Two new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from Mexico.
Two new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera Simon 1891 are
described from Mexico. Ochyrocera juquila new species was collected
under moist rotten logs and hollow trunks on a thick bed of pine needles
in oak-pine forests located in a mountain range south of the city of
Oaxaca at 1400-2700 m elev. Ochyrocera juquila resembles O.
quinquevittata Simon 1891 from the Island of St. Vincent, in the angular
shape of the embolus, which in the new species is V-shaped and in O.
quinquevittata is L-shaped. Ochyrocera chiapas new species, was
collected under rotten trunks and hollow trunks in abundant leaf litter
in the tropical, humid Lacandona rainforest region located in eastern
Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala. The species occurs at 160-260 m
elev. Ochyrocera chiapas resembles O. arietina Simon, 1891 from the
island of St. Vincent, in the similar shape of the embolus and distal
apophysis of the cymbium, but in O. chiapas the embolus is more strongly
curved and directed toward the distal part of the tibiae forming a
"D"; in O. arietina the embolus is not as strongly curved as
in O. chiapas. In both species, males and females were collected near
each other; the females carried their egg sacs with their chelicerae. A
key to the four known Mexican species is provided.
Dos nuevas especies del genero de aranas Ochyrocera Simon 1891 son descritas para Mexico. Ochyrocera juquila nueva especie, fue colectada bajo troncos podridos y troncos huecos en una capa gruesa de agujas de pino, en bosque de pino-encino, en un sistema montafioso al sur de la ciudad de Oaxaca entre 1400-2700 m elev. Ochyrocera juquila esta relacionada con Ochyrocera quinquevittata Simon 1891 de la Isla de San Vicente, en la forma angular del embolo, el cual en la nueva especie es en forma de "V", y en O. quinquevittata en forma de "L". Ochyrocera chiapas nueva especie, fue colectada en bosque tropical, bajo troncos podridos y en troncos huecos con mucha humedad, y abundante hojarasca, en la region de la selva Lacandona localizada al este de Chiapas, cerca de la frontera con Guatemala, localizada entre 160- 260 m elev. Ochyrocera chiapas esta relacionada con Ochyrocera arietina Simon, 1891 de la Isla de San Vicente, en la forma similar del embolo y apofisis distal del cimbio, pero en O. chiapas el embolo es mas fuertemente recurvado y dirigido hacia parte distal de la tibia formando una "D", en O. arietina el embolo no esta fuertemente recurvado como en O. chiapas. En ambas especies, machos y hembras fueron colectados cercanamente entre ellos; las hembras cargaban sus sacos de huevos con los queliceros. Se presenta una clave de identification para las cuatro especies mexicanas.
Keywords: Haplogynae, taxonomy, Oaxaca, Chiapas
(Identification and classification)
Spiders (Discovery and exploration)
Spiders (Physiological aspects)
Zoology (Identification and classification)
|Publication:||Name: Journal of Arachnology Publisher: American Arachnological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences; Zoology and wildlife conservation Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 American Arachnological Society ISSN: 0161-8202|
|Issue:||Date: May, 2009 Source Volume: 37 Source Issue: 2|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: Mexico Geographic Code: 1MEX Mexico|
The spider family Ochyroceratidae Fage 1912 has 14 genera and 155
species (Platnick 2008). Edwards et al. (2003) reported four genera from
the western hemisphere: Fageicera Dumitrescu & Georgescu 1992 and
Speocera Berland 1914, recorded only from Cuba, Ochyrocera Simon 1891 in
the Caribbean region and Brazil, and Theotima Simon 1893 restricted to
the Caribbean region.
Ochyroceratids are lucifugous spiders which live in leaf litter and detritus in mesic habitats, and many occur in caves as troglophiles (Gertsch 1973, 1977; Brignoli 1973; Lopez & Lopez 1997; Hormiga et al. 2007). These spiders spin tiny tangled webs in wall crevices and under litter (Gertsch 1973). Ochyrocera species build small, rather flimsy sheet webs with silk lines extending above the sheet that appear to serve as structural lines overlaid with finer silk lines running parallel to each other. The sheet is probably made of silk from the linearly arranged brush of posterior lateral spinneret aciniform gland spigots (Hormiga et al. 2007). There is limited published information available on the life history of these spiders (Edwards et al. 2003; Hormiga et al. 2007); some species of the family are parthenogenetic (Edwards et al. 2003).
Simon (1893) included Theotima and Ochyrocera in the Leptonetidae, where they remained until Fage (1912) erected the family Ochyroceratidae (Paquin & Ubick 2005). The genus Ochyrocera has 22 species, mostly from the Neotropical region (Brignoli 1974, 1978; Hormiga et al. 2007; Platnick 2008). In the New World, the genus is found in Florida, Central America, and parts of South America. Some species are distributed in the West Indies, like Puerto Rico, where two undescribed, sympatric species of Ochyrocera occur in forest leaf litter (Simon 1891; Edwards et al. 2003; Paquin & Ubick 2005; Platnick 2008). Recently Hormiga et al. (2007) described Ochyrocera cachote from Hispaniola. Two species have been recorded from Mexico: Ochyrocera fagei Brignoli 1974 from Teopisca, Chiapas and O. simoni O. Pickard-Cambridge 1894 from Teapa, Tabasco. The objective of this contribution is to describe two new species recently collected in Mexico. Ochyrocera juquila new species and O. chiapas new species are the third and fourth species of the genus Ochyrocera from Mexico.
The specimens, preserved in 80% ethanol, were examined with a Nikon SMZ645 stereoscope. A Nikon Coolpix S10 VR camera was used to photograph the dorsal view of the prosoma and opisthosoma of male and female specimens, and the internal genital area of females. The photographs were edited in Adobe Photoshop 7.0 to make the illustrations. The specimens were then processed in order that photomicrographs could be taken with an HITACHI S-2460N scanning electron microscope (SEM). All measurements of the descriptions are recorded in millimeters and SEM photomicrographs are noted in microns. The map was done using Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia and was edited in Adobe Photoshop 7.0. The specimens are deposited in the Coleccion Nacional de Aracnidos (CNAN) of the Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. (IBUNAM) and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, USA. Abbreviations used in the description are: ALE, anterior lateral eyes; ALS, anterior lateral spinnerets; AME, anterior median eyes; B, bulb of the palp; C, cymbium; DAC, distal apophysis of cymbium; E, embolus; PLE, posterior lateral eyes; PLS, posterior lateral spinnerets; PMS, posterior median spinnerets; S, spermathecae.
Etymology.--The specific name is a noun in apposition and refers to the municipality of the type locality: Santa Catarina Juquila, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Diagnosis.--Males can be distinguished by the embolus bent over 75[degrees] with a basal protuberance near the bulb, the globular bulb, and the cymbial apophysis with hook-shaped tip (Figs. 3, 4). Females can be distinguished by the oval genital area with two parts, the anterior one larger than the posterior part (Fig. 9).
Description.--Male (holotype): Specimen preserved in alcohol with carapace fuchsia, fovea indistinct (Fig. 1). Clypeus long, same color as carapace. Chelicerae pale yellow, fangs light orange with seven small teeth and one large tooth on a single line (Fig. 2). Six eyes in three groups, slightly elevated with black rings around them (Fig. 1). Sternum circular, wider than long; light violet with faint dark stripes. Labium longer than wide, not fused to the sternum. Endites pale yellow, longer than wide, convergent, with small violet spots. Coxae fuchsia. Trochanters and patellae pale yellow. Legs fuchsia. Distal part of femora pale yellow. Patellae pale yellow. Proximal and distal parts of metatarsus and tarsus pale yellow. Metatarsus and tarsus with pseudosegmentation. Opisthosoma oval, dark gray (Fig. 1). Ventral plate of gonopore violet. ALS conical, PMS slender and longer than ALS, PLS cylindrical and stout. Spinnerets pale violet.
Palp: Tibia long and cylindrical (Figs. 3, 4), pale fuchsia; distal apophysis of cymbium hooked (Figs. 3, 4). Bulb globular, with a basal protuberance (Figs. 3, 4). Embolus long, V-shaped, with distal part curved and sclerotized (Figs. 3-6).
Measurements: Total length 1.23. Carapace 0.52 long, 0.47 wide. Clypeus length 0.09. Diameter of AME 0.04, ALE 0.05, PLE 0.06. Sternum 0.36 long, 0.34 wide. Leg lengths: I- femur 1.07/ patella 0.17/ tibia 1.25/ metatarsus 0.84/ tarsus 0.59/ total 3.92; II- 0.92/ 0.18/ 1.0/ 0.68/ 0.53/ 3.31; III- 0.71/ 0.16/ 0.81/ 0.60/ 0.45/ 2.73; IV- 0.98/ 0.18/ 1.16/ 0.75/ 0.59/ 3.66. Leg formula: 1-4-2-3.
Female (Paratype): Differs from male as follows: carapace violet. Clypeus high (Fig. 7), same color as carapace. Chelicerae fuchsia on frontal face and light yellow on prolateral face (Fig. 8). Fangs orange. Sternum circular, violet without stripes. Opisthosoma larger than in the male.
Genital area: Poorly chitinized, oval with two parts in ventral view, anterior part larger than posterior (Fig. 9). Spermathecae oval and separated, with visible long and thin prolongations toward posterior part of genital area (Fig. 10).
Measurements: Total length 1.26. Carapace 0.58 long, 0.49 wide. Clypeus length 0.08. Diameter of AME 0.04, ALE 0.04, PLE 0.05. Sternum 0.36 long, 0.34 wide. Leg lengths: I- femur 0.9/ patella 0.18/ tibia 1.04/ metatarsus 0.68/ tarsus 0.46/ total 3.26; II- 0.74/ 0.17/ 0.82/ 0.58/ 0.46/ 2.77; III- 0.65/ 0.16/ 0.69/ 0.52/ 0.42/ 2.44; IV- 0.88/ 0.13/ 0.97/ 0.66/ 0.51/ 3.15. Leg formula: 1-4-2-3.
Variation.--Total length: 1.2-1.4. Coloration: some specimens fuchsia, pale orange, or purple on the prosoma and the legs. The opisthosoma varies from light blue to dark gray.
Distribution.--Known only from the type localities (Fig. 20).
Related species.--Ochyrocera juquila resembles O. quinquevittata Simon 1891 from the Island of St. Vincent in the angular shape of the embolus, which in the new species is V-shaped (75[degrees]), and in O. quinquevittata is L-shaped. The distal apophysis of the cymbium of the palp with hook shape is curved and short in O. juquila, whereas in O. quinquevittata it is straight and long. Finally, the bulb in O. juquila is globular, whereas in O. quinquevittata it is oval.
Natural History.--The specimens of Ochyrocera juquila were collected under moist rotten logs and hollow trunks on a thick bed of pine needles in oak-pine forests located in a mountain range south of the city of Oaxaca at 1400-2700 m elev. Males and females were collected near each other, and the females carried their egg sacs with the chelicerae.
Ochyrocera chiapas new species Figs. 11-19
Type material.--MEXICO: Chiapas:1 [male] holotype (CNAN-T0321) from El Taller, Sierra de la Cojolita, Municipio Ocosingo (16[degrees]45.756'N, 91[degrees]01.933'W, 257 m), 9 August 2005 (A. Valdez, G. Montiel, R. Paredes, E. Cabrera, A. Avila, A. Ibarra, J. Castelo cols.). Paratypes: 1 [female], 1 [male] and 1 juvenile (CNAN-T0322), same data as holotype; 1 [female], 1 juvenile (CNAN-T0323) from Reserva Comunal de la Cruz, km 150 marker on Crucero Corozal-Benemearito road, Municipio Ocosingo (16[degrees]42.878'N, 90[degrees]54.328'W, 167 m), 9 August 2006 (A. Valdez, H. Montano, S. Rubio, N. Perez, I. Mondragon, cols.); 1 [female], and 3 juveniles (CNAN-T0327), same locality, 8 May 2006 (A. Valdez, H. Montafio, G. Montiel, R. Paredes, M. Guzmaan, cols.); 4 [female] [female],1 [male] and 3 juveniles (CNAN-T0324) from Arroyo Nayte, Sierra de la Cojolita, Municipio Ocosingo (16[degrees]45.546' N, 91[degrees]02.629' W, 209 m), 18 October 2006 (A. Valdez, O. Francke, H. Montano, A. Ballesteros, cols.); 1 [male] (CNAN-T0328), same locality, 9 August 2006 (A. Valdez, H. Montano, S. Rubio, N. Perez, I. Mondragon, cols.); 1 [female] (CNAN-T0330), same locality, 3 October 2005 (H. Montano, G. Montiel, I. Mondragon, cols.); 1 [female] (CNAN-T0325) from El Aserradero, Municipio Ocosingo (16[degrees]47.119'N, 91[degrees]02.290'W, 205 m), 6 September 2005 (A. Valdez, O. Francke, H. Montafio, A. Jaimes, M. Cordova, cols.); 1 [female] (AMNH), same locality, 18 October 2006 (A. Valdez, O. Francke, H. Montano, A. Ballesteros, cols.); 2 [female] [female],4 juveniles (CNAN-T0326), same locality, 18 October 2006 (A. Valdez, O. Francke, H. Montano, A. Ballesteros, cols.); 2 [female] [female],2 [male] [male],3 [male] [male] subadult (CNAN-T0329) from El Encano, Sierra de la Cojolita, Municipio Ocosingo (16[degrees]48.677' N, 91[degrees]04.646'W, 165 m), 3 October 2005 (H. Montano, G. Montiel, I. Mondragon, cols.); 2 [female] [female] (AMNH), same locality, 3 October 2005 (H. Montano, G. Montiel, I. Mondragon, cols.).
[FIGURES 1-6 OMITTED]
[FIGURES 7-10 OMITTED]
Etymology.--The specific name is a noun in apposition and refers to the state of the type locality: Chiapas, Mexico.
Diagnosis.--Males can be distinguished by the D-shaped embolus directed toward the distal part of the tibia, and the conical shape of the distal cymbial apophysis, curved distally with one terminal claw (Figs. 13, 14). Females can be distinguished by the mouth-like form of the genital area (Fig. 18).
Description.--Male (holotype): Specimen preserved in alcohol with carapace dark blue with darker regions around the fovea, and on the lateral margins (Fig. 11). Clypeus long, same color as carapace. Chelicerae blue-green, with seven small teeth and one large tooth on a single line (Fig. 12). Fangs dark orange. Six eyes in three groups, slightly elevated, with black rings around them. Sternum dark blue, with a white central spot, wider than long. Labium square, as wide as long, dark blue, not fused to the sternum. Endites green, convergent, longer than wide. Coxae greenish, darker distally. Trochanters greenish. Femur I yellowish. Femora II-IV pale fuchsia, bluish distally. Patellae pale. Tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi yellowish. Opisthosoma oval, longer than wide and deep, dark blue (Fig. 11). Ventral plate of gonopore pale blue. ALS cylindrical. PMS slender and smaller than the others. PLS conical. All spinnerets same color as opisthosoma.
[FIGURES 11-16 OMITTED]
Palp: Tibia long and cylindrical, distal apophysis of cymbium conical, curved distally (Figs. 13, 14). Globular bulb; embolus long and curved with D-shape, in prolateral view directed towards distal part of the tibia (Fig. 13). Embolus wider distally, with marked apical curvature with hook-shape (Figs. 15, 16).
Measurements: Total length 1.68. Carapace 0.78 long, 0.67 wide. Clypeus length 0.17. Diameter of AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PLE 0.04. Sternum 0.36 long, 0.48 wide. Leg lengths: I- femur 3.3/ patella 0.24/ tibia 3.7/ metatarsus 2.4/ tarsus 1.23/ total 10.87; II- 2.3/ 0.2/ 2.47/ 1.63/ 0.93/ 7.53; III- 1.75/ 0.2/ 1.74/ 1.23/ 0.77/ 5.69; IV- 2.3/ 0.23/ 2.52/ 1.58/ 1.03/ 7.66. Leg formula 1-4-2-3.
[FIGURES 17-19 OMITTED]
Female (Paratype): Differs from male as follows: fangs of chelicerae pale reddish, darker at base (Fig. 17). Endites dark blue, lighter basally. Coxae dark blue, lighter basally. Trochanters light blue with dark blue spots. Femora and tibiae purple, white distally. Patellae dark blue. Metatarsi and tarsi pale. Opisthosoma more voluminous than in male.
Genital area: Weakly sclerotized, light blue, mouth-shaped in ventral view (Fig. 18). Spermathecae slender and curved, separated by a visible duct (Fig. 19).
Measurements: Total length 1.76. Carapace 0.75 long, 0.65 wide. Clypeus length 0.18. Diameter of AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PLE 0.04. Sternum 0.4 long, 0.44 wide. Leg lengths: I- femur 2.78/ patella 0.24/ tibia 3.1/ metatarsus 2.05/ tarsus 1.16/ total 9.33; II- 1.95/ 0.22/ 2.0/1.23 / 0.5/ 5.9; III- 1.54/ 0.2/1.6/1.16/ 0.75/ 5.25; IV- 2.06/ 0.21/ 2.15/ 1.46/ 0.93/ 6.81. Leg formula: 1-4-2-3.
Variation.--Total length: 1.6-1.75. Coloration: carapace varies from clear blue to greenish. Chelicerae ranges from blue-green to pale green. The white central spot of the sternum is small, circular in some specimens; in others longitudinal, wide or thin. Some specimens have legs fuchsia and others pale fuchsia. Sternum and labium vary from dark blue to light blue. Endites and coxae greenish on males and on the females between dark and light blue.
Distribution.--Known only from the localities of the type material (Fig. 20).
Related species.--Ochyrocera chiapas resembles O. arietina Simon, 1891 from the island of St. Vincent, in the similar shape of the embolus and distal apophysis of cymbium, but in O. chiapas the embolus is more strongly curved and directed toward the distal part of the tibiae forming a "D;" in O. arietina, the embolus is not as strongly curved as in O. chiapas. In addition, in O. arietina the embolus is directed toward the distal apophysis of the cymbium and not toward the tibia like in O. chiapas. The distal apophysis of the cymbium of the palp in O. chiapas has a claw-shaped curve and an index-finger shape in O. arietina; finally the tibia of the palp in O. chiapas is longer and cylindrical, whereas in O. arietina it is shorter and oval.
Natural History.--The specimens of O. chiapas were collected at an elevation between 160-260 m in high humidity under rotten logs, hollow trunks, and abundant leaf litter. The habitat was in tropical rainforest, in the Lacandona region located in eastern Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala. Males and females were collected near each other, and the females carried their egg sacs with the chelicerae.
[FIGURE 20 OMITTED]
KEY TO SPECIES OF OCHYROCERA FROM MEXICO:
1. Distal apophysis on cymbium claw-shaped; bulb of the palp oval (Figs. 13,14) 2 Distal apophysis of cymbium other form; bulb of the palp globular (Figs. 3,4) 3
2. Embolus slender and long, D-shaped, directed toward the distal part of the tibia (Figs. 13, 14) O. chiapas new species. Embolus stout and short, V-shaped, directed toward the centre of the cymbial apophysis O. fagei Brignoli 1974.
3. Embolus slender in distal part and stout in basal part, V-shaped, with a basal protuberance; cymbial apophysis with hooked tip (Figs. 3, 4) O. juquila new species. Embolus slender and long, J-shaped; distal cymbial apophysis wider in the centre; tibia of the palp wider at tip O. simoni O. Pickard-Cambridge 1894.
Funding for this work came from "Lachandonia schismatica: Recurso geneatico estrateagico para Meaxico y conservacioan de la Selva Lacandona" (CONACYT No. COI-043/B1 to Dra. Elena Alvarez-Buylla), Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autoanoma de Meaxico; and the National Science Foundation, USA (project NSF BIO-DEB 0413453 to Dr. Lorenzo Prendini), American Museum of Natural History, for financial support. I am grateful to Dr. Oscar F. Francke, Dr. Fernando Aalvarez Padilla, and M.S. Griselda Montiel Parra for their comments on the manuscript and their guidance; to the students of the Coleccioan Nacional de Araacnidos (CNAN) and Coleccioan Nacional de Acaros (CNAC), Instituto de Biologaia, UNAM for their help with fieldwork. Thanks to M.S. Berenit Mendoza Garfias for the photomicrographs taken with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). We extend our appreciation to the inhabitants of the community of Frontera Corozal, Municipio Ocosingo, Chiapas, for allowing us to work in the zone and their assistance and infinite help with fieldwork. The specimens were collected under Scientific Collector Permit FAUT-0175 from the Secretaraia de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), to Dr. Oscar F. Francke.
Manuscript received 11 June 2008, revised 26 November 2008.
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Alejandro Valdez-Mondragon: Coleccion Nacional de Aracnidos, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apto. Postal 70-153, C. P. 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
TAXONOMY Family Ochyroceratidae Fage 1912 Genus Ochyrocera Simon 1891 Type species.--Ochyrocera arietina Simon 1891 Ochyrocera juquila new species Figs. 1-10
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