 1 [female] Accra, in laboratory, iiiii.1921, J.W. Macfie (BMNH); 1 [female] Accra, iv.1921, J.W. Scott Macfie (BMNH). KENYA: 1 [male] 1 [female] Wangala, Rt A109, 17-19.viii.1996, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 3 [male] 3 [female] Chepareria, 24.xi.1989, A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan (TAUI); 1 [female] Koriema, 15 km W. Marigat, 13.v. 1991, A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan (TAUI); 2 [female] Ngong Hills, 2000-3000 m, 15.v.1991, A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan (TAUI); 4 [male] 7 [female] Hunter's Lodge near Kiboko, 02[degrees]14'S:37[degrees]43'E, 89.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 6 [male] 5 [female] Kasambara, 15 km W of Gilgil, 00[degrees]34'S:36[degrees]22'E, 25.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (MJE). MADAGASCAR: 1 [female] Arkarana, nr Ambilobe, ix.1986, S.V. Fowler (NMWC); 1 [female] Ramakia, 9.iv.1991, A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan (TAUI); 1 [female] Ramena, 10.iv.1991, A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan (TAUI); 3 [male] 2 [female] Fort Dauphin, Taolanaro, 18-23.iv.1991, A. Freidberg & F. Kaplan (TAUI); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (MJE); 3 [male] 1 [female] between Ambrorompotsy (west) and Tranoroa (east), 23 km E. Ampanihy, 24[degrees]41'S:44[degrees]55'E, 22.ii.1984, M.von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, FBUB); 3_ 69 coastal dry scrub north of Toliara, 15.ii.1984, M.von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [male] same data (in glycerine, MJE). MALAWI: 2 [male] 3 [female] Center Nichisi, Rt T350, 16.ix.1998, F. Kaplan & A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1_[male] 1 [female] same data (MJE); 2_ 19 Viphya Mts., Rt M1, 20 km S Mzimba, 20-30.ix.1998, F. Kaplan & A. Freidberg (TAUI). MAURITIUS: 1 [male] 3 [female] 1-2 km S of Wolmar, 21.v.2000, J.W. Ismay (OXUM); 1 [male] nr Post de Flaq, 29.v.2000, J.W. Ismay (OXUM). NAMIBIA: 1 [female] Keetmanshoop, Noachabeb 97, SE 2718 Ad/8c, 22-28.iv.1972, Malaise (NMNW); 1 [female] Ovambo, Onduri, 17[degrees]32'S:16[degrees]37'E, pitfall trap, 14-26.i.1993, E. Marais (in alcohol, NMNW); 5 [female] Kavango, Nangera, 17[degrees]37'S:18[degrees]08'E, pitfall trap, 14-27.i.1993, E. Marais (in alcohol, NMNW); 1 [female] Ovambo, Enyana, 17[degrees]37'S: 17[degrees]25'E, pitfall trap, 14-27.i.1993, E. Marais (in alcohol, NMNW); 1 [female] Ovambo, Mahanene Agric. Research Station, 17[degrees]26'S:14[degrees]47'E, pitfall trap, 5.ix-5.x.1993, B. Wohlleber (NMNW); 2 [female] West Caprivi Park, Kwando R., Susuwe, 17[degrees]45'37"S:23[degrees]20'55"E, Malaise trap in dry woodland, 28.ix-2.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [female] Rundu District, Simanya Okavango River, 17[degrees]33'35"S:18[degrees]32'30"E, 23-24.i.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais (in alcohol, NMNW); 2 [female] Tsumkwe District, 19[degrees]51'30"S:20[degrees]57'41"E, from dung of Loxidonta africana, 23.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [female] Tsumkwe District, Nama, 19[degrees]54'34"S: 20[degrees]44'08"E, Malaise traps, 20-22.xii.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs, E. Marais & D. Mann (NMNW); 1 [female] Tsumkwe District, 3 km E Xawasha pan, 19[degrees]09'53"S:20[degrees]57'40"E, from dung of Loxidonta africana, 25.xii.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [female] Tsumkwe District, 2 km W Xawasha pan, 19[degrees]09'57"S: 20[degrees]52'55"E, Malaise traps, 26-27.xii.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs, E. Marais & D. Mann (NMNW); 1 [female] West Caprivi Park, Fort Doppies, 17[degrees]49'28"S:23[degrees]18'49"E, 20-21.x.1999, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs, T. Pape & W. Hauwanga (NMNW); 1 [female] Opuwo District, Sesfontein Fort, 19[degrees]07'15"S:13[degrees]37'06"E, Malaise trap, 1-3.i.2000, E. Marais, D. Mann & Newman, MMN 38 (NMNW); 2 [female] Brandberg, Mason Shelter, 21[degrees]04'42"S:14[degrees]35'33"E, 5-14.iii.2002, 1750 m, light trap, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [female] Rt B8, 60 km SW Rundu, 18[degrees]22'S:19[degrees]20'E, 8.ix.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI). NIGERIA: 1 [female] Zaria, Samaru, 4.viii.1969, J.C. Deeming (NMWC); 2 [female] Zaria, Samaru, 6.vi.1978, J.C. Deeming (NMWC); 1 [male] Zaria, Samaru, v. 1979, J.C. Deeming (NMWC). SEYCHELLES: Aldabra: 1 [female] South Island, Cinq Cases, 3-16.i.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson (Aldabra Atoll Royal Society Expedition 1967-68) (BMNH); 4 [male] 4 [female] South Island, Takamaka, 1-17.ii.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson (Aldabra Atoll Royal Society Expedition 1967-68) (BMNH); 1 [female] South Island, Dune Jean-Louis, 13-20.iii.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson (Aldabra Atoll Royal Society Expedition 1967-68) (BMNH). SIERRA LEONE: 1 [female] Freetown, Cape Sierra Hotel area, 08[degrees]31'N:13[degrees]17'W, 1.xii.1993, Lund University Sierra Leone Expedition, L. Cederholm & R. Danielsson (MZLU). SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 1 [female] 32 km S Ndumu Game Reserve Camp [approx. 27[degrees]12'S:32[degrees]19'E], 2732Aa, dry scrub forest, 100 m, 29.xi.1971, M.E. & B.J. Irwin (NMSA); Limpopo: 1 [female] (headless) Kruger National Park, Pafuri [22[degrees]21'S:31[degrees]17'E], 24.i.1979, L. Braack (NMSA); 1 [female] same data but 14.ii-8.iii.1980, Malaise trap (NMSA); North West: 1 [male] 3 [female] Hartbeespoort [25[degrees]44'S:27[degrees]54'E], 25 km W Pretoria, 30.xii.1994, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [female] same data (NMSA); 3 [female] Hartbeespoort Dam [25[degrees]46'S:27[degrees]49'E], 40 km W Pretoria, 30.xii.1994, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [male] 1 [female] same data (NMSA). ZIMBABWE: 2 [female] Zambezi, 16[degrees]10'S:29[degrees]25'E, Rutometje-Res. St. RM2, vi.1988, J. Weyrich (ZSMC); 2 [female] same data but viii.1988 (ZSMC); 1 [female] Zambezi, 16[degrees]08'S:30[degrees]15'E, SE Angwa Bridge M2, viii.1988, J. Weyrich (ZSMC).

[FIGURE 28 OMITTED]

Distribution. Throughout the Afrotropical Region and in many parts of the Middle East from sea level to 2470 m. In the Cape Verde Islands, it has been found from sea level to 950 m; in plantations of coffee, citrus, mango and maize on lava soils; near water as well as on dunes; in coastal as well as inland localities.

Somatiosoma setipygum sp. n. Figs 29, 30

Etymology: From Latin seta (seta) and pyga (buttocks), and refers to the setulose hypoproct in the female and the long setae on the male epandrium.

Diagnosis: Entirely yellow species in both sexes, easily recognized in male because of long setae on ep; apical segments of female abdomen also have setae that are longer than usual, but a distinctive feature is the hypr, which has numerous setulae that can be seen without dissection. These are similar in size and density to setulae on cerc.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, oc triangle black; fr not visible in profile, at anterior oc 0.3 width of head, narrowed anteriorly, at level of antenae 0.7 width of that at anterior oc; face very short and depressed and with no distinct carina in upper half; gena receding, 0.25 height of eye at middle and with several minute pale setulae; ocp in profile broadly visible behind eye margin, slightly convex; mouthparts yellow, palp short oval about half length of proboscis; antenna all yellow except third segment of arista which is brown; third antennal segment round, about 1.4x height of gena at middle and about 0.35 diameter of eye, second segment with dorsal seta; 3 orb, the anterior inclinate, 1 vte and 1 vti, oc strongly divergent and long, pvt long and crossed, about 10 minute pale yellow setulae scattered on fr and between orb, postocular setulae in 1 row and postgenal seta long.

Thorax: Entirely pale yellow with most setae also pale yellow including those on pleura. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn with 3-5 setulae around it, 1 strong dc and another about half its length just in front of it, acrs undifferentiated from scutal setulae except short prscut pair, setulae in 8-10 irregular rows at level of transverse scutal suture; 1 posthu, 1 short sa and 1 strong pa, scut with 2 pairs of marginals, subapical pair longer, disc of scut with 14 scattered setulae, anepisternum with 1 seta at middle of posterior margin and a short seta above it; katepisternum with 1 seta at upper margin, each with several pale setulae in front, more numerous on anepisternum.

Wing: Hyaline with pale yellow veins, costa with minute dark spine-like setulae from [R.sub.1] to [R.sub.2+3], distance on costa between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] about 0.6 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], apical section of Cu about 2.2x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow.

Legs: All yellow, only fore femur a little dilated, all setae and setulae pale yellow, longest on posterior aspect of fore femur, claws black, short, about half length of tarsomere 5, apicoventral seta on mid tibia yellow and distinctly shorter than diameter of tibia at apex.

Abdomen: Entirely yellow with a few short and fine pale yellow setulae on each tg. Postabdomen: All yellow with small hypopygium and three distinctive long setae on each side of ep, prg simple, digitate and fine setulose on outer aspect.

Female.

As male, but tending to have pale brown setae and setulae. Postabdomen: st 8 almost translucent and with distinct setae; hypr membranous and small, but with setulae as dense and as long as those on cerc; s small and black; duct membraneous.

Length: [male] body 2 mm, wing 1.8 mm; [female] body 1.9 mm, wing 1.7 mm.

Holotype: [male]_NAMIBIA: Brandberg, Mason Shelter, 21[degrees]04'42"S:14[degrees]35'33"E, 5-14.iii.2002, alt. 1750 m, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs, light trap (NMNW).

Paratypes: 1 [male] 2 [female] same data (NMNW).

[FIGURE 29 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 30 OMITTED]

Somatiosoma sp.

I have seen only females of this species and although distinctive and easily separated from the other species of Somatiosoma, I hesitate to name it without males.

Description:

Head all yellow, antenna short with segment 3 about 1/4 diameter of eye and about equal to height of gena at middle; gena about 0.4 height of eye. Thorax pale brownish yellow. Abdomen with pale brown tg and a yellow mtn. The apex of the abdomen has small paired dark spots laterally on tg 6,7 and 8, and a single midline spot on st 6 and 7, the latter triangular; the two sclerites of st 8 are also deeply pigmented; 1 and 1/2 dc; scutal setulae in 10 rows between dc lines.

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: 14 [female] coastal dry scrub north of Toliara, 15.ii.1984, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC); 3 [female] between Ambrorompotsy (west) and Tranoroa (east), 23 km E Ampanihy, 24[degrees]41'S: 44[degrees]55'E, 22.ii.1984, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, FBUB).

Distribution: Madagascar.

Subfamily Aphaniosominae subfam. n.

Type genus: Aphaniosoma Becker, 1903: 186.

Diagnosis: Occiput concave; 0-6 orb of variable length, never inclinate; when more than 2, these are usually short and progressively shorter anteriorly; scutum with inclinate ihu seta or setula (except in Krifomyia and Tethysimyia); wing veins [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2] parallel (Paraphanisoma and Krifomyia), convergent (Tethysimyia) or divergent (Aphaniosoma) towards apex; mid tibia always with long apicoventral seta; scut never with more than 2 pairs of marginal setae; male postabdomen never with hemispherical ep, this lies partially or entirely within tg 6.

Genera included: Aphaniosoma, Krifomyia gen. n., Paraphanisoma gen. n., Tethysimyia gen. n.

Genus Aphaniosoma Becker, 1903

Aphaniosoma: Becker 1903: 186.

Type species: Aphaniosoma approximatum Becker, 1903: 186, by original designation.

Diagnosis: Concave ocp with only postocular row of setulae (none on disc), acrs in 2 rows, prpl setula present, costa broken a little beyond hu crossvein and at apex of [R.sub.1], veins [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2] diverge towards wing apex; posterior crossvein placed before middle of wing and section of M-Cu separating basal and discal cell shorter than 2.5x length of apical section of M-Cu (usually 1.7-2.0x); strong apicoventral seta on mid tibia always present and longer than diameter of tibia at apex.

Description:

Head: Broad as thorax or a little more, more or less round to elongate, though usually longer than high; oc triangle small always equilateral; ocp concave when veiwed either from above or in profile, disc bare, only a few fine setulae at ocp foramen and along upper postocular margin; postgenal seta absent; gena narrow from 0.2 to 0.5 height of eye, vibrissal angle variously produced and rounded, but never significantly extending beyond eye margin, with 1-4 vibrissa-like setulae present; eye oval, sometimes strongly so, lying oblique or horizontal, anterior facets enlarged to about 3x size of facets at posterior pole of eye; at level of antennae eyes converge significantly and margins of fr therefore also converge; face always small, depressed with a vertical midline linear suture that may be developed into a shallow carina, otherwise face membranous; mouthparts small but normally developed with short, broad labellum, palpus small, elongate oval to slightly club-shaped; antenna small with round segment 3, sometimes slightly reniform, always pubescent especially along anterior margin, segment 1 very short, segment 2 a little longer with strong dorsal seta, arista 2-segmented, with segment 2 always dark, thin and finely pubescent. Chaetotaxy: 0-6 orb of decreasing length from back to front in a majority of species, in some species 2 long posteriorly placed orb of almost equal size; fr with a few scattered setulae, sometimes with a long proclinate pair of setae in front of oc triangle; ocellars long, proclinate and divergent; strong vti and vte, short to very short, parallel or crossed pvt.

Thorax: Robust relative to rest of fly, often with darker scutal pattern of longitudinal stripes, scut more or less triangular with smooth rounded margin and apex, more or less as long as broad. Chaetotaxy: from zero to several presutural dc setae and always with at least 1 dc postsuturally near margin with scut (when setae are reduced in number these are replaced by setulae) 1-2 pprn, 1-2 posthu, 1 ihu, 2 ntpl, 0+3 to 4+10 acrs, 0+2 to 2+6 ia, 1 pa, absent sa, pra and post ia, scut always with 1 pair of subapical and 1 pair basal; 1 anepisternal placed within upper 1/3 of posterior margin, sometimes with shorter seta adjacent and/or with fine setulae on middle of sclerite; 1 katepisternal always at upper posterior corner, sometimes with short seta in front and fine setulae in front of it or at anterior lower margin; prpl seta or (more usually) a fine setula present. Wing: About a long as body, hyaline with completely microtrichose membrane, veins brown to very pale yellow, vein separating discal from basal cell always palest; costa broken a short distance beyond hu crossvein and at junction of R1 with costa, subcosta complete, merging with [R.sub.1] where latter merges with costa; all veins bare except for anterior margin of costa from base to apex of [M.sub.1+2] where fine setulae are interspersed with short stouter dark spine-like setulae; alula always well-developed though narrow, axillary lobe of wing round and well-developed; [R.sub.2+3] strongly arched from origin to apex of wing, where it approximates [R.sub.4+5]; [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2] always diverge and darken slightly towards wing apex. Haltere always with pale stem and paler knob.

Legs: Slender and setose only on fore femur posterodorsally, otherwise uniformly fine and very short setulose; femora never dilated; mid tibia always with a distinct dark apicoventral seta that is longer than diameter of tibia at apex; hind trochanter modified in the males of one species group, to exhibit, on its posterior inner surface, a distinct projection that may have minute spines or setulae; tarsomeres very rarely modified.

Abdomen: Somewhat dorsoventrally flattened, more or less oval, male with 6 segments, female with 8 segments; st usually poorly sclerotized; disc of tg and along hind margins with short setulae that are usually about half length of tg or much less.

Male postabdomen: Always highly modified; never with a complete external ep; cerc simple, separated (though often appearing fused in dry specimens), with short fine setulae on posterior surface and generally with 1 or 2 long fine setulae at tip; pregential st (any combination from st 4 to 6) highly modified, often ornate with diagnostic features; prg attached to inner lobe of hyp after this fuses/articulates with ep; psg originates from very base of basiph and is often a long, dark, heavily sclerotized structure; surs very variable, often fused with ep;ph always large, very variable, often complex with membranous and sclerotized components.

Female postabdomen: Segments 7 and 8 narrow and invaginated in most dry specimens, though usually distinct when the abdomen is macerated; segment 8 often with small lateral and ventral sclerites; hypr membranous and very small; cerc small, separated and only finely setulose, frequently attached to sclerite of segment 8.

Length: Body 0.75-2.2 mm; wing 0.75-2.2 mm.

Distribution: Holarctic, Afrotropical (Fig. 69).

Note: Some species from other zoogeographical regions are not true Aphaniosoma, but belong to the other genera in Aphaniosominae.

Ecology: Aphaniosoma is widespread in regions with hotter and drier habitats. Most species have a strong affinity to dunes and the shores of standing water bodies, particularly saline marshes. In localities with saline marshes, the flies exhibit a strong affinity to certain plants in this order (pers. observ.): Tamarix trees, Gramineae, including Phragmites stands, Chenopodaceae. I found three species simultaneously on the flowers of (non-indigenous) Eucalyptus in Malta. The attraction to Tamarix is more than just circumstantial. It is not merely because the tree provides shade, or nectar; when alternatives for both exist in close proximity, it is still the Tamarix that very strongly attracts these flies in very large numbers and in a diversity that reflects what species exist in the area. One may speculate that species of Aphaniosoma breed either on the tree or in association with other organisms that do so, or that there is some particularly strong chemical or floral attraction.

Aphaniosoma aethiops sp. n. Figs 31, 32

Etymology: From Latin Aethiopia (Ethiopia), and refers to the country where it was first discovered.

Diagnosis: Predominantly yellow species; no long pair of fr setae/setulae in front of oc triangle, buccal margin has thin brown line, scutum with longitudinal brown stripes, abdominal tg yellow with broad brown transverse band, male postabdomen with large dark phallic complex and long, narrow, pale surs, tarsomere 5 of all legs dark brown. Female has diffuse brownish transverse band across middle of fr, abdomen with tg 6 and 7 completely brown, st 7 pigmented brown, tarsomeres 5 yellow.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, oc triangle and ocp black, latter with a broad yellow stripe from vertex to neck and narrow yellow postocular margin; fr broad, about 1.3x width of eye at vertex, with margins only slightly convergent; eye oval, lying oblique, length of horizontal diameter about 1.3x length of vertical diameter; gena narrow, equal to 0.4 height of eye, yellow and with fine pale yellowish white setulae; face small membranous, with distinct linear facial carina; 2 short setae at anterior buccal margin; mouthparts small, yellow, palp elongate oval, buccal margin with thin brown line; antenna yellow, arista black in apical half of second segment, yellow basally and on first segment; 6-7 short orb; 10 minute pale yellow fr setulae of more or less equal length, ocellars long, divergent, 1 vti and 1 vte, shortpvt, postocular setulae in one row; all setae yellow.

[FIGURE 31 OMITTED]

Thorax: Scutum yellow, yellow pollinose with 6 brown longitudinal stripes, all confluent anteriorly and middle pair remain confluent almost to posterior end, lateral stripes reach to base of pa seta; mtn brown, scut brown at base of lateral margin and beneath, pleura mostly yellow, but katepisternum with dark brown triangle in lower part, meron dark brown in lower half and anepimeron with dark brown line along suture with anepisternum, anepisternum with narrow paler brown border along lower margin and anterior margin. Chaetotaxy: 1+6 dc, only hindmost well-developed, remainder as short as other scutal setulae, 1+3 acrs, 1 pprn, 1 ihu, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, 1 pa, 0+3 ia, 4 scut, 1 anepisternal and 1 katepisternal.

Wing: Hyaline with yellow veins; distance between crossveins about 0.6 length of apical section of Cu; distance between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] on costa about 0.6 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], apical section of Cu about 2x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere pale yellow. Legs: Yellow and pale setulose, setulae becoming a little darker on tarsomeres; tarsomere 5 of all legs dark brown.

Abdomen: Yellow with a broad brown transverse band on each tg, setulae sparse and mostly along hind margin of tg, cerc pale yellow.

Postabdomen: Yellow apart from the large dark brown to black ph structures.

Female.

As male, but brown marking more extensive, abdomen with tg 6 & 7 completely brown; tarsomeres 5 yellow; fr with diffuse brownish transverse band across middle; st 7 pigmented brown. Postabdomen: very small; tg 8 and st 8 sclerotized, but minute and bare, each smaller than cerc.

Length: [male] body 1.2 mm, wing 1.1 mm; [female] body 1.5 mm, wing 1.5 mm.

Holotype: [male] ETHIOPIA: Lake Abiata [Abiyata], 143 km S Addis Ababa [07[degrees]40'N:38[degrees]41'E], 1.iv.1962, Lund University Expedition, Brink, Andersson, Cederholm (MZLU).

Paratypes: 4 [male] (3 headless) 6 [female] same data as holotype (MZLU). KENYA: 2 [male] Tsavo National Park, Voi R., 22.ii.1971, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC); 1 [male] Lake Elmenteita, 24.iii.1970, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, ZSMC).

[FIGURE 32 OMITTED]

Aphaniosoma aldabrensis sp. n. Figs 33, 34

Etymology: From the type locality, Aldabra, the southwestern atoll of the Seychelles.

Diagnosis: Extensively yellow species with elongate narrow eyes, brown scutal stripes, katepisternum with dark triangular patch; acrs widely separated, scutal setae moderately developed, 2 posthu setae, setulae and all setae except the longest very pale, almost white. Male with highly modified pregential st, sinuous surs and prg.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, only ocelli ringed with black; fr with markedly convergent side margins so that at level of antenna this is 0.5 width that at level of anterior oc; eye very narrow and elongated oval, lying horizontal, horizontal diameter about 2.5x length of vertical diameter; gena almost equal to height of eye, yellow and with fine white setulae; face small, membranous with low linear facial carina; 2 short setae at anterior buccal margin; mouthparts small, yellow; antenna yellow, arista brown except for yellow first segment; 4 orb, 6 fine fr setulae and a longer pair in front of oc triangle, ocellars long, divergent, 1 vti and 1 vte, short pvt; setae and setulae all white except for hind orb and vti, which are yellowish brown.

Thorax: Scutum yellow, yellow pollinose with 3 brown longitudinal stripes on each side, one along acrs line, one between dc and ia lines and one between ia line and ntpl; mtn black, scut and pleura yellow. Chaetotaxy: 4+5 dc only hindmost well-developed, 2 most anterior pale and inclinate, 3+4 acrs, 1 pprn, 1 ihu, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, 1 pa, usual 4 scut, 1 very short anepisternal and 1 long katepisternal at upper posterior corner with 3 short pale setulae in a vertical row in front.

Wing: Hyaline and uniformly microtrichose, veins pale yellow, distance between [R.sub.2+3] to [R.sub.4+5] on costal margin about 0.7 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], distance between crossveins about 1.3x length of posterior crossvein and length of apical section of Cu about 2x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow.

Legs: Yellow and pale setulose, no special modifications, tarsomere 5 a little brownish.

[FIGURE 33 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 34 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Each tg with broad brown band dorsally leaving posterior 1/3 and sides of tg yellow; brown setulae dorsally, yellowish white laterally and ventrally, those on tg 5 forming fringe around hypopygium; cerc forming broad plate posteriorly.

Female.

As in male, but scutum with darker stripes and darker thoracic setae. Postabdomen: st 7 sclerotized and pigmented, almost square; tg 7 divided into lateral plates bearing setae; hypr appearing as small tubercle in membrane between sclerites of segment 8.

Length: [male] body 1.2 mm, wing 1.2 mm; [female] body 1.4 mm, wing 1.3 mm.

Holotype: [male] SEYCHELLES: Aldabra, South Island, Takamaka pool, at light, 1-17.ii.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson, Aldabra Atoll Royal Society Expedition 1967-68 (BM 1968-333) (BMNH).

Paratypes (all BMNH): 19 same data as holotype; 1 [male] 19 Astove Atoll, around coconut plantation, 5.iii.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson (BM 1968-333); 3 [male] Aldabra, South Island, Dune Jean-Louis, 13-20.iii.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson, Aldabra Atoll Royal Society Expedition 1967-68 (BM 1968-333); 3 [female] Aldabra, West Island, near settlement, 21-31.iii.1968, B. Cogan & A. Hutson, Aldabra Atoll Royal Society Expedition 1967-68 (BM 1968-333).

Aphaniosoma approximatum Becker, 1903 Fig. 35

Aphaniosoma approximatum: Becker 1903: 186.

Aphaniosoma arabicum Ebejer, 1996: 286; Ebejer 2008a: 683.

This species is widespread in the Middle East. The series from the Cape Verde represents the most western locality of this species. The male postabdomen has been previously illustrated (Collin 1949; Ebejer 1996, 1998, 2008a). Female with tg 7 complete and large. Postabdomen: st 8 large and of peculiar shape, s with distinct external ridge around operculum.

Material examined: CAPE VERDE: 3 [male] Santiago, b. Variante, "Trockenribeiro und Staatsfarm", 2.xi.1982, P. Ohm (in alcohol, FBUB). ETHIOPIA: 19 [male] 10 [female] Welo Province, nr National Road Number 18, 11[degrees]07'47''N: 40[degrees]45'54"E, 17.iii.1995, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, FBUB). NIGER: 3 [male] 19 [female] Air Massif, Wadi Iberkom, 18[degrees]55'N:08[degrees]40'E, 24.viii.1983, P.C. Matteson (NMWC).

Distribution: Cape Verde, Egypt, Ethiopia, Niger and Arabian Peninsula.

[FIGURE 34 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 35 OMITTED]

Aphaniosoma atriceps sp. n. Fig. 36

Etymology: From Latin ater (dark) and caput (head), and refers to the distinctive (but not unique) dark brown antenna which gives the head a dark appearance. Diagnosis: Yellow fr and contrasting dark brown antennal segment 3, very narrow gena, dark grey scutum and scut which has setae shorter than its length, tarsomere 5 of all legs brown, abdominal tg brown with narrow, pale yellow hind margins. Male postabdomen with no distinguishing external features, but internally with large dark psg and with pregenital st having ventrally projecting lobes near apex.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, ocp dark grey to black, oc triangle black, fr narrow and converging anteriorly so that at level of antennae it is about 0.75 as wide as at level of anterior oc, face small, depressed and with distinct, narrow but low facial carina, eye narrow, oval, lying oblique, gena yellow, narrow, at middle about 0.3 height of eye and having numerous fine pale yellow setulae, 3 short setae at vibrissal corner, mouthparts yellow except for two small brown spots deep to proboscis an anterior margin of roof of buccal cavity, 8 setulae on fr with no longer setulae in front of oc triangle, 6 short orb, especially anterior 4, becoming progressively shorter from back to front, 1 vti and 1 vte, pvt distinct and convergent, ocellars long, divergent, antennal segment 3 dark brown contrasting with yellow segments 1 and 2, arista dark brown to base.

Thorax: Scutum and scut uniformly dark grey, mtn entirely dark grey, pprn and ntpl yellow, pleura mostly dark grey, but for narrow yellow margins to sutures. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn, 1 posthu, 1 ihu, 2 ntpl, 0+4 ia, 1+5 acrs, 3+5 dc only the posterior one well-developed, prpl short, 1 pa, 2 pairs of marginal scut, shorter than usual compared to congeners such that subapical setae, usually the longest, are here shorter than length of scut, 1 katepisternal and several setulae on anterior part of sclerite, 1 anepisternal, all setae pale, with shorter ones and setulae inconspicuous.

[FIGURE 36 OMITTED]

Wing: Hyaline and uniformly microtrichose, veins brown, distance between [R.sub.2+3] to [R.sub.4+5] on costal margin about 0.6 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], distance between crossveins about 1.7x length of posterior crossvein and length of apical section of Cu about 2.5x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere dusky yellow.

Legs: Yellow and fine yellow setulose, tarsomere 5 of all legs brown.

Abdomen: Brown with narrow, pale yellow hind margins to all tg, especially on sides and on apical segments.

Postabdomen: Yellow with no distinctive external features. Female.

As male, but several specimens have diffusely infuscated femora dorsally over middle third. Postabdomen: tg 7 complete and broader laterally; cerc and hypr more sclerotized than usual among congeners; st 8 with small sclerites apically and just proximal to these, two small membraneous structures with single microtrichium in centre of each; s with short section of duct sclerotized.

Length: [male] body 1.0 mm, wing 0.9 mm; [male] body 1.2 mm, wing 1.1 mm.

Holotype: [male] NAMIBIA: Khorixas District, Huab R. at Krone, 721, 20[degrees]37'09"S:13[degrees]54'31"E, sweeping grasses and sedges, 23-26.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW).

Paratypes: 2 [male] 3 [female] same data as holotype (NMNW); 2 [female] Walvis Bay, alt. 5 m, 22[degrees]60'S:14[degrees]28'E, 6.ix.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI).

Aphaniosoma conspicuum sp. n. Figs 37, 38

Etymology: From Latin conspicuus (conspicuous), and refers to the large postabdominal structures.

[FIGURE 37 OMITTED]

Diagnosis: Yellow species with all setulae on fr of more or less uniform length; scutum with grey longitudinal stripes, scut completely yellow, abdominal tg brown with yellow hind margins, but apical one or two segments in both male and female pale. Male post-abdomen pale and phallic structures large, pregenital st with distinct dentate processes on apical margin; ph apd with very large basal lobes.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, only ocelli ringed with black; fr with markedly convergent side margins so that at level of antenna fr 0.5x width that at level of anterior oc; eye oval, lying oblique, length of horizontal diameter about 1.5x length of vertical diameter; gena broad, equal to about 0.7 height of eye, yellow and with fine pale yellowish white setulae; face small, membranous, with low linear facial carina; 2 short setae at anterior buccal margin; mouthparts small, yellow; antenna yellow, arista brown except for yellow first segment; 2 orb and 3 short setulae in front of these; 8-10 brown fr setulae of more or less equal length, ocellars long, divergent, 1 vti and 1 vte, short pvt; setae and setulae dark brown.

Thorax: Scutum yellow, yellow pollinose with 4 brown longitudinal stripes; mtn brown, scut and pleura yellow. Chaetotaxy: 4+6 dc the hindmost well-developed, one preceding it about half its length, remainder as short as other scutal setulae, 2+6 acrs, 1 pprn, 1 ihu, 1 posthu, 2 ntpl, 1 pa, 6 ia, 4 scut, 1 anepisternal and 1 katepisternal at upper posterior corner.

Wing: Hyaline with pale brown veins; distance between crossveins about 1.4x length of posterior crossvein; distance between [R.sub.2+3] and [R.sub.4+5] on costa about 0.5 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], apical section of Cu about 2.8x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow.

Legs: Yellow and pale setulose, setulae becoming a little darker on tarsomeres; tarsomere 5 a little brownish.

[FIGURE 38 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Each tg brown with a yellow hind margin; brown setulae dorsally, yellowish white laterally and ventrally; cerc pale yellow.

Postabdomen: Almost entirely yellow, only a very small spot on middle of ep brown. Very large, pale phallic complex is easily seen, since it is extruded in most of the specimens. Female.

Similar to male. Postabdomen: Very small; tg 8 broader laterally, st 8 membraneous, hypr thinly sclerotized and with pair of short apical setulae and some minute tubercles; st 7 small almost round.

Length: [male] body 1.1 mm, wing 1.2 mm; [female] body 1.2 mm, wing 1.3 mm.

Holotype: [male] KENYA: Hunter's Lodge nr Kiboko, 02[degrees]14'S:37[degrees]43'E, 8-9.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI). Paratypes: 3 [male] 1 [female] same data as holotype (TAUI); 2 [female] Hunter's Lodge, 02[degrees]13'S:37[degrees]43'E, 13-16.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 4 [male] 2 [female] Simba, 02[degrees]09'S:37[degrees]35'E, 15.ix.2005 (2 [male] TAUI, 1 [male] 1 [female] NMWC), 21.ix.2005 (1 [male] 1 [female] NMSA), A. Freidberg.

Aphaniosoma dhofaricum Ebejer, 1996

Aphaniosoma dhofaricum: Ebejer 1996: 290.

Although not yet found on mainland Africa, this species is abundant in Dhofar, the southern region of Oman. A. gallagheri Ebejer, 1996 (see below), also common in southern Oman, has been found as far west as the Cape Verde. Therefore, I have included dhofaricum here for completeness and because southern Oman is zoogeographically within the Afrotropics. Distribution: Oman (Dhofar), Cape Verde.

Aphaniosoma fissum Collin, 1949 Figs 39, 40

Aphaniosoma fissum: Collin 1949: 138.

Collin (1949) described several species from an inland oasis in northern Egypt. Since then, several of them have been found in the Middle East and fissum is here confirmed from sub-Saharan Africa. Although Collin illustrated the male postabdomen, he did not give enough detail to enable reliable identification, given the many new similar species described since. Hence, a more detailed description and illustrations of the postabdomen of both sexes are presented below.

Diagnosis: Very variable in colour, but predominant form yellow with longitudinal stripes on scutum becoming dark and confluent anteriorly in some specimens or being pale brown and restricted to behind scutal suture in others. Area in front of scut yellow, but sometimes with small dark midline spot abutting suture with scut; yellow fr and antennae, abdomen yellow or with brown tg having yellow hind margins, sometimes tg all yellow, tg 6 with small posteroventral lobe, tarsomere 5 yellow or brown; male postabdomen with clearly visible yellow surs and prg; female sometimes with distal 3 tarsomeres darkened. distiph black at apex, otherwise hypopygium overwhelmingly yellow.

Redescription:

Male.

Head: Yellow, ocp dark brown except for broad yellow postocular margin and wedge-shaped area from vertex to neck, oc triangle black, fr broad, but converging anteriorly so that at level of antennae about 0.7 as wide as at level of anterior oc, face small, depressed and with distinct, narrow but low facial carina, eye oval lying oblique, gena yellow, at middle about 0.7 height of eye and having numerous yellow setulae, 2 short setae at vibrissal corner, mouthparts yellow except for two small brown spots deep to proboscis and anterior margin of roof of buccal cavity, 2 pairs of setulae on fr, one of which, slightly longer in front of oc triangle, 4 short orb getting progressively shorter from back to front, 1 vti and 1 vte, pvt distinct and convergent, ocellars long, divergent, antenna yellow, most of second segment of arista dark.

Thorax: Scutum and scut with yellow ground but with 6 dark grey longitudinal stripes on scutum confluent anteriorly, only the 2 lateral stripes becoming separated posteriorly, scut a little greyish on disk, mtn entirely dark grey, postpronotal lobe and ntpl yellow, pleura mostly dark grey, but for broad yellow margins to sutures, whole of anepimeron and posterior half of anepisternum chaetotaxy: 1 pprn, 1 posthu, 1 ihu, 2 ntpl, 0+4 ia, 1+4 acrs, 4+5 dc only the posterior one well-developed, prpl distinct, 1 pa, 2 pairs of marginal scut, 1 katepisternal with shorter seta in front and several setulae on anterior part of sclerite, 1 anepisternal, all setae pale yellow to pale brown.

[FIGURE 39 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 40 OMITTED]

Wing: Hyaline and uniformly microtrichose, veins pale brown, distance between [R.sub.2+3] to [R.sub.4+5] on costal margin about 0.5 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], distance between crossveins about 1.3x length of posterior crossvein and length of apical section of Cu about 2.2x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow.

Legs: Yellow and fine yellow setulose, tarsomere 5 of all legs brown.

Abdomen: Brown with narrow, pale yellow hind margins to all tg, especially on sides.

Postabdomen: Yellow with distinctly visible yellow surs and finely setulose prg adjacent to black ph structures.

Female.

As male, but several specimens have tarsomeres 3 and 4 also darkened. Postabdomen: tg 7 narrowly divided dorsally; st 7 with lateral and central sclerotized plates; 8 of curious shape and closely attached to cerc; hypr membraneous.

Length: [male] body 1.0 mm, wing 1.0 mm; [female] body 1.2 mm, wing 1.3 mm.

Material exmained: KENYA: 2 [male] 5 [female] Tsavo National Park, Voi R., 22.ii.1971, M. von Tschirnhaus (in alcohol, FBUB); 1 [male] same data (in glycerine, MJE); 1 [male] 3 [female] same data (in alcohol, NMWC); 1 [male] Hunter's Lodge, 02[degrees]13'S:37[degrees]43'E, 13-16.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (TAU). NAMIBIA: 4_ 2 [female] Luderitz District, Angra Bay, 26[degrees]37'11"S:15[degrees]11'42"E, sweeping lush vegetation at effluent run-off stream, 27.iii.1998, A.H. Kirk- Spriggs (NMNW); 27 [male] 19 [female] Khorixas District, Huab R. at Krone 721, 20[degrees]37'09"S:13[degrees]54'31"E, sweeping grasses and sedges, 23-26.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [male] 3 [female] same data (in alcohol, NMWC); 4 [male] 2 [female] Khorixas District, Gai-As spring, 20[degrees]46'01"S:14[degrees]01'12"E, 22.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais (in alcohol, NMWC); 1 [male] Omaruru District, Brandberg Wes salt spring, 20[degrees]56'51"S:14[degrees]07'28"E, sweeping marginal grasses and sedges, 23-26.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais (in alcohol, NMWC); 1 [male] 3 [female] Khorixas District, Huab R. at Krone 721, 20[degrees]37'09"S:13[degrees]54'31"E, sweeping grasses and sedges, 2326.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (in alcohol, NMNW); 1 [male] Khorixas District, Huab R. at Vrede 19, 20[degrees]24'00"S: 14[degrees]10'16"E, 26.x.1998, swept from fresh elephant dung, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [female] Skeleton Coast Park, Kunene R. mouth, 17[degrees]15'97"S:11[degrees]46'83"E, sweeping marginal grasses and reeds on flood plain, 1718.iii.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 19 Brandberg, Messum Valley, alt. 700 m, 21[degrees]13'29"S:14[degrees]30'98"E, 3.iv.1999, S. van Noort & S.G. Compton, Malaise trap, Bushy-Karoo-Namib shrubland (in alcohol, NMWC); 1 [male] Kahn R., 8 km N Usakos, 30-31.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (29) B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH); 2 [male] 1 [female] nr Onseepkans, Orange R. banks, 8-10.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W1) B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH); 1 [male] 1 [female] Walvis Bay, 25-26.i.1972, pool edge in dunes, Southern African Expedition (W24) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 73 [male] 114 [female] Swakopmund, general sweeping, 26-30.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W25) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 2 [male] 4 [female] Swakopmund, swept vegetation around sewage farm settling tanks, 26-30.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W25) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 12 [male] 8 [female] Walvis Bay, pool edge in dunes, 25-26.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W27) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 1[male] Otjitambi farm, 47 km ESE Kamanjab, 13-15.ii.1972, Southern African Expedition (W37) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 1 [female] Onguma farm, 55 miles NW Tsumeb, 17-19.ii.1972, Southern African Expedition (W43) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 1 [female] Luderitz District, Agate Beach, 10 km N Luderitz, alt. 3 m, low coastal vegetated dunes, 18.ii.1974, M.E. and B.J. Irwin (NMSA); 1 [male] 2 [female] Luderitz, alt. 20 m, 14.ix.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [male] 1 [female] Orange R., 25 km Rosh Pinah, 28[degrees]05'S:16[degrees]24'E, 15.ix.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI). SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: 1 [male] Sandfontein Coast, west of Van Rhynsdorp, 15-17.x.1964, B. & P. Stuckenberg (NMSA).

Distribution: Middle East, Egypt, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa.

Aphaniosoma flavescens sp. n. Figs 41, 42

Etymology: From Latin flavus (yellow), and refers to entirely yellow colour of the body and postabdominal structures of this species.

Diagnosis: Entirely yellow species, with distance between crossveins on wing about as long as posterior crossvein and length of apical section of vein Cu a little more than 3x length of posterior crossvein; male postabdomen also yellow with broad surs clearly visible and large psg truncate at tip in lateral view.

Description:

Male.

Head: Entirely yellow, including oc triangle, fr broad but converging anteriorly so that at level of antennae it is about 0.7 as wide as at level of anterior oc, face small, depressed and with distinct, narrow but low facial carina, eye oval lying oblique, gena yellow, at middle about 0.5 height of eye and having numerous golden yellow setulae that are longer than is usual in this genus, in this species longer than orb, 2 short setae at vibrissal corner, mouthparts yellow, 2 setulae on fr with 1 pair of longer setulae in front of oc triangle, 4 short orb getting progressively shorter from back to front, 1 vti and 1 vte, pvt distinct and convergent, ocellars long, divergent, antenna yellow, most of second segment of arista dark.

Thorax: Scutum, scut, pleura and mtn entirely yellow. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn, 1 posthu, 1 ihu, 2 ntpl, 0-1+2-3 ia, 1+5 acrs, 4+4 dc only the posterior one well-developed, prpl short, 1 pa, 2 pairs of marginal scut, 1 katepisternal with several setulae on anterior part of sclerite, 1 anepisternal, all setae pale yellow to pale brown.

[FIGURE 41 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 42 OMITTED]

Wing: Hyaline and uniformly microtrichose, veins yellow, distance between [R.sub.2+3] to [R.sub.4+5] on costal margin about 0.4 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], distance between crossveins about 0.9x length of posterior crossvein and length of apical section of Cu about 3.2x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere yellow.

Legs: Entirely yellow and fine yellow setulose.

Abdomen: Entirely yellow.

Postabdomen: Yellow with relatively broad surs clearly visible.

Female.

As male, but tarsomere 5 darkened and several specimens have tarsomeres 3 and 4 also darkened. Postabdomen: tg 8 divided into two lateral sclerites; st 8 membraneous; hypr not recognizable; spermatheca with short sclerotized section of duct.

Length: [male] body 1.1 mm, wing 1.4 mm; [female] body 1.4 mm, wing 1.5 mm.

Holotype: [male] NAMIBIA: Skeleton Coast Park, Kunene R. mouth, 17[degrees]15'97"S:11[degrees]46'83"E, sweeping marginal grasses and reeds on flood plain, 17-18.iii.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW).

Paratypes: NAMIBIA: 7 [male] 1 [female] same data as holotype (NMNW); 12 [male] 3 [female] same data (in alcohol, NMNW); 5 [male] 1 [female] same data (in alcohol, NMWC); 2 [male] 5 [female] nr Onseepkans, Orange R. banks, 8-10.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W1) B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH); 1 [male] 4 [female] Walvis Bay, 25-26.i.1972, pool edge in dunes, Southern African Expedition (W24) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 1 [male] Khorixas District, Gai-As spring, 20[degrees]46'01"S: 14[degrees]01'12"E, 22.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais (NMNW); 1[ [male] 4 [female] Khorixas District, Huab R. at Krone, 721, 20[degrees]37'09"S:13[degrees]54'31"E, sweeping grasses and sedges, 23-26.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [male] Skeleton Coast, Kunene R. mouth, 17[degrees]16'S:11[degrees]47'E, 20-22.iv.1994, yellow tray (water trap), E. Marais (in alcohol, NMWC); 1 [female] Omaruru District, Ugab R., 2 km W Brandberg Wes, 20[degrees]58'05"S: 14[degrees]06'36"E, 22-24.x.1998, Malaise trap, A. Kirk-Spriggs & E. Marais (in alcohol, NMWC); 3 [male] 1 [female] Walvis Bay, alt. 5 m, 22[degrees]60'S:14[degrees]28'E, 6.ix.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [male] Gobabeb, Kuseib R., 23[degrees]34'S:15[degrees]03'E, 5.ix.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI).

Aphaniosoma frequens sp. n. Figs 43, 44

Etymology: From Latin frequens (frequent), denoting its common and widespread occurrence in the samples taken in Africa.

Diagnosis: Dark grey species with yellow fr and antennae, pleural sutures narrowly bordered with yellow, tarsomere 5 of all legs brown and male postabdomen with large, dark, broad psg, beaked at tip most often easily visible without dissection, prg st of unusual shape with midline process at apex and distiph with long divergent lobes.

Description:

Male.

Head: Yellow, ocp dark grey except for narrow yellow postocular border, oc triangle dark grey, fr broad but converging anteriorly so that at level of antennae it is about 0.6 as wide as at level of anterior oc, face small, depressed and with distinct, narrow but low facial carina, eye oval lying oblique, gena yellow, at middle about 0.6 height of eye and having numerous pale setulae, 2 short setae at vibrissal corner, mouthparts small, yellow, 6 setulae scattered on fr with 2 pairs of longer setulae in front of oc triangle, 4 orb getting progressively shorter from back to front, 1 vti and 1 vte, pvt distinct and convergent, oc long, divergent, antenna yellow, most of second segment of arista dark.

Thorax: Scutum, scut and mtn entirely dark grey, pprn and ntpl yellow, pleura mostly dark grey, but for narrow yellow margins to sutures. Chaetotaxy: 1 pprn, 1 posthu, 1 ihu, 2 ntpl, 0+2 ia, 2+5 acrs, 2+4 dc only the posterior two well-developed, prpl distinct, 1 pa, 2 pairs of marginal scut, 1 katepisternal with shorter seta in front and several setulae on anterior part of sclerite, 1 anepisternal, all setae pale yellow to pale brown. Wing: Hyaline and uniformly microtrichose, veins pale brown, distance between [R.sub.2+3] to [R.sub.4+5] on costal margin about 0.5 that between [R.sub.4+5] and [M.sub.1+2], distance between crossveins about 1.3x length of posterior crossvein and length of apical section of Cu about 2.6x length of posterior crossvein. Haltere pale yellow.

Legs: Yellow and fine yellow setulose, tarsomere 5 of all legs brown.

Abdomen: Almost entirely dark brown, only the narrowly visible membrane between segments pale. Postabdomen: No distinguishing external features.

[FIGURE 43 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 44 OMITTED]

Female.

As male, but some specimens have a yellow longitudinal midline stripe on tg 6 & 7 (not a diagnostic feature as it is present in many species) as a result of partial desclerotization. Postabdomen: tg 8 closely attached to cerc, hypr large, but membraneous; st 8 thinly sclerotized

with middle section showing two very small tubercles with a microtrichium on each.

Length: [male] and [female] body 0.9 mm, wing 1.1 mm.

Variation: A few specimens are of a lighter grey on the thorax and those from St Helena have a pale scut.

Holotype: [male] NAMIBIA: Skeleton Coast Park, Kunene R. mouth, 17[degrees]15'97"S:11[degrees]46'83"E, sweeping marginal grasses and reeds on flood plain, 17-18.iii.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW).

Paratypes: NAMIBIA: 7 [male] 4 [female] same data as holotype (NMNW); 2 [male] 2 [female] nr Onseepkans, Orange R. banks, 8-10.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W0) B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH); 86 [male] 9 [female] Otjitambi farm, 47 km ESE Kamanjab, 13-15.ii.1972, Southern African Expedition (W37) BM 1972-1 (BMNH); 7 [male] 6 [female] nr Onseepkans, Orange R. banks, 8-10.i.1972, Southern African Expedition (W1) B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH); 6 [male] 2 [female] Kuiseb R. canyon, 22-23.i.1972, riverside vegetation, Southern African Expedition (W22) B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH); 19 Khorixas District, Gai-As spring, 20[degrees]46'01"S:14[degrees]01'12"E, 22.x.1998, A.H. KirkSpriggs & E. Marais (NMNW); 1 [male] 3 [female] Khorixas District, Huab R. at Krone 721, 20[degrees]37'09"S:13[degrees]54'31"E, sweeping grasses and sedges, 23-26.x.1998, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs (NMNW); 1 [male] 1 [female] Brandberg, Messum valley, alt. 700 m, 21[degrees]13'29"S:14[degrees]30'98"E, 3.iv.1999, S. van Noort & S.G. Compton, UV-light trap in sparsely vegetated river valley, Bushy-Karoo-Namib shrubland (in alcohol, NMWC); 11 [male] 4 [female] Windhoek District, Greylingshof 107, Gaub Canyon, 23[degrees]29'S:16[degrees]48'E, 2-3.x.1999, Malaise trap, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & T. Pape (NMNW). KENYA: 1 [male] Hunter's Lodge nr Kiboko, 02[degrees]14'S:37[degrees]43'E, 8-9.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [male] Simba, NBI-MSA rd, 02[degrees]09'S:37[degrees]34'E, 23.viii.2003, A. Freidberg (TAUI); 1 [male] 3 [female] Hunter's Lodge, 02[degrees]13'S:37[degrees]43'E, 13-16.ix.2005, A. Freidberg (TAUI). ST HELENA ISLAND: 1 [female] Sandy Bay, 17.ii.1962, A. Loveridge (BMNH); 2 [male] 4 [female] St Helena Island, 1963, A. Loveridge; all specimens are glued on a card on the same mount, one has been removed and macerated, and is preserved in a glycerine vial on the same pin (BMNH).

Remarks. The specimens from St Helena bear the identification label "Aphaniosoma approximatum, Becker, det. J.C. Deeming 1963". The identification was based on a dissected male and the available literature at the time. I re-examined this specimen, which, although a little faded, remains in good condition and the postabdomen matches that of frequens and not that of approximatum. There are minor differences in the hypopygial structures of the species from St Helena: the psg is very slightly broader, the lower edge of tg 6 is more pointed where this projects laterally from the plane of the tg, the distal end of the basiph is notched in both, but in the St Helena specimens it is slightly deeper. I do not consider these to be anything more than minor variations and, given the highly characteristic pregenital st and distiph being the same in both series, I consider the St Helena specimens merely a variation of frequens and not a sibling species or a subspecies.
Males

1   Scutellum with a pair of minute, covergent or crossed, strictly
    apical setulae, postabdomen Figs 28a-d               nitescens Frey

--  Scutellum without minute apical setulae                           2

2   Pregonite visible externally as a very long process lying along
    ventral margin of ep and having a number of setae at its apex     3

--  Pregonite of different shape, often not visible at all without
    dissection                                                        4

3   Pregonite ending in a fan of at least 5 setae; gena not strongly
    receding in profile; antennal segment 3 about 1/4 diameter of eye,
    Fig. 25a
                 eremicohim Ebejer (see Ebejer 2008a: 692, figs 17, 18)

--  prg ending in only 2 setae; gena strongly receding in profile;
    antennal segment 3 about 1/2 diameter of eye, Fig. 26a, postabdomen
    Fig. 26b                                        grandicornis sp. n.

4   Sternite 6 with long posteriorly directed lobes forming a
    U-shape, visible without dissection; ep with long setulae and near
    ventral margin with very long setae, postabdomen Fig.  29 setipygum
    sp. n.

--  Sternite 6 with no special modifications                          5

5   Antennal segment 3 about 1/3 diameter of eye; gena receeding in
    profile;prg larger and Y-shaped often partly visible externally,
    postabdomen Fig. 27a
                                                     messumensis sp. n.

--  Antennal segment 3 about 1/4 diameter of eye; gena not
    significantly receding in profile; prg small, narrow, not visible
    externally, postabdomen Fig. 24
                                                      awashensis sp. n.

Females

1   Scutellum with minute convergent or crossed apical setulae
                                                        nitescens Frey

--  Scutellum without minute crossed apical setulae                   2

2   Abdomen with pair of black spots on at least one of apical
    tergites                                                          3

--  Abdomen completely yellow, no spots on apical tergites or
    sternites                                                         5

3   Tergites and st 6 and 7, each with paired spots, st 8 with only a
    midline spot
                                           undescribed sp. (Madagascar)

--  Sternites without spots                                           4

4   Tergite 7 and dorsal aspect of segment 8, each with pair of small
    round black spots; rarely, missing on segment 8; antennal segment 3
    about 1/3 diameter of eye and narower than gena at its middle; gena
    not significantly receding, postabdomen Figs 25b-d
                                                      eremicolum Ebejer

--  Only tg 7 with pair of black spots; antennal segment 3 about 1/4
    diameter of eye and about equal to height of gena at its middle;
    gena obviously receding, postabdomen Figs 27b, c messumensis sp. n.

5   Gena strongly receding and broad to about 1/3 height of eye;
    antennal segment 3 almost 1/3 diameter of eye; sclerites of segment
    8 only with microtrichia, appearing velvety; hypr bare or only with
    occasional and minute setulae that are very difficult to see,
    postabdomen Figs 26c, d                         grandicornis sp. n.

--  Gena in profile barely receding and narrow to about 1/4 height of
    eye; antennal segment 3 a little less than 1/3 diameter of eye;
    sclerites of segment 8 with setae                                 6

6   Paired sclerites of segment 8 with setae of similar length to
    adjacent setae on tg 7; hypr with setae not much shorter than those
    on sclerite 8, and stronger than those on cerci, postabdomen Fig.
   30                                                  setipygum sp. n.

--  Paired sclerites of segment 8 with shorter setae and hypr with
    setulae no longer than those on cerci       hirtiscutellatum (Lamb)


Key to the identification of African species of Aphaniosoma

1   Well-developed presutural ia seta present, similar in length to
    long prsut dc and posthu; 2 long posterior orb setae; a yellow
    species                                              harteni Ebejer

--  No well-developed presutural ia seta, if setula present in this
    position, then neither is it as long as posthu, nor is first dc
    well-developed                                                    2

2   Occiput, scutum and scutellum completely dark grey to black, or
    nearly so, at least no definite scutal stripes apparent, pleura
    mostly dark                                                       3

--  Scutum yellow with or without stripes, scutellum yellow and
    occiput yellow or, if brown around middle, then a clear pale
    postocular margin is easily visible                               5

3   Antennal segment 3 dark and contrasting with pale first 2
    segments and frons                                                4

--  Antennal segment 3 yellow, similar in colour to first 2 segments
    and frons; abdomen almost entirely dark brown, only membrane
    between segments yellow, postabdomen [male] Fig. 43, [female]
    Fig. 44                                             frequens sp. n.

4   Scutellar setae short, at most as long as scutellum; frontal
    setulae all more or less equal in length (no longer pair in front
    of oc triangle), postabdomen [male] Fig. 36a, [female] Figs 36b-d
                                                        atriceps sp. n.

--  Scutellar setae clearly longer than scutellum; frons with pair of
    setulae in front of oc triangle clearly longer than others
    scattered on frons, postabdomen [male] Fig. 50, [female] Fig. 51
                                                          pullum sp. n.

5   Occiput, scutum (except for longitudinal stripes), scutellum,
    anepisternum and anepimeron yellow                                6

--  At least occiput brown or black centrally, even if postocular
    margin broadly yellow anepisternum and anepimeron usually also
    partly darkened                                                  12

6   Abdomen yellow or almost so, at most tergites darkened at middle
    on basal segments and each brown band not more than about half
    length of tg, tarsomeres 5 usually yellow                         7

--  Abdomen predominantly brown in colour, tarsomeres 5 brown        10

7   Frons without pair of longer setulae in middle in front of oc
    triangle, all setulae of more or less equal length; yellow species
    with grey longitudinal scutal stripes, dark mtn and tarsomeres 5,
    postabdomen [male] Fig. 37, 9 Fig. 38             conspicuum sp. n.

--  Frons with one or two pairs of setulae about twice as long as
    others on frons                                                   8

8   Frons with one pair of frontal setulae (about twice as long as
    others) just in front of oc triangle, setulae on gena little longer
    than orb; mtn yellow; an entirely yellow species in the male,
    females may have darkened tarsomeres 3-5, postabdomen [male] Fig.
    41, [female] Fig. 42                              flavescens sp. n.

--  Frons with two pairs of longer setulae, one in front of oc
    triangle and one just above lunule; mtn dark                      9

9   Scutum with distinct dark brown to grey longitudinal stripes,
    [male] postabdomen Fig. 45                         gaiasicum sp. n.

--  Scutum yellow, any stripes are only of a deeper yellow colour,
    [male] postabdomen Fig. 55
                                                       ugabensis sp. n.

10  Frons with two pairs of longer setulae, one in front of oc
    triangle and one just above lunule; elongate slender eyes, about 2
    times as long as high in male and about 2 times in female; scut
    with dark lateral margin reaching base of subapical setae; abdomen
    yellow with light brown bands dorsally on tergites, [male]
    postabdomen Fig. 47
                                                    kirkspriggsi sp. n.

--  Frons with one pair of longer setulae, scut yellow laterally or
    at most lateral margin dark only at base; eye long oval, but not as
    much as in foregoing species                                     11

11  Two posthu setae, setulae and all setae except the longest very
    pale, almost white especially in males and on front half of body,
    darker in females; apical section of Cu about 2x length of
    posterior crossvein, postabdomen [male] Fig. 33, [female] Fig. 34
                                                     aldabrensis sp. n.

--  One posthu seta and short presutural ia setula; setae and setulae
    yellow to brown; apical section of Cu about 2.8x length of
    posterior crossvein, postabdomen [male] Fig. 48, [female] Fig. 49
                                                      micropygum sp. n.

12  Lateral margin of scut at base completely yellow (a small spot
    can be seen in specimens in alcohol), all tarsomeres yellow, pleura
    mostly yellow; hypopygium appearing mostly yellow; female with
    yellow margins to tergites becoming broader towards apex of
    abdomen, especially on sides                                     13

--  Lateral margin of scut at base with distinct black spot or short
    stripe, tarsomeres dark or pale, pleura usually with more extensive
    dark areas; hypopygium dark or pale; [female] abdomen with tergites
    having more extensive brown bands even at apex                   14

13  Two pairs of frontal setulae in front of oc triangle with hind
    pair appearing a little longer, but not longer than about 1/3
    length from its base to lunule, middle scutal stripes more or less
    pointed posteriorly; hypopygium with black distiph; female with tg
    1 and 2 often yellow, postabdomen [male] Fig. 39, [female] Fig. 40
                                                          fissum Collin

--  One pair of long frontal setae in front of oc triangle about half
    length from base to lunule, middle scutal stripes appearing
    truncate posteriorly; hypopygium all yellow, at most small brown
    spot on ep and distiph brown near junction with basiph; female with
    basal tergites dark brown, [male] postabdomen Fig. 52
                                                     suboculicauda Frey

14  Pair of long frontal setae very long, at least 2/3 length from
    base to lunule, scutal stripes appearing black even through
    pollinosity; hypopygium with brown ph; female with brown tergites
    to apex of abdomen, postabdomen [male] Fig. 53, [female] Fig. 54
                                                      trilobatum sp. n.

--  Frontal setae/setulae when present not longer than half distance
    from their base to lunule, scutum with brown to light brown or grey
    stripes; hypopygium pale (except dhofaricum); female abdomen with
    tergites having broader yellow hind margins especially on apical
    segments, laterally (except dhofaricum)                          15

15  Frons without a distinct pair of long setae in front of oc
    triangle; female with dark brown tergites to apex of abdomen     16

--  Frons with a pair of setae longer than others; female abdomen
    often with broader yellow hind margins especially on sides of
    apical segments (except dhofaricum)                              17

16  Hypopygium with very large black ph, easily seen in undissected
    specimens; narrow yellow surstyli, postabdomen [male] Fig. 31,
    [female] Fig. 32                                    aethiops sp. n.

--  Hypopygium with pale brown ph, not easily seen without
    dissection; long yellow sinuous surstyli          lamellatum Collin
    [Females of aethiops, lamellatum and dhofaricum are very difficult
    to separate]

17  Scutal stripes dark brown to black even when seen through scutal
    pollinosity; hypopygium with large black ph and long narrow black
    postgonites; female with apical segments of abdomen dark
                                                      dhofaricum Ebejer

--  Scutal stripes appearing paler owing to dense greyish
    pollinosity, more confluent anteriorly; hypopygium almost entirely
    pale brown to yellow; female abdomen with broader yellow hind
    margins, especially on sides of apical segments                  18

18  Scutum with dense greyish white pollinosity, scutal stripes
    grey, middle pair appearing truncate posteriorly, setae pale
    yellowish white and setulae over whole body and legs mostly white,
    postabdomen [male] Figs 46a, b, [female] Figs 46c, d
                                                      gallagheri Ebejer

--  Scutum with brownish yellow, less dense pollinosity, scutal
    stripes brown to black, middle pair appearing pointed posteriorly,
    setae brown to pale brown and most setulae on body and legs pale
    yellowish brown, [female] postabdomen Fig. 35
                                                    approximatum Becker
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