A proposed process for experiencing visual images of targets during an ESP task/Un posible proceso en la experimentacion de imagenes visuales durante una tarea PES/Proposition d'un processus pour faire l'experience d'images visuelles de cibles durant une tache d'ESP/Vorschlag, wie sich die aufnahme visueller bilder van zielobjekten wahrend einer ASW-Aufgabe erfassen lasst.
Abstract: Experiencing a visual image of a target occurs in ganzfeld and remote viewing experiments as well as in spontaneous cases. However, little is known about how participants generate these images. At the beginning of an ESP task, participants try to imagine and anticipate seeing a target. This leads to the priming of the representation of the target's ostensible properties in the brain. The primary visual cortex serves the function of binding perceptual information across different areas of the brain to construct an image of the target. Next, the frontal lobe processes the stored structure in memory's cortical areas and sends a signal to the inferior temporal lobes to activate a representation of the target, creating a visual image. This image is formed when visual memories are activated, which is a precursor of the visual experience. Activation of area V1 is followed by activation of the higher visual areas, which creates the visual ESP experience. Conclusions and suggestions for future research are provided.

Keywords: ESP, visual imagery, primary visual cortex, V1, higher visual cortex, memory

El experimentar una imagen visual de un objetivo se produce en los experimentos de ganzfeld y vision remota, asi como en casos espontaneos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre como generan los participantes estas imagenes. En el comienzo de una tarea PES, los participantes tratan de imaginary anticipar ver al objetivo. Esto lleva a la estimulacion de la representacion de las propiedades aparentes del objetivo en el cerebro. La corteza visual primaria cumple la funcion de enlazar la informacion perceptual a traves de las distintas areas del cerebro para construir una imagen del objetivo. A continuacion, el 1obulo frontal procesa la estructura almacenados en las areas corticales de la memoria y envia una serial a los lobulos temporales inferiores para activar una representacion del objetivo, creando una imagen visual. Esta imagen se forma cuando las memorias visuales se activan, coma precursoras de la experiencia visual. La activacion del area V1 es seguida par la activacion de las zonas visuales superiores, que crean la experiencia visual PES. Proporciono conclusiones y sugerencias para futuras investigaciones.

Faire l'experience d'une image visuelle d'une cible se produit dans les experimentations de Ganzfeld et de Remote Viewing ainsi que dans les cas spontanes. Toutefois, on sait peu de chases sur la facon dont les participants generent ces images. Au debut d'une tache d'ESP, les participants essayent d'imaginer et d'anticiper la vision d'une cible. Cela mene a une amorce de representation des proprietes ostensibles de la cible dans le cerveau. Le cortex visuel primaire a pour fonction de relier l'information perceptuelle a travers differentes zones du cerveau pour construire une image de la cible. Ensuite, le lobe frontal traite la structure stockee dans les aires corticales de la memoire et envoie un signal au lobe temporal inferieur pour activer une representation de la cible, creant une image visuelle. L'image est formee lorsque les souvenirs visuels sont actives, ce qui est un precurseur de l'experience visuelle. L'activation de l'aire V1 est suivie par l'activation des aires visuelles superieures, qui cree l'experience visuelle d'ESP. Des conclusions et des suggestions pour la recherche future sont fournies.

Visuelle Bilder van einem Zielobjekt werden im Ganzfeld, bei Fernwahrnehmungsexperimenten wie auch bei Spontanberichten erfahren. Jedoch ist wenig daruber bekannt, wie bei Teilnehmern diese Bilder zustandekommen. Zu Beginn einer ASW-Aufgabe versuchen die Teilnehmer, sich das Sehen des Zielobjekts vorzustellen und zu antizipieren. Dies fuhrt im Gehirn zum Aufruf der Reprasentation der scheinbaren Eigenschaften des Zielobjekts. Zu den Aufgaben des primaren visuellen Cortex' gehort das Verknupfen wahrnehmungsmassig gewonnener Informationen uber verschiedene Hirnareale hinweg, um das Bild des Zielobjektes zu konstruieren. Als nachstes verarbeitet der Frontallappen die gespeicherte Struktur in den Kortikalgebieten des Gedachtnisses und sendet ein Signal zu den Schlafenlappen, um eine Reprasentation des Zielobjektes zu aktivieren, wobei ein visuelles Bild erzeugt wird. Dieses Bild kommt zustande, sobald visuelle Gedachtnisinhalte aktiviert werden, was zu einem Vorlaufer der visuellen Erfahrung fuhrt. Die Aktivierung von Areal V1 hat die Aktivierung der hoheren visuellen Gebiete zur Folge, was zur visuellen ASW-Erfahrung fuhrt. Schlussfolgerungen sowie Vorschlage fur kunftige Forschungen werden unterbreitet.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Memory (Research)
Extrasensory perception (Research)
Parapsychology (Research)
Author: Shiah, Yung-Jong
Pub Date: 03/22/2011
Publication: Name: The Journal of Parapsychology Publisher: Parapsychology Press Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Psychology and mental health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Parapsychology Press ISSN: 0022-3387
Issue: Date: Spring, 2011 Source Volume: 75 Source Issue: 1
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 263250463
Full Text: Extra-sensory perception (ESP) is sometimes assumed to be active all the time (e.g., Carpenter, 2005). It has been suggested that ESP is an ability through which one might perceive a stream of subtle and weak information units from a variety of sources, resulting in a meaningful representation (Carpenter, 2004; Roll & Persinger, 1998; Schmeidler, 1991; Stanford, 1990; Stevens, 2002). ESP is commonly manifested as visual images, and the available evidence indicates that the experience of target-related visual imagery plays a crucial role in ESP performance. For instance, participants are asked to image remote targets when exposed to ganzfeld stimulation (Bem & Honorton, 1994; Bern, Palmer, & Broughton, 2001; Palmer, 2003; Storm & Ertel, 2001; Utts, 1995), in remote viewing (Dunne & Jahn, 2005; Puthoff & Targ, 1976), and in dream research (Sherwood & Roe, 2003). Spontaneous cases also commonly involve visual impressions (Honorton, Tierney, & Torres, 1974; Roll & Persinger, 1998; Stanford, 1974, 1990; Stevenson, 1970).

Two main approaches, Irwin's (1978a, 1978b, 1979) information processing model and Carpenter's (2004, 2005) first sight model, illustrate what is involved in participants' visual experience of targets. There are two stages. In the first stage, ESP information enters the brain via unknown sensory mechanisms. In the second stage, this information interacts with target-relevant memories, resulting in the experience of targets-related visual images. This process is likely similar to the process of creating visual information in the brain in nonpsi contexts. However, a full theoretical account of the possible neural and biophysical mechanisms that underlie the experience of target-related visual images has never been proposed. Below, I propose a process to explain visual ESP experiences.

A Proposed Process for Visual Experience in ESP

ESP and Memory

One component of ESP is retrieved memories (Blackmore, 1980; Roll, 1966; Stanford, 1970), especially long-term memories (Irwin, 1979). Many studies confirm the positive relationship between memory and ESP (Rao, Kanthamani, & Palmer, 1990; Rao, Morrison, & Davis, 1977; Rao, Morrison, Davis, & Freeman, 1977; Roll & Persinger, 1998; Stanford, 1970). Memory seems to serve the function of organizing stimuli and responding to those considered important (Roll & Persinger, 1998), the importance being based primarily on relevance (Carpenter, 2005; Irwin, 1978b). The information is then processed to determine whether it emerges in consciousness (Irwin, 1978a) as a visual image (Broughton, 2006). It has been suggested that ESP and memory are parallel processes (Carpenter, 2005).

The aim of the proposed neurophysiological account of visual experience is to identify the locations where the perceived information is integrated and stored.

Visual Imagery and Retrieving Memories

Visual imagery occurs when perceptual information is retrieved from memory; this process is often referred to as "seeing with the mind's eye" (Kosslyn, Ganis, & Thompson, 2001). The visual representation of a perceived object is considered to "depict" the object rather than describe it, leading to a picture-like reconstruction (Kosslyn, 2005). The physical qualities of the object (shape, color, and texture) are stored in long-term memory, the locus of which is believed to be the inferior temporal lobes (Thompson, Kosslyn, Sukel, & Alpert, 2001). The posterior parietal cortex is believed to be where spatial properties (the relative positions of objects in space) are processed (Kosslyn, 2005).

Neuroimaging studies of visual imagery indicate that activation occurs in the primary visual cortex (V1 or V2; Kosslyn et al., 1999; Kosslyn & Thompson, 2003; Thompson et al., 2001). This part of the brain receives input from the eyes via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; Tong, 2003), suggesting that V1 processes perceptions and low-level images. The visual image of an object's properties activates the visual cortex. On the other hand, the visual image of a spatial representation does not activate the primary visual cortex because it is stored in the posterior parietal cortex (Kosslyn & Thompson, 2003). Following the processing routes noted before, the visual information is carried to the posterior parietal cortex, where the spatial properties of the object are processed. This discovery of the role of activation in V1 has led to the conclusion that the primary visual cortex supports representation during visual imagery (Kosslyn, 2005; Kosslyn & Thompson, 2003), implying that we can create an image through volition or will, without perception.

Kreiman, Koch, and Fried (2000) found that approximately 90% of single neurons demonstrated the same selectivity during perception as in the generation of visual imagery. Similar results were obtained in an fMRI study, where over 90% of the locations across the brain were activated at the same time (Ganis, Thompson, & Kosslyn, 2004). Cortical stimulation of V1 in the blind leads to the experience of a spot of light (Brindley & Lewin, 1968; Dobelle & Mladejovsky, 1974; Merabet, Rizzo, Amedi, Somers, & Pascual-Leone, 2005). Taken together, this evidence supports the existence of a real image appearing in one's mind (Kosslyn & Thompson, 2003).

A possible explanation of visual imagery is that the anticipation of seeing an object leads to the priming of the representation of the object's properties in the brain (Kosslyn, 2005). Visual imagery occurs when one expects to see an object, with the result that a depictive representation of the object is created in the primary visual cortex. First, the frontal lobe processes the stored structure in cortical areas devoted to memory. A signal is then sent to the inferior temporal lobes to activate representation of the object (Kosslyn, 2005). This activation propagates backward to form a depictive representation in the visual cortex.

The primary visual cortex may be activated by anticipating perception of an object. Thus, visualizing what one desires can easily create or distort a perception (Kosslyn & Thompson, 2003).

The Roles of V1 and the Higher Visual Areas

Which locations in the brain are best suited to receive perceived information and integrate stored information? The best candidate for receiving perceived information is V1 and the best candidate for integrating stored information is the higher visual areas, which include the posterior extrastriate areas V2, V3, V3A, V4, V5, as well as the parieto-occipital and posterior intraparietal visual areas.

Visual stimuli are absorbed by photoreceptors in the retina, and then the output neurons of the retina transmit the input to the primary cortex in two major ways. About 90% of the output from the retina flows to the LGN and then to V1, whereas the remaining 10% is projected to the superior colliculus and then to the pulvinar, reciprocally connecting with the extrastriate areas surrounding the primary visual cortex (Tong, 2003).

The brain is a very highly connected network that is subject to feedforward and feedback connections, leading to a high degree of interaction (Crick & Koch, 2003). V1, in particular, has well-organized connections with multiple areas in the brain. It connects not only with the higher visual areas, but it also receives feedback exclusively from the motion-sensitive areas of the extrastriate cortex, the superior temporal sulcus, the superior temporal polysensory areas, the inferotemporal cortex, the parahippocampal gyrus, the lateral intraparietal area, the frontal eyefields, and the auditory cortex (Tong, 2003). In other words, there is a very complex neural network that reaches out to other cortical areas. The detailed functions of V2, V3, V3A, V4 and V5 are described in a review paper by Grill-Spector and Malach (2004).

Evidence shows that the primary cortex is the place that integrates stored information. Activation of V1 has been observed in the blind during Braille reading (Cohen et al., 1997; Sadato et al., 1996), suggesting its functional involvement in tactile processing (Cohen et al., 1997). In other studies (Amedi, Raz, Pianka, Malach, & Zohary, 2003; Raz, Amedi, & Zohary, 2005), the possibility of visual imagery was ruled out by employing congenitally blind participants, as well as using abstract verbal tasks and episodic retrieval instead of Braille. The results show that V1 was activated during these verbal tasks, and there was a positive relationship between the magnitude of V1 activation and performance in the verbal memory tasks.

There is considerable evidence that the primary visual cortex is involved in the processing of tactile, auditory, and linguistic information in the blind (Merabet et al., 2005). Visual imagery has been implicated in the normal tactile perception of certain object properties (Klatzky, Lederman, & Reed, 1987; Sathian & Zangaladze, 2002; Sathian, Zangaladze, Hoffman, & Grafton, 1997). In these studies, normally sighted participants were asked to evoke visual imagery while touching objects hidden from their view. Visual imagery was found to enhance successful identification of the objects' spatial properties, such as shape and size. These processes provide the opportunity for information stored in memory and perceived information to interact with each other.

Visual Images of Targets in ESP Tasks

As earlier noted, the most convincing ESP evidence comes from studies using the ganzfeld technique, remote viewing, and certain spontaneous cases. Visual imagery induced by the ganzfeld has been associated with decreased alpha, or alpha suppression (Wackermann, Putz, & Allefeld, 2008; Wackermann, Putz, Buchi, Strauch, & Lehmann, 2002). There is also evidence from these studies that the primary visual cortex was activated at the time of the imagery. Moreover, alpha rhythms in the occipital lobe were elicited in a pair of proximal identical twins, and matching alpha rhythms were observed between distant identical twins (Duane & Behrendt, 1965). Other promising evidence comes from studies of presentiment (Radin, 1997, 1998), in which slow cortical potentials (SCPs) in the primary visual cortex are commonly used to predict future acquisition of information. SCPs were also shown to be significantly different in response to a light flash than in response to no flash (Radin & Lobach, 2007).

It is logical to infer that V1 is activated while participants experience visual images of targets during an ESP task, followed by activation of the higher visual cortex. ESP experiences are well known to be linked to temporal lobe activation (Persinger, 1984, 1989; Persinger & Valliant, 1985). Palmer and Neppe (2004) reported a positive relation between EEG anomalies in the temporal lobes and ESP in female neuropsychiatry patients. When 5 Hz, 8 Hz, 10 Hz, or 15 Hz flashing lights were presented to one of a pair of unrelated people, correlated EEG patterns over the right parietal region were found in response to yoked circumcerebral magnetic fields (Persinger et al., 2010).

There is evidence that the right hemisphere of the brain might be particularly involved in psi (Broughton, 1976, 1978; Ehrenwald, 1984; Roll & Persinger, 1998). Such right hemisphere involvement has been observed in ESP tests with the psychic Sean Harribance (Roll & Persinger, 1998). Along with the idea that the brain is a very highly connected network, it is reasonable to assume that the right temporo-parietal junction might be involved with various kinds of ESP experiences.

At the beginning of an ESP task, participants try to imagine and anticipate seeing a target. This leads to the priming of the representation of the target's ostensible properties in the brain. The role of success-related expectations can be seen in research on the "sheep-goat" effect (Schmeidler, 1952; Thalbourne, 1981). Sheep (who believe in the possibility of ESP) were found to score better on ESP tasks than goats (who do not believe in the possibility of ESP) in a meta-analysis (Lawrence, 1998). Sheep expect that the emerging of visual images will lead them to make a correct response which, in turn, makes them more willing to wait passively for potentially psi-mediated images of the target to emerge in consciousness, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (Bem & Honorton, 1994). Similarly in spontaneous cases, people may consciously or unconsciously anticipate relevant imagery.

Next, the frontal lobe processes the stored structure in memory's cortical areas and sends a signal to the inferior temporal lobes to activate a representation of the target, creating a visual image. This image is formed when visual memories are activated, which activation serves as a precursor of the visual experience in an ESP task. Activation of V1 is followed by activation of the higher visual areas.

In the meantime, this activation interacts with perceived information gathered from sensory input and/or associated thoughts in the cortical areas, although it is still unclear what this sensory input consists of. The primary visual cortex perceives sensory input, after which the visual image propagates backward to construct the image of the ESP target. It can be plausibly hypothesized that this visual imagery is equivalent to the visual experience in successful ESP performance, providing a meaningful representation of subtle paranormal and normal information from perception and memory. Visual imagery serves a functional role in enhancing the likelihood of successfully identifying targets by integrating the information flow from both sensory input and memory.

Conclusions and Future Research

The generation of visual imagery is a good way to extract information from normal and/or paranormal sensory input and memory. The diverse and rich cortical response interconnections to and from the primary visual cortex make this area a plausible locus for representations derived from information stored in memory and representations that have been activated by a currently unknown, but subtle, process. This process serves to construct visual ESP experiences.

Neurological data on the role of the primary visual cortex and temporo-parietal cortex in ESP are needed to test this assumption. One such test involves the use of transcranial magnetic stimulus (TMS). Given that TMS provokes long-term inhibition or facilitation of cortical excitability (Pascual-Leone et al., 1998), it would be very interesting to test people whose primary visual cortices are temporarily impaired or excited. Such a study would support the functional involvement of the primary visual cortex. Because this area is functionally involved in the visual ESP experience, TMS should either impair or enhance the experience. For example, a repetitive 0.33 Hz TMS has been shown to create deficits in visual perception tasks (Kammer, Puls, Strasburger, Hill, & Wichmann, 2005), and repetitive 1 Hz TMS has been shown to impair performance in visual imagery tasks (Kosslyn et al., 1999). Repetitive 10 Hz TMS has been used to increase cortical excitability in the motor cortex (M1) but decrease cortical activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) of the cortex (Pascual-Leone et al., 1997). In the same study, repetitive 1 Hz TMS increased cortical excitability in the SMA but decreased it in M1. Researchers can test the effect of TMS on ESP using any test paradigm aimed at evoking visual imagery, such as the ganzfeld, remote viewing, or dream research.

Nevertheless, many basic but important questions remain. What percentage of participants report visual experiences in ESP experiments? How often are such visual experiences associated with success on the ESP test? Some participants might express ESP in nonvisual ways, such as through feelings (Broughton, 2002; Stanford, 1990), intuition (Broughton, 2006; Broughton & Bourgeois, 2001), thoughts (Stanford, 1990), or presentiment (May, Paulinyi, & Vassy, 2005; McCraty, Atkinson, & Bradley, 2004a, 2004b; Radin, 1997, 1998, 2004; Radin & Lobach, 2006; Sartori, Massacessi, Martinelli, & Trissoldi, 2004). As noted above, it is common in presentiment research to use the skin conductance response (SCR) to detect precognitive information. Other measures that have been used are heart rate (McCraty et al., 2004a, 2004b; Sartori et al., 2004) and event-related potentials (ERPs; McCraty et al., 2004a, 2004b). Many researchers have successfully replicated these results (Bierman & Radin, 1997; Bierman & Scholte, 2002; May et al., 2005; Radin, 2004). These studies provide a possible explanation for how the emotional system perceives paranormal information (Broughton, 2004, 2006). In an fMRI distant healing study (Achterberg et al., 2005), recipients of healing intention from distant healers were shown to have activation of the anterior and middle cingulate area, the precuneus, and the frontal area. Additional research is needed to determine if ESP functions intrinsically in a perceptual-emotional-cognitive manner that is nonvisual. However, the possibility that these nonvisual ESP pathways might support the creation of visual ESP experiences cannot be disregarded.

According to one neuroscientific review of sleep (Hobson, 2002), dreaming is an illogical, hallucinatory, and emotional state. It involves widespread and complex networks that have been found in the primary visual cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior cingulate, ventral striatum, posterior cortices, thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, and hippocampus. The most intense dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During this stage, there is widespread activation of the brain, and imagery is generated internally, while external sensory input and motor output are effectively blocked (Hobson, 2004). This blocking of external sensory inputs suggests that REM might not be the best state for eliciting ESP and that other stages, particularly stage 1, might be more suitable. However, it must be noted that high-quality ESP during REM sleep was demonstrated in the famous Maimonides dream studies (Ullman, Krippner, & Vaughan, 1973).

In summary, I propose that visual ESP experiences result from the creation of imagery through the parallel interaction of normal/paranormal perceptions and information retrieved from memory. Further exploration of this topic would be of interest because it has the potential to advance our understanding of the ways in which humans take in and interpret information. This proposed process for the creation of genuine visual ESP experiences is intended to set the stage for uncovering important clues about the neural mechanisms that underlie the interaction of sensory information flows.

Acknowledgments

I gratefully acknowledge the Koestler Chair, the Parapsychology Foundation, and the British Society for Psychical Research, as well as Andy McKinlay and Si-Chen Lee for their support on my Ph.D. work that led to the ideas presented in this paper. I am also grateful to the Editor and anonymous referees for their helpful comments.

References

Achterberg, J., Cooke, K., Richards, T., Standish, L.J., Kozak, L., & Lake, J. (2005). Evidence for correlations between distant intentionality and brain function in recipients: A functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11, 965-971.

Amedi, A., Raz, N., Pianka, P., Malach, R., & Zohary, E. (2003). Early "visual" cortex activation correlates with superior verbal memory performance in the blind. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 758-766.

Bem, D.J., & Honorton, C. (1994). Does psi exist? Replicable evidence of an anomalous process of information transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 4-18.

Bem, D.J., Palmer, J., & Broughton, R. S. (2001). Updating the ganzfeld database: A victim of its own success? Journal of Parapsychology, 65, 207-218.

Bierman, D.J., & Radin, D. I. (1997). Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 689-690.

Bierman, D. J., & Scholte, H. S. (2002). Anomalous anticipatory brain activation preceding exposure to emotional and neural pictures. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 45th Annual Convention, 27-36.

Blackmore, S. J. (1980). Corrections between ESP and memory. European Journal of Parapsychology, 3, 127-147.

Brindley, G. S., & Lewin, W. S. J. (1968). The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. Journal of Physiology, 196, 479-493.

Broughton, R. S. (1976). Possible brain laterality effects on ESP performance. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 48, 384-399.

Broughton, R. S. (1978). Brain hemisphere differences in paranormal abilities: With special reference to the influence of experimenter expectancies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, UK.

Broughton, R. S. (2002). Telepathy: Revisiting its roots. Paper presented at the 40 Simposio da Fundacao Bial: Aquem e Alem do Cerebro: Relacoes Interpessoais Excepcionais, Porto, Portugal.

Broughton, R. S. (2004). Exploring the reliability of the presentiment effect. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 47th Annual Convention, 15-26.

Broughton, R. S. (2006). Memory, emotion and the receptive psi process. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 49th Annual Convention, 20-31.

Broughton, R. S., & Bourgeois, R. L. (2001). Exploring a tool for identifying intuitive talent for practical decision making. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 44th Annual Convention, 25-37.

Carpenter, J. C. (2004). First sight: Part one, a model of psi and the mind. Journal of Parapsychology, 68, 217-254.

Carpenter, J. C. (2005). First sight: Part two, elaboration of a model of psi and the mind. Journal of Parapsychology, 69, 63-112.

Cohen, L. G., Celnik, P., Pascual-Leone, A., Corwell, B., Faiz, L., Dambrosia, J., ... Hallett, M. (1997). Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans. Nature, 389, 180-183.

Crick, F., & Koch, C. (2003). A framework for consciousness. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 119-126.

Dobelle, W. H., & Mladejovsky, M. G. (1974). Phosphenes produced by electrical stimulation of human occipital cortex, and their application to the development of a prosthesis for the blind. Journal of Physiology, 243, 553-576.

Duane, T. D., & Behrendt, T. (1965). Extrasensory electroencephalographic induction between identical twins. Science, 150, 367.

Dunne, B. J., & Jahn, R. G. (2005). Consciousness, information, and living systems. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 51, 703-714.

Ehrenwald, J. (1984). Right-hemispheric vs. left-hemispheric approach in psychical research. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78, 29-39.

Ganis, G., Thompson, W. L., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2004). Brain areas underlying visual mental imagery and visual perception: An fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research, 20, 226-241.

Grill-Spector, K., & Malach, R. (2004). The human visual cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 649-677.

Hobson, J. A. (2002). The cognitive neuroscience of sleep: Neuronal systems, consciousness and learning. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 679-693.

Hobson, J. A. (2004). A model for madness? Nature, 430, 21.

Honorton, C., Tierney, L., & Torres, D. (1974). The role of mental imagery in psi-mediation. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 68, 385-394.

Irwin, H.J. (1978a). ESP and human information processing system. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 72, 111-126.

Irwin, H. J. (1978b). Psi, attention, and processing capacity. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 72, 301-313.

Irwin, H.J. (1979). On directional inconsistency in the correlation between ESP and memory. Journal of Parapsychology, 43, 31-39.

Kammer, T., Puls, K., Strasburger, H., Hill, N.J., & Wichmann, F. A. (2005). Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the visual system. I. The psychophysics of visual suppression. Experimental Brain Research, 160, 118-128.

Klatzky, R. L., Lederman, S., & Reed, C. (1987). There's more to touch than meets the eye: The salience of object attributes for haptics with and without vision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 356-369.

Kosslyn, S. M. (2005). Mental images and the brain. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 333-347.

Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., & Thompson, W. L. (2001). Neural foundations of imagery. Natural Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 635-642.

Kosslyn, S. M., Pascual-Leone, A., Felician, O., Camposano, S., Keenan, J. P., Thompson, W. L., ... Alpert, N. M. (1999). The role of area 17 in visual imagery: Convergent evidence from PET and rTMS. Science, 284, 167-170.

Kosslyn, S. M., & Thompson, W. L. (2003). When is early visual cortex activated during visual mental imagery? Psychological Bulletin, 129, 723-746.

Kreiman, G., Koch, C., & Fried, I. (2000). Imagery neurons in the human brain. Nature, 408, 357-361.

Lawrence, T. R. (1998). Gathering in the sheep and goats: A meta-analysis of forced choice sheep-goat ESP studies, 1947-1993 [Abstract]. In N. L. Zingrone, M. J. Schiltz, C. S. Alvarado, & J. Milton (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1993 (pp. 27-31). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

May, E. C., Paulinyi, T., & Vassy, Z. (2005). Anomalous anticipatory skin conductance response to acoustic stimuli: Experimental results and speculation about a mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11, 695-702.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., & Bradley, R. T. (2004a). Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: Part 1. The surprising role of the heart. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 133-143.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., & Bradley, R. T. (2004b). Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: Part 2. A system-wide process? Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 325-336.

Merabet, L. B., Rizzo, J. F., Amedi, A., Somers, D. C., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2005). What blindness can tell us about seeing again: Merging neuroplasticity and neuroprostheses. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 71-77.

Palmer, J. (2003). ESP in the ganzfeld: Analysis of a debate. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 51-68.

Palmer, J., & Neppe, V. M. (2004). Exploratory analyses of refined predictors of subjective ESP experiences and temporal lobe dysfunction in a neuropsychiatric population. European Journal of Parapsychology, 19, 44-65.

Pascual-Leone, A., Pujol, J., Deus, J., Capdevila, A., Tormos, J. M., & Valls-Sole, J. (1997). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor cortex activity during a rate controlled motor task as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neurology, 48, A106.

Pascual-Leone, A., Tormos, J. M., Keenan, J., Tarazona, F., Canete, C., & Catala, M. D. (1998). Study and modulation of human cortical excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 15, 333-343.

Persinger, M. A. (1984). Propensity to report paranormal experiences is correlated with temporal lobe signs. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 59, 583-586.

Persinger, M. A. (1989). Psi phenomena and temporal lobe activity: The geomagnetic factor. In L. A. Henkel & R. E. Berger (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1988 (pp. 121-156). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Persinger, M. A., Saroka, K. S., Lavallee, C. F., Booth, J. N., Hunter, M. D., Mulligan, B. P., ... Gang, N. (2010). Correlated cerebral events between physically and sensory isolated pairs of subjects exposed to yoked circumcerebral magnetic fields. Neuroscience Letters, 486, 231-234.

Persinger, M. A., & Valliant, P. M. (1985). Temporal lobe signs and reports of subjective paranormal experiences in a normal population: A replication. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60, 903-909.

Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R. (1976). Perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research. Proceedings of the IEEE, 64, 329-354.

Radin, D. I. (1997). Unconscious perception of future emotions: An experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11, 163-180.

Radin, D. I. (1998). Further investigation of unconscious differential anticipatory response to future emotions. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 49th Annual Convention, 162-183.

Radin, D. I. (2004). Electrodermal presentiments of future emotions. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 18, 253-275.

Radin, D. I., & Lobach, E. (2006). Presentiment in the brain. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 49th Annual Convention, 164-175.

Radin, D. I., & Lobach, E. (2007). Toward understanding the placebo effect: Investigating a possible retrocausal factor. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, 733-739.

Rao, K. R., Kanthamani, H., & Palmer, J. (1990). Exploring normalparanormal interaction within a memory-ESP testing paradigm. Journal of Parapsychology, 54, 245-259.

Rao, K. R., Morrison, M., & Davis, J. W. (1977). Paired-associates recall and ESP: Study of memory and psi-missing. Journal of Parapsychology, 41, 165-189.

Rao, K. R., Morrison, M., Davis, J. W., & Freeman, J. A. (1977). Role of association in memory-recall and ESP. Journal of Parapsychology, 41, 190-197.

Raz, N., Amedi, A., & Zohary, E. (2005). V1 activation in congenitally blind humans is associated with episodic retrieval. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 1459-1468.

Roll, W. G. (1966). ESP and memory. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 2, 505-525.

Roll, W. G., & Persinger, M. A. (1998). Is ESP a form of perception? Contribution from a study of Sean Harribance. Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 41th Annual Convention, 199-209.

Sadato, N., Pascual-Leone, A., Grafman, J., Ibanez, V., Deiber, M.-P., Dold, G., & Hallet, M. (1996). Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects. Nature, 380, 526-528.

Sartori, L., Massacessi, S., Martinelli, M., & Trissoldi, P. E. (2004). Physiological correlates of ESP: Heart rate differences between targets and nontargets. Journal of Parapsychology, 68, 351-360.

Sathian, K., & Zangaladze, A. (2002). Feeling with the mind's eye: Contribution of visual cortex to tactile perception. Behavioral Brain Research, 135, 127-132.

Sathian, K., Zangaladze, A., Hoffman, J. M., & Grafton, S. T. (1997). Feeling with the mind's eye. Neuroreport, 8, 3877-3881.

Schmeidler, G. R. (1952). Personal values and ESP scores. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 757-761.

Schmeidler, G. R. (1991). Perceptual processing of Psi: A model. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 85, 217-236.

Sherwood, S. J., & Roe, C. A. (2003). Review of dream ESP studies conducted since the Maimonides dream ESP programme. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 85-109.

Stanford, R. G. (1970). Extrasensory effects upon memory. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 64, 161-186.

Stanford, R. G. (1974). Experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi events. 1. Extrasensory events. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 68, 34-57.

Stanford, R. G. (1990). An experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi events: A review of related evidence and concepts from parapsychology and other sciences. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in Parapsychological Research 6 (pp. 54-167). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Stevens, P. (2002). Can we differentiate between ESP and imagination? Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 66, 239-246.

Stevenson, I. (1970). Telepathic impressions. Proceedings of the American Society f or Psychical Research, 29, 1-198.

Storm, L., & Ertel, S. (2001). Does psi exist? Comments on Milton and Wiseman's (1999) meta-analysis of ganzfeld research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 424-433.

Thalbourne, M. A. (1981). Extraversion and the sheep-goat variable: A conceptual replication. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 75, 105-119.

Thompson, W. L., Kosslyn, S. M., Sukel, K. E., & Alpert, N. M. (2001). Mental imagery of high- and low-resolution gratings activates area 17. Neuroimage, 14, 545-564.

Tong, F. (2003). Primary visual cortex and visual awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 219-229.

Ullman, M., Krippner, S., & Vaughan, A. (1973). Dream telepathy. New York: Macmillan.

Utts, J. M. (1995). An assessment of the evidence for psychical functioning. Journal of Parapsychology, 59, 289-320.

Wackermann, J., Putz, P., & Allefeld, C. (2008). Ganzfeld-induced hallucinatory experience, its phenomenology and cerebral electrophysiology. Cortex, 44, 1364-1378.

Wackermann, J., Putz, P., Buchi, S., Strauch, I., & Lehmann, D. (2002). Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: Ganzfeld and hypnagogic states. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 46, 123-146.

Psychology Department

Kaohsiung Medical University

No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road,

Kaohsiung, 807, Taiwan

shiah@kmu.edu.tw
Gale Copyright: Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.