The holarctic species of the Delia alaba subsection, with descriptions of two new species (diptera: anthomyiidae).
Article Type: Report
Subject: Diptera (Research)
Authors: Xue, Wan-qi
Du, Jing
Pub Date: 04/01/2009
Publication: Name: Entomologica Americana Publisher: New York Entomological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences; Science and technology Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 New York Entomological Society ISSN: 1947-5136
Issue: Date: April, 2009 Source Volume: 115 Source Issue: 2
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: China Geographic Code: 9CHIN China
Accession Number: 257814198
Full Text: Abstract.--Two new species are described, Delia subatrifrons Xue and Du n. sp., and Delia fimbrifascia Xue and Dun. sp. A revised D. alaba subsection of the D. frontella section is studied and a key to this subsection is included.

Key words: Diptera, Anthomyiidae, Delia, alaba subsection, new species.

INTRODUCTION

Delia is one of the larger genera of muscoid family Anthomyiidae. It was established by Robineau-Desvoidy in 1830 as a subgenus of Hylemyia, and Delia floricola was designated as the type species by Coquillett in 1910. During the 20th century, researchers from outside China revised the genus, such as Ackland (1967), Hennig (1974) and Suwa (1974, 1977). The Nearctic Region taxa were listed by Griffiths (1991) and the Palaearctic species by Dely-Draskovits (1993). Following the work of these researchers, Chinese workers have described many species from China, and Xue has summarized them in Flies of China (1998).

The species of the D. alaba subsection are essentially Palaearctic in distribution, except for D. alaba, which is presently known only from the Holarctic. Because the natural subdivision of Delia is still unclear, it seems premature and unwise to formally recognize subgenera. Griffiths (1991) recognized a series of eight sections that occur in the Nearctic Region. The D. alaba subsection, which is the focus of this study, is a part of the D. frontella section. Species in this subsection differ from other Delia in an obvious feature: the 5th sternite carries typically 3 blunt spines on inner margins. There are 10 described species (9 Palaearctic and 1 Holarctic) in the D. frontella subsection. Here, we recognize three groups within Delia on the basis of the morphology of the male 5th sternite and terminalia: 1) the D. alaba group, which includes D. alaba (Walker, 1849), D. takizawai Suwa, 1974, D. gracilibacilla Chen, 1981, D. seticauda Suwa, 1974, D. bacilligera Hennig, 1974; 2) the D. longitheca group, which includes D. canalis Fan and Wu, 1984, D. parvicanalis Fan, 1984, D. atrifrons Fan, 1981, D. longitheca Suwa, 1974; and 3) the monotypic group, which contains only D. coei Ackland, 1967. In addition, we also describe two new Palaearctic species in the longitheca group: D. subatrifrons Xue and Du n. sp. and D. fimbrifascia Xue and Du n. sp., and provide a key to the 12 known species of Delia alaba subsection.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Morphological terminology follows that of McAlpine (1981). Abbreviations for terms used in this study are: a, anterior setae; acr, acrostichal setae; ad, anterodorsal setae; av, anteroventral setae; d, dorsal setae; dc, dorsocentral setae; ial, intra-alar setae; p, posterior setae; pd, posterodorsal setae; post acr, postsutural acrostichal setae; post de, postsutural dorsocentral setae; pra, prealar setae; prst acr, presutural acrostichal setae; prst dc, presutural dorsocentral setae; pv, posteroventral setae; and R4+5, branch of Radius.

Type specimens are deposited in the Diptera collection of the Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University (IESNU).

KEY TO MALES OF THE DELLA ALABA SUBSECTION

Delia fimbrifascia, new species Fig. 1

DESCRIPTION: Male: Body length 5.0-5.5 mm. COLORATION AND STRUCTURE: Head: Eye bare; frontal vitta black, with black pruinosity, about equal to width of fronto-orbital plate; frons about 1.5 times wider than anterior ocellus; frontal vitta with pair of interfrontal setae; without orbital setae; 5 pairs of frontal setae, situated on lower half of frons; parafacial about 1.3 times wider than postpedicel; antenna black, postpedicel about 2.5 times longer than broad; arista short plumose, most aristal setae about 1/2 length of its basal diameter; facial ridge low and flat, lower facial margin slightly projecting, with anterior margin of frons in same vertical plane; gena sparsely covered with dark gray pruinosity, genal height about 1/4 eye height; anterior margin of gena with 2-3 rows of upcurved subvibrissal setulae; postocular setae extending to ventral surface, the upper lateral area of the occiput hairy; proboscis slender, prementum shiny, about 3.0 times longer than broad; palpus black, about 4/5 length of prementum. Thorax: Black in ground color with dark gray pruinosity; scutum with 5 distinct black vittae, the inner vitta reaching scutoscutellar suture; 2 rows of hair-like prst acr (the second pair stronger), only 1 pair of post acr developed, these situated in front of scutellum, dc 2+3, ial 0+2, with 1 pair of outer posthumeral setae; pra about 1.5 times longer than posterior notopleural seta; scutellum without spots, ventral margins with some long pale setae apically; anterior anepisternal setae absent; notopleuron, basisternum of prosternum, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron bare; both anterior and posterior spiracles small and fuscous; katepisternal seta 1+3. Wing: Base fuscous, basicosta black; costa setulose only basally on ventral surface; costal spine shorter than cross-vein r-m; radial node bare, calypters brown; lower calypter slightly shorter than upper one; halter yellow. Legs: Entirely black; fore tibia with 2 medial p; mid femur without distinct av rows, with row of seta-like a, complete row of pv, becoming shorter apically; mid tibia with 1 ad, 2 p, row of short and seta-like pd and 2 strong pv; mid tarsomere 1 with row of long pd, slightly longer than its diameter; hind femur with complete row of av, becoming shorter apically, only with pv on distal part; hind tibia with 7 av (3 short basally), row of ad (2-3 strong), row of pd (2 developed), and 6-7 pv on basal 3/5; all tarsi shorter than tibiae, claws and pulvilli large. Abdomen: Black, long cone-shaped in dorsal view, slightly fiat, apical part becoming expanded towards abdomen (Fig. 1A, B); all tergites with long and dense lateral setae; 6th tergite bare; 1st sternite densely with long fringes, 3rd and 4th sternite without dense and long setae (Fig. 1C); distal part of 5th sternite processes with long fringe-like setae, extending to apical part of abdomen (Fig. 1D); the characters of terminalia and aedeagus see Fig. 1E, F, G, H.

Female: Unknown.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is from the Latin word fimbr-, fringe, fasc-, bundle, referring to distal part of 5th sternite processes with long fringe-like setae, extending to apical part of abdomen.

DISCUSSION: This new species is closely related to Delia atrifrons Fan 1981, but differs from it in many features: male prementum about 3.0 times longer than broad; calypters brown; fore tibia with 2 medial p; mid femur with complete row of pv; mid tibia without av, 2 ad, row of short and seta-like pd and 2 strong pv; hind tibia with 7 av (3 short basally), row of ad (2-3 strong), row of pd (2 developed), and 6-7 pv on basal 3/5; distal part of inner margin of 5th sternite processes with 2 pairs of obtuse spines, and 1 pair of obtuse spines on margin of processes situated on the distal 1/3 of 5th sternite processes and 11-13 long setae on the distal part of lateral surface.

HOLOTYPE: CHINA: Yunnan Province: Baimang Snowberg, 4300 m, 28[degrees]16'49"N, 99[degrees]03'26"E, 7 July 2006, Liang Chang, 1[male].

PARATYPES: CHINA: Yunnan Province: Baimang Snowberg, 4500 m, 28[degrees]17'16"N, 99[degrees]04'50"E, 4 July 2006, Liang Chang, 2[male]'.

Delia subatrifrons, new species Fig. 2

DESCRIPTION: Male: Body length 4.2-5.0 mm. COLORATION AND STRUCTURE: Head: Eye usually bare, but with sporadic short hairs in some specimens, frons with black pruinosity, about 1.5--2.0 times wider than anterior ocellus, frontal vitta obliterated medially; fronto-orbital plate about 2.0 times as wide as frontal vitta; without inter frontal setae and upper orbital setae, 5-7 pairs of frontal setae on lower 3/4 of frons, upper pair short; parafacial about 1.2-1.5 times wider than flagellomere 1; antenna black, flagellomere 1 about 1.5-2.0 times longer than broad, arista pubscent, longest hairs as long as its basal diameter; facial ridge distinctly narrow, lower facial margin projecting, vibrissal angle and frontal angle placed behind lower facial margin in profile; gena covered with dark grey pruinosity, genal height about 1/7-2/9 of eye height; gena with 1-2 rows of upcurved peristomal setae; both postgenal and paragenal setae entirely black; postocular setae extending to ventral surface, the upper lateral area of the occiput with 2 rows of setae; proboscis slender; prementum shiny, sparsely with pruinosity basally, about 6-7 times longer than broad; palpus black, about 4/5 length of prementum. Thorax: Black with sap green luster, scutum indistinctly with 3 black vittae, prst acr hair-like, in 2 rows (sometimes the first pair distinct), only 1 pair of post act developed, located in front of scutellum, dc 2+3, ial 0+2, posthumeral seta l+0; pra longer than anterior notopleural seta, about 2.0 times longer than posterior notopleural seta; scutellum without spots, lower surface with some pale setae distally, without anterior anepisternal seta, notopleuron, basisternum, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron bare; both anterior spiracle and posterior spiracles small and grey-brown; katepisternal seta 1+2(3). Wing: Base black, basicosta grey-brown; costa setulose only basally on ventral surface, anterior surface with row of pectinate short spines, longest one equal to length of crossvein r-m; costal spine longer than crossvein r-m, radical node bare, calypters yellowish, lower about half length of upper one; halter brown-yellow. Legs: All black, fore tibia with setae-like ad and pd rows, with 1 long and well-developed apical d and 1 pv; mid femur without distinct av, seta-like a row in basal half, and complete row of pv; mid tibia with 1-2 av, with row of pectinate and seta-like ad, 2 pd and 1-2 pv; mid tarsomere 1 with row of long pd, longest setae about 2.5-3.0 times longer than its diameter; hind femur with row of av in distal 2/3, without pv; hind tibia with 4-8 av, with irregular row of ad (3 strong), two or three of 3-5 pd long and strong, row of long seta-like p, with 5-8 pv on middle part, without apical pv; all tarsi shorter than tibiae, claws shorter than pulvilli. Abdomen: Black, slightly with dark green luster, narrow basally, broad apically, flat dorsally and ventrally, globate-shaped in dorsal view, 2nd to 5th tergites with indistinct black trapezium spots on mid part, all tergites with developed lateral setae, becoming short medially (Fig. 2A, B); 1st sternite with long and dense fringes, in some specimens quadrate (Fig. 2C); 5th sternite protruding slightly, inner side of 5th sternite processes with large process on distal 1/3, 2 pairs of strong stick-like setae on it; with strong spine-like setae on distal part of lateral lobe, spine-like setae on pre-apical part short (Fig. 2D); the characters of terminalia see Fig. 2E, F; distiphallus distinctly sclerotized, pregonite without setae (Fig. 2G, H).

Female: Unknown.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name indicates its similarity to Delia atrifrons Fan, 1981.

DISCUSSION: This new species is related to Delia atrifrons Fan, 1981, but differs from it in many characters: frons about 1.5-2.0 times wider than anterior ocellus; fronto-orbital plate almost adjacent, about 2.0 times wider than frontal vitta, without inter frontal setae; palpus black, 4/5 length of prementum; pra longer than anterior notopleural seta, about 2.0 times longer than posterior notopleural seta; katepisternal seta 1+2(3); costal spine longer than crossvein r-m, anterior surface with a row of pectinate short spines, longest one equal to length of crossvein r-m; calypters brown yellow, lower one about half longer than upper one; 5th sternite protruding slightly, inner side of lateral lobe with large process on distal 1/3; distiphallus distinctly sclerotized, and pregonite without setae.

HOLOTYPE: CHINA: Yunnan Province: Baimang Snowberg, 4300 m, 28[degrees]16'49"N, 99[degrees]03'26"E, 7 July 2006, You Wang, 1;m.

PARATYPES: CHINA: Sichuan Province: Mt. Jiajin, 4100 m, 30[degrees]49'54"N, 102[degrees]59'38"E, 4 Aug 2005, Chang Liang, 2[female]. Yunnan Province: Baimang Snowberg, 4300 m, 28[degrees]16'49"N, 99[degrees]03'26"E, 7 July 2006, You Wang, 10. Baimang Snowberg, 4000-4300 m, 28[degrees]12'29"-28[degrees]16'49"N, 99[degrees]03'26"--99[degrees]04'50"E, 7 July 2006, Liang Chang, 6[male].

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 30870330) and the Foundation of Experimental Centre of Shenyang Normal University (No. SY200609). We are very grateful to Mr D. M. Ackland, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PW, UK, for his reading of this manuscript and valuable suggestions; to Dr. A. C. Pont, also from the Oxford University Museum of Natural History for his invaluable help over many years; and to Liang Chang and You Wang for providing the type specimens.

LITERATURE CITED

Ackland, D. M. 1967. Diptera from Nepal (Anthomyiidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology Series 20(4): 107-139.

Coquillett, D. W. 1910. The type-species of the North American genera of Diptera. Proceedings U.S. National Museum 37: 499-647.

Dely-Draskovits, A. 1993. Family Anthomyiidae. In: A. Soos and L. Papp (eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 13: 37-51.

Fan, Z. D., Chen, Z. Z., Ma, S. Y. and Wu, Y. 1981. On some new species of Anthomyiidae from China (Diptera). [In Chinese.] Contributions from Shanghai Institute of Entomology 2: 221-239.

Fan, Z. D., Chen, Z. Z., Ma, S. Y. and Wu, Y. 1984. New species of the family Anthomyiidae (Diptera) from Qinghai Province, China, I. [In Chinese.] Contributions from Shanghai Institute of Entomology 4: 239-253.

Griffiths, G. C. D. 1991. Anthomyiidae. In: C. D. G.

Graham (ed.), Flies of the Nearctic Region, Vol. VIII. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nagele u. Obermiller) Stuttgart, 953-1632.

Hennig, W. 1974. Anthomyiidae. In: E. Lindner (ed.), Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 63a: 687-920.

McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology--adults. In: J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E.

Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth and D. M. Wood (eds.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27: 9-63.

Robineau-Desvoidy, J. B. 1830. Essai sur les Myodaires. Memoires presentes par divers savans a l'Academie Royale des Sciences de l' Institut de France 2(2): 482.

Suwa, M. 1974. Anthomyiidae of Japan (Diptera). Insecta Matsumurana 4: 142-166.

Suwa, M. 1977. Anthomyiidae collected by the Hokkaido University Expeditions to Nepal Himalaya, 1968 and 1975 (Diptera). Insecta Matsumurana 10:17-51.

Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of Dipterous insects of the British Museum. London 4:689-1172.

Xue, W. Q. 1998. Anthomyiidae. In: W. Q. Xue and C. M. Chao (eds.), Flies of China. Vol. 1. [In Chinese.] Shenyang: Liaoning Science and Technology Press, 706-725.

Received 6 August 2007; accepted 12 June 2009

WAN-QI XUE (1) AND JING DU (2)

(1) Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, P.R. China

(2) College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, P.R. China

E-mail address for correspondence: xwqfly@sina. com
1. 5th sternite with blunt spines (generally 3) on
inner margins more distally placed; acrophallus
on distiphallus apparently membranous,
and paraphalli arising on distal section closer
to base; cercal plate with longer setae (shorter
in coei); surstylus slightly straight in profile
(alaba species group and coei)                      2

5th sternite with median blunt spine(s) on
inner margin medially placed, with another
spine apically; acrophallic structure partly
sclerotized and placed below extended paraphalli;
cercal plate with shorter setae; surstylus
sinuate in profile (longitheca species group)       7

2. Pra absent, fore tibia with 1 ad       bacilligera

--Pra present, fore tibia without ad                3

3. Pra longer than posterior notopleural seta,
sometimes longer than anterior notopleural
seta, if pra shorter than posterior notopleural
seta, wing with costal thorns distinct or rather
strong                                              4

--Pra equal or shorter than posterior notopleural
seta, wing with costal thorns indistinct            5

4. Wing with costal thorns distinct or rather
strong                                      seticauda

--Wing without costal thorns                takizawai

5. Katepisternal seta 1+3; mid tarsomere 1
without d                              gracilibacilla

--Katepisternal seta 1+2; mid tarsomere 1 with
d                                                   6

6. Legs wholly black, mid femur with complete
row of pv, upper calypter brownish suffused,
lower calypter paler                             coei

--Legs uniformly testaceous to dark brown, mid
femur with 3-5 pv on basal half, calypters
yellow to yellow-brown                          alaba

7. Hind tarsomere 1 with bare fossa                 8

--Hind tarsomere 1 without fossa                    9

8. Katepisternal seta 1+3                     canalis

--Katepisternal seta 1+2                 parvicanalis

9. The upper lateral area of the occiput
bare                                       longitheca
The upper lateral area of the occiput "hairy"      10

10. Prementum about 3.0 times longer than
broad                             fimbrifascia n. sp.

--Prementum about 6.0-7.0 times longer than
broad                                              11

11. Fore tibia without pv                   atrifrons

--Fore tibia with I pv             subatrifrons n. sp.
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