Violence against pregnant women: Nigeria and New Zealand.
Subject: Family violence (Causes of)
Family violence (Research)
Pregnant women (Crimes against)
Pub Date: 11/01/2009
Publication: Name: Reproductive Health Matters Publisher: Reproductive Health Matters Audience: General Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Family and marriage; Health; Women's issues/gender studies Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 Reproductive Health Matters ISSN: 0968-8080
Issue: Date: Nov, 2009 Source Volume: 17 Source Issue: 34
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research; 980 Legal issues & crime
Product: Product Code: 9101226 Domestic Violence (Families) NAICS Code: 92219 Other Justice, Public Order, and Safety Activities
Geographic: Geographic Scope: Nigeria; New Zealand Geographic Code: 6NIGR Nigeria; 8NEWZ New Zealand
Accession Number: 225074452
Full Text: As recognition grows of the prevalence of violence against women, there is increasing interest in the relationship between violence, pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Three studies show that intimate partner violence is far from tare against pregnant women, one of which shows a correlation with abortion and miscarriage. In Abeokuta, Nigeria, among 534 pregnant women attending health facilities, prevalence of violence within the 12 months prior to pregnancy was 14%. Polygamous union, low level of education in both woman and partner and consumption of alcohol by partners were significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Verbal abuse was the most common (66%); other types of abuse included flogging (11%), slaps (9.5%), threats of violence (6.8%) and forced sexual intercourse (2.7%). Most perpetrators were husbands (66%) and parents (16%). Some 2.3% of pregnant women had experienced violence during their current pregnancy. Unplanned pregnancy (25%) was not significantly associated with violence. There were similarities in the forms of violence experienced before and during pregnancy and the perpetrators. (1)

Among a population-based sample of 2,391 New Zealand women who had ever been pregnant, aged 18-64 years, in two regions (urban and rural), almost one in three reported having had at least one miscarriage, and one in ten reported terminating a pregnancy. Controlling for potential confounders, women who had ever experienced intimate partner violence were 1.4 times as likely to have had a miscarriage compared with women who had never experienced IPV (p<0.01), and were 2.5 times as likely to have had an induced abortion (p<0.0001). (2)

In Karachi, Pakistan, of 500 women who delivered a live singleton baby in four tertiary care hospitais, 44% reported abuse during the pregnancy, of whom 43% reported emotional abuse and 12.6% reported physical abuse. Factors independently associated with abuse during pregnancy were number of living children, interfamilial conflicts, husband's exposure to maternal abuse, and husband's use of tobacco. Women who had adequate social support were less likely to be abused by their husbands. (3)

(1.) Fawole AO, Hunyinbo KI, Fawole OI. Prevalence of violente against pregnant women in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2008;48(4): 405-14.

(2.) Fanslow J, Silva M, Whitehead A. Pregnancy outcomes and intimate partner violence in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2008; 48(4):391-7.

(3.) Farid M, Saleem S, Karim MS, et al. Spousal abuse during pregnancy in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2008;101: 141-45.
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