Two new species of the genus Diplothele (Araneae, Barychelidae) from Orissa, India with notes on D. Walshi.
Abstract: The genus Diplothele O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890 of the brush-footed spider family Barychelidae is represented in India by a single species, D. walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890. In this paper, we describe two new species: Diplothele gravelyi from Angul and Diplothele tenebrosus from Ganjam, Orissa. We establish a neotype and provide additional characters for D. walshi, the types of which are lost. The neotype was collected from one of the previously described localities, Barkuda Island, Orissa. Spiders of this genus are known to build double-door trapdoor burrows, but the new species, D. tenebrosus, constructs a single entrance burrow with a trapdoor. Notes on natural history are provided for all species.

Keywords: New species, neotype, taxonomy, spider
Article Type: Report
Subject: Spiders (Natural history)
Spiders (Distribution)
Spiders (Physiological aspects)
Spiders (Identification and classification)
Zoology (Identification and classification)
Zoology (Research)
Authors: Siliwal, Manju
Molur, Sanjay
Raven, Robert
Pub Date: 05/01/2009
Publication: Name: Journal of Arachnology Publisher: American Arachnological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences; Zoology and wildlife conservation Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 American Arachnological Society ISSN: 0161-8202
Issue: Date: May, 2009 Source Volume: 37 Source Issue: 2
Topic: Event Code: 690 Goods & services distribution; 310 Science & research Advertising Code: 59 Channels of Distribution Computer Subject: Company distribution practices
Geographic: Geographic Scope: India Geographic Code: 9INDI India
Accession Number: 238834224
Full Text: The brush-footed spider family Barychelidae is represented worldwide by 44 genera and 300 species, of which four genera and five species--Diplothele walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890, Sason andamanicum Simon 1888, Sason robustum O. Pickard-Cambridge 1883, Sasonichus sullivani Pocock 1900, and Sipalolasma arthrapophysis Gravely 1915--are reported from India (Siliwal & Molur 2007; Platnick 2008).

The genus Diplothele O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890 is endemic to South Asia and is represented by two species, namely Diplothele walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890 from India and Diplothele halyi Simon 1892 from Sri Lanka. The trapdoor spiders we collected recently from Angul and Ganjam districts in Orissa have only two spinnerets, which after we consulted the literature (O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890; Pocock 1900; Raven 1985) were recognized as Diplothele spp. The description of D. walshi provided by O. PickardCambridge (1890) is elementary and is not very helpful in comparative taxonomic work, as it lacks information on spermathecal structure. Most morphological characters of the new material from Orissa matched O. Pickard-Cambridge's description of D. walshi except for size. Specimens from Angul and Ganjam were much larger than reported for D. walshi. Even Gravely (1921, 1935) emphasized that D. walshi were small spiders (less than 10 mm), and he reported that the specimens from Horsleykonda, Chittoor district, in the Madras Museum collection were suspected to be new species because the size of these spiders was almost double that of D. walshi. Also, burrow structure ofthe Diplothele sp. observed at Angul and Ganjam did not match that reported for D. walshi by Gravely (1921).

To resolve the confusion, it was necessary to re-collect D. walshi from known localities. The type locality of D. walshi is the state of Orissa (O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890; Pocock 1900); fortunately, Gravely (1921) had also reported this species from Barkuda Island, Chilika Lake, Orissa. Therefore, Barkuda Island was surveyed rapidly in August 2007 for trapdoor spiders, and a few mature female individuals of Diplothele sp. were collected. These spiders were smaller, different in morphology as well as in habit, and matched the description of D. walshi (Gravely 1921). After examining the spermathecae of specimens from Barkuda Island and comparing them with those of specimens from Angul and Ganjam, it was clear that the latter were new species of Diplothele.

Unlike most of O. Pickard-Cambridge's type specimens preserved in the Hope Entomological Collection (OUMNH), Oxford, the holotype of D. walshi is currently missing (in litt., Zoe Simmons, Collections staff at OUMNH). Raven (1985) reported its absence and on a personal visit to the collection failed to locate the type. To further confirm its status, we inquired through major European museums, including NHM (London), about the type specimen of D. walshi, but could not locate it. It is confirmed now that the type specimen of D. walshi is lost. We therefore assign a neotype for this species from Barkuda Island, one of the confirmed localities of D. walshi.

In the present paper, we describe two new species: Diplothele gravelyi

from the Angul district, and D. tenebrosus from the Ganjam district of Orissa, both based on mature females. We did a rapid survey and did not make a concerted effort to search for males. We also provide additional taxonomic details for D. walshi and notes on natural history for all the species. We compare important taxonomic characteristics for the three Indian species (Table 1).

METHODS

All specimens were deposited in the Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Measurements of body parts except for the eyes were taken with a Mitutoyo[T]M Vernier Caliper. Eye measurements were made with a calibrated ocular micrometer. All measurements are in mm. Spermathecae were dissected and cleared in concentrated lactic acid in a 100[degrees] C water bath for 15-20 min. Total length excludes chelicerae. All illustrations were prepared with the help of a camera lucida attached to a CETII[TM] stereomicroscope by MS.

Abbreviations.--ALE = anterior lateral eye, AME = anterior median eye, MOQ = median ocular quadrate, MS = Manju Siliwal, Neo = Neotype, NHM = Natural History Museum, PLE = posterior lateral eye, OUMNH = Oxford University Museum of Natural History, PME = posterior median eye, PLS = posterior lateral spinnerets, PMS = posterior median spinnerets, STC = Superior or paired tarsal claws, WILD = Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society. Abbreviations used for hair and spines count are d = dorsal, fe = femur, mt = metatarsus, p = prolateral, pa = patella, r = retrolateral, ta = tarsus, ti = tibia, v = ventral.

TAXONOMY

Diplothele O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890

Diplothele O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890:621; Simon 1892:123; Pocock 1900:174-175; Raven 1985:114, 145.

Adelonychia Walsh 1891:269; Gravely 1915:263; Raven 1985:145. First synonymized by Gravely (1915) and holotype considered lost by Raven (1985).

Type species.--Diplothele walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890 is based on single female specimen. The holotype is lost; it was deposited at Hope Entomological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, where most of the O. Pickard-Cambridge spider collection is deposited, and collection records in 1985 (I. Lansbury, in litt.) confirmed the type should be held by OUMNH.

The holotype female of Adelonychia nigrostriata Walsh 1891 from Khurda, Orissa state, India, is also lost. Since the species is considered synonymous with D. walshi, it does not constitute a nomenclatural problem requiring a neotype.

Diagnosis.--Two spinnerets. Anterior lateral eyes on clypeal edge, separated by less than their diameter, AME close to each other; ocular group wider behind than in front. Rastellum on low mound consisting of long, thick, curved, randomly arranged spines. Labium without cuspules, wider than long. Maxillae with few cuspules in anterior corner. Legs short, stout, anterior pair without spines; scopulae on metatarsi I-II and tarsi I-IV present, metatarsi III-IV weakly scopulated; STC of legs I and II clearly smaller than on legs III and IV (O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890, Pocock 1900, Raven 1985). Bilobed spermathecae.

Distribution.--Endemic to India and Sri Lanka.

Diplothele gravelyi new species

Figs. 1-7

Type specimens.--INDIA: Orissa: holotype female, near Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary, Angul district, 93 m elev., 20[degrees]51'N, 84[degrees]91[degrees]E, 3 April 2007, M. Siliwal, S. Behera (WILD-07-ARA-161); 1 paratype female, same data as holotype (WILD-07-ARA-162).

Diagnosis (female).--The new species Diplothele gravelyi differs from D. halyi and resembles D. walshi in having the metatarsi longer than the tarsi of all legs. It differs from D. walshi in being about 1.5-2.2 times larger, having more rastellar spines, the presence of 3-4 cuspules on maxillae (Fig. 3). Also, the spermathecae have cactoid lobes at 2/3 distal end of the stalk, outer lobe with constriction at the base and with a notch on inner side toward the distal end (Fig. 6); perfect 'Y' shape, deep burrow with firm silk lining inside the burrow, and distance between the two entrances of the trapdoor nest is twice their diameter (Fig. 7). Male unknown.

[FIGURES 1-7 OMITTED]

Etymology.--The species is named after the famous arachnologist, Dr. Frederic Henry Gravely (1885-1965). He was Assistant Superintendent at the Indian Museum, Calcutta for a few years and later worked as the Superintendent of the Madras Museum from 1920-1940. He published several monographs and papers on various subjects. He was the first arachnologist to study spiders in the wild in southern and eastern India and described many new species. The specimens collected by him are deposited at the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and Madras Museum. This is a tribute to his contribution to studies on Indian mygalomorph spiders.

Description of female holotype.--Total length 16.90. Carapace 7.46 long, 6.00 wide. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 4.48, 3.86, 4.24, 2.48, 2.10, 17.16. II: 4.40, 3.52, 3.32, 2.46, 2.00, 15.70. III: 4.18, 3.00, 2.72, 3.12, 2.10, 15.12. IV: 6.20, 3.92, 4.72, 5.00, 2.52, 22.36. Palp: 4.10, 2.96, 2.28, -, 2.86, 12.2. Midwidths: femora I = 1.44, II = 1.70, III = 1.72, IV = 1.30, palp = 1.34; tibia I-II = 1.30, III = 1.48, IV = 1.26, palp = 1.28. Abdomen 9.44 long, 6.20 wide. Spinnerets: PLS, total length 2.90 (1.70 basal, 0.80 middle, 0.40 apical; midwidths 0.80, 0.50, 0.30 respectively), 0.30 apart.

Color in life: Carapace, legs and palp brown. Abdomen yellowish-green with brown chevron marking running from dorsal to lateral sides (Fig. 1). Ventral side, yellowish-green with few small black spots between spinnerets and book lungs (Fig. 5). Color in alcohol paler than fresh specimen.

Carapace covered with blackish-brown and small golden, curved hair; hair more concentrated along interstrial ridges, intermixed with few black bristles on caput. Bristles: 10 long on caput in mid-dorsal line; three long, five short anteromedially; six long, several short between PME; one long, two short between AME; one long, five short on clypeus edge. Fovea deep, slightly procurved. Two glabrous bands emerging from fovea and passing on either side of caput.

Eyes: Group occupies 0.30 of head-width; ocular group front width; midwidth; back width; length; 1.00, 1.15, 1.30, 1.30, respectively. Anterior row strongly procurved, posterior row straight; posterior eyes opaque, rest transparent. MOQ front width 0.70, back width 0.80, length 0.60. Diameter of AME 0.30, ALE 0.50, PME 0.10, PLE 0.40. Eye interspaces: AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.10, ALE-ALE 0.15, PME-PLE adjacent, PME-PME 0.60, ALE-PLE 0.40.

Chelicerae: 3.94 long. Prolateral face glabrous, yellowishorange with few small hairs; eight promarginal teeth and 24 basomesal teeth in 2-3 parallel lines; rastellum on low mound, consists of27-30 short thick curved spines, ofwhich 20-23 the mound and seven in anterior line, several normal pointed thin spines on dorsal, and vertical face and upward; dorsally two glabrous bands for length.

Labium: 0.90 wide, 0.70 long; labiosternal groove broad with two sigilla joined medially. Cuspules absent.

Maxillae: 2.20 long in front, 2.70 long in back, 1.30 wide; 3-4 cuspules on inner angle. Posterior heel slightly produced, anterior lobe distinct.

Sternum: 3.90 long, 3.10 wide. Covered with hair and bristles. Sigilla indistinct.

Legs: brown, moderately hairy; femora III thicker than rest; all legs of similar thickness; preening comb spines on metatarsi III and IV; coxae IV widest; two glabrous bands longitudinal on femora, patellae and tibiae (very prominent on patellae); leg formula 4123.

Spines: Leg III: pa, p = 2; ti, p= 1, v = 15, r = 1; mt, p = 2, d = 2; leg IV: ti, v = 5+2 broken, r = 2; mt, p = 2, v = 14. Elsewhere absent.

Scopula: Metatarsi I, distal L, scopuliform hair intermixed with few bristles and hair but no clear division; tarsi I, full, division with 2-3 rows of hairs; metatarsi II, distal half, division with 2-3 rows of setae; tarsi II, full divided with single row of hairs; metatarsi III, 1/4 distal, divided with 3-4 rows of bristles and spines; tarsi III-IV, full, divided with 5-6 rows of setae; metatarsi IV, few scopuliform hairs 1/4 distally, intermixed with spines and bristles.

Trichobothria: Tarsi I, seven clavate, 10 short and long filiform in two rows; tarsi II, six clavate, 10 short and long filiform in two rows; tarsi III, seven clavate, 10 long filiform in distal half in two rows; tarsi IV, eight clavate, 8-10 long in distal half in two rows. Clavate trichobothria confined to basal 1/4 of tarsi.

Claws: Claw tufts on all legs and palp. All claws edentate, claws of legs I and II clearly smaller than on legs III and IV.

Abdomen: Yellowish-cream with brown chevron mark from dorsal to lateral, uniformly covered with short brown hairs intermixed with few black bristles; ventral side, yellowish cream with few brown spots between spinnerets and book lungs, uniformly covered with short brown hair.

Spermathecae: Two, cactoid shape, each stalk with cactoid outer lobe of similar length at 2/3 distal end, outer lobe curved toward inner side with constriction at base and notch towards distal end (Fig. 6).

Spinnerets: PMS absent. PLS, apical segment dome shape. Covered with golden brown hair.

Morphometry of female paratype.--Total length 14.70. Carapace 5.70 long, 4.32 wide, chelicerae 2.82 long. Sternum, 2.96 long, 2.00 wide. Labium 0.70 long, 1.00 wide. Maxillae 2.40 back length, 1.80 front length, 1.30 wide, two cuspules in anterior corner. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 3.92, 2.32, 3.16, 1.52, 1.42, 12.34. II: 3.34, 2.40, 2.78, 1.48, 1.38, 11.38. III: 3.28, 2.22, 2.00, 2.16, 1.44, 11.10. IV: 4.22, 2.36, 3.52, 3.96, 2.16, 16.22. Palp: 2.86, 2.00, 1.74, -, 2.20, 8.80. Midwidths: femora I = 0.70, II = 0.84, III = 1.00, IV = 1.06, palp = 0.66; tibia I = 0.92, II = 0.80, III-IV = 0.92, palp = 0.88. Abdomen 9.00 long, 6.34 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, absent; PLS, 1.00 basal, 0.70 middle, 0.40 distal, 2.10 total length, midwidths 0.70, 0.50, 0.30, respectively.

Distribution.--Orissa: Satkosia WLS and nearby areas in Angul district.

NATURAL HISTORY

Diplothele gravelyi was first found along the perennial stream outside the check gate of Satkosia WLS. It was also found all along the trail from Tikarpada to Blaiput, parallel to the River Mahanadi inside the Satkosia WLS. The forest department had burned the vegetation all along this trail, and we noticed many empty trapdoors.

The spider burrows were located in disturbed habitat with teak trees along the trail, about 10-25 m away from the water body. All along the trails the mud embankments were sloped at about 45[degrees] with hard soil, rocky in most places (10-30%), and were covered with dry mosses and grasses (40-60%). The embankments where these spiders were found faced south and west. Though the burrows were patchy in distribution, the patches were common all along the trails. We estimated six burrows per [m.sup.2]. area on the mud embankment. Inside the Sanctuary, the burrows of these spiders along the fire line were more abundant, between 8-12 burrows per [m.sup.2].

The burrows (Fig. 7) of these spiders were forked or 'Y' shaped. They consisted of two entrances with individual short chambers leading to a common chamber that was slightly wider at the base like a bulb. Both entrances of the burrow were separated by a space about twice their own diameter and had a wafer-thin circular hinged door. The outer surfaces of the hinged doors were covered with bits of leaf, soil particles, mosses and lichens, camouflaged with the substrate. The mean length of the burrows was 75 mm (range 70-90 mm), of which the main chamber was 30-40 mm long and the rest was the length of the chambers leading to the entrances. The mean diameter of the entrances of burrows (four burrows excavated) of matured individuals was 15 mm (range 10-15 mm). The silk lining in the burrows was not as thick as found in members of the families Ctenizidae and Idiopidae.

Diplothele tenebrosus new species

Figs. 8-14

Type specimens.--INDIA: Orissa: holotype female, Jadeshwar, Huma, Ganjam district, 144 melev., 19[degrees]44'N, 85[degrees]06E, 19 August 2007, S. Behera, G. Sahu, S. Kumar and M. Siliwal (WILD-07-ARA-244); 2 paratype females, same data as holotype (WILD-07-ARA-201, 245).

Other material examined.--INDIA: Orissa: 1 juvenile, near Berbera-Dhuanali reserve forest, Balugaon, Puri district, 17 April 2007, M. Siliwal, S. Kumar and S. Behera (WILD-07 ARA-189).

Diagnosis (female).--Differs from Diplothele halyi and resembles D. walshi and D. gravelyi by having metatarsi longer than tarsi of all legs. It differs from D. halyi and D. walshi by having large body size (about 1.6-2.9 times larger). It differs from D. walshi and D. gravelyi in spermathecal stalks being broader at the base and gradually narrowing towards apex with outer lobe at 2/3 distal end ofthe stalk, outer lobe of balloon shape with constriction at the base (Fig. 13); single entrance trapdoor burrow (Fig. 14). Male not known.

Etymology.--The word tenebrosus in Latin means 'dark', which refers to the darker color of the spider in life.

Description of female holotype.--Total length 20.66. Carapace 10.40 long, 7.72 wide. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 6.1, 4.7, 4.92, 3.8, 2.62, 22.14. II: 6.0, 4.36, 4.74, 3.52, 2.66, 21.28. III: 5.56, 3.6, 3.32, 4.06, 2.68, 19.22. IV: 7.94, 4.54, 6.08, 6.98, 3.34, 28.88. Palp: 5.2, 3.56, 3.0, -, 3.3, 15.06. Midwidths: femora I = 1.92, II = 2.04, III = 2.28, IV = 1.92, palp = 1.48; tibia I = 1.84, II = 1.62, III = 1.74, IV = 1.86, palp = 1.82. Abdomen 10.26 long, 7.00 wide. Spinnerets: PLS, total length 3.48 (2.00 basal, 1.00 middle, 0.48 apical; midwidths 1.12, 0.78, 0.62 respectively), 0.42 apart.

Color in life: Carapace, legs and palp brown. Abdomen dark brown with faint black chevron marking running from dorsal to lateral sides (Fig. 8). The ventral side is uniformly dark brown without any pattern (Fig. 12). Color in alcohol paler than fresh specimen and chevron marking clearly visible on dorsal and lateral side of abdomen.

Carapace covered with blackish-brown curved hair; hair more concentrated along the interstrial ridges intermixed with black short and long bristles on caput. Bristles: eight long, nine short on caput in mid-dorsal line; two long, two short anteromedially; 10 long, nine short between PME; nine long, eight short between AME; six long, one short on clypeus edge. Fovea deep, straight with procurved ends. Several hairs between PME and ALE. Glabrous bands radiating from fovea, very prominent along sides of caput.

Eyes: Group occupies 0.27 of head-width; ocular group front width, midwidth, back width, length, 1.20, 1.30, 1.50, 1.50 respectively. Anterior row strongly procurved, posterior row straight, posterior medians opaque, rest transparent. MOQ front width 1.00, back width 1.20, length 0.80. Diameter of AME 0.40, ALE 0.60, PME 0.10, PLE 0.70. Eye interspaces: AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.15, ALE-ALE 0.50, PME-PLE adjacent, PME-PME 0.80, ALE-PLE 0.50.

Chelicerae: 5.86 long. Prolateral face glabrous, yellowishorange with few small hairs; nine promarginal teeth and 20 basomesal teeth in 2-3 parallel lines; rastellum on low mound, consists of 39-42 short thick curved spines, of which 30-32 on the mound and 9-10 in anterior line, several normal pointed thin spines present on dorsal and vertical face and upward; two glabrous bands longitudinal on dorsal surface of chelicerae.

Labium: 1.46 wide, 1.32 long. Labiosternal groove shallow, broad with two indistinct sigilla on either side. Cuspules absent.

Maxillae: 3.04 long in front, 3.72 long in back, 2.42 wide; three (two large and one small) cuspules on inner angle. Posterior heel slightly produced, anterior lobe distinct.

Sternum: 5.40 long, 4.12 wide, covered with bristles. Sigilla indistinct, all marginal.

Legs: Uniformly brown, moderately covered with bristles and hairs; femora III thicker than rest; all legs of similar thickness; preening comb spines on metatarsi III and IV; coxae IV widest; two glabrous bands longitudinal on femora, patellae and tibiae (very prominent on patellae); leg formula 4123.

Spines: Leg III: ti, v = 4 + 6 distal, mt, p = 2, v = 8 + 9 distal, r = 2; leg IV: ti, p = 1, v = 4 + 6 distal, r = 2; mt, p = 2, v = 8 + 9 distal, r = 2. Elsewhere absent.

Scopula: Metatarsi I, distal 3/4 with few bristles dividing at base; tarsi I, full, division with 2-3 rows of hairs in distal half; metatarsi II, 3/4, division with single row of setae; tarsi II, full divided with single row of setae in distal half, basal half with hairless band; metatarsi III, 1/2 distal, divided with three rows of spines; tarsi III, full, divided with 5-6 rows of small setae; metatarsi IV, 1/4 few scopuliform hairs distally, divided by 2-3 rows of setae; tarsi IV, full, divided with 8-9 rows of setae.

Trichobothria: Tarsi I, nine clavate, 12 long and short filiform in two rows in distal half; tarsi II, 11 clavate, 14 long and short filiform in two rows distal half; tarsi III, nine clavate, 10 long filiform in distal half in two rows; tarsi IV, nine clavate, 10 long filiform in distal half in two rows. Clavate trichobothria confined to basal 1/4 of tarsi.

Claws: Claw tufts present on all legs and palp. All claws edentate, claws of legs I and II clearly smaller than on legs III and IV.

[FIGURES 8-14 OMITTED]

Abdomen: Dorsally dull cream with irregular dark-brown chevrons running from dorsal to lateral, uniformly covered with short brown hairs intermixed with few black bristles; ventral side, uniformly dull cream, covered with short brown hair.

Spermathecae: Two, stalk broader at base, gradually narrowing towards apex, each stalk with a pair of cactoid outer lobes of similar length at 2/3 distal end, outer lobe balloon shaped with constriction at base (Fig. 13).

Spinnerets: PMS absent. PLS, apical segment dome-shape. Covered with golden brown hair.

Morphometry of female paratypes, WILD-07-ARA-201 (WILD-07-ARA-245).--Total length 21.62 (17.00). Carapace 10.00 (8.68) long, 7.68 (6.44) wide, chelicerae 4.38 (3.70) long. Sternum, 5.00 (3.86) long, 3.76 (3.58) wide. Labium 1.12 (1.00) long, 1.48 (1.28) wide. Maxillae 3.74 (2.54) back length, 2.68 (2.00) front length, 2.22 (1.56) wide, 1-2 cuspules in anterior corner. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 6.0 (4.86), 4.32 (3.94), 4.7 (3.72), 3.08 (2.56), 2.48 (2.06), 20.58 (17.14). II: 6.0 (4.82), 4.22 (3.68), 4.1 (3.42), 3.08 (2.72), 2.48 (2.0), 19.88 (16.64). III: 5.06 (4.32), 3.34 (3.2), 3.04 (2.36), 3.96 (2.98), 2.58 (2.0), 17.98 (14.86). IV: 7.54 (5.94), 4.26 (4.0), 5.62 (4.66), 6.76 (5.38), 2.76 (2.42), 26.94 (22.4). Palp: 4.14 (3.64), 3.12 (2.72), 2.0 (2.16), - (-), 3.62 (2.32), 12.88 (10.84). Midwidths: femora I = 1.76 (1.32), II = 1.78 (1.5), III = 2.12 (1.78), IV = 1.62 (1.32), palp = 1.32 (1.0); tibia I = 1.74 (1.34), II = 1.74 (1.0), III = 1.42 (1.0), IV = 1.62 (1.38), palp = 1.64 (1.26). Abdomen 11.62 (8.00) long, 8.32 (5.46) wide. Spinnerets: PMS, absent; PLS, 2.00 (1.92) basal, 1.20 (0.90) middle, 0.72 (0.68) distal, 3.92 (3.50) total length, midwidths 1.12 (0.86), 0.78 (0.66), 0.70 (0.50) respectively.

Distribution.--Orissa: Jadeshwar, Huma in Ganjam district; Near Berbera-Dhuanali reserve forest, Balugaon, Puri district.

NATURAL HISTORY

These spiders were found in an undisturbed mango orchard with weeds covering 90% of ground. The burrows were constructed on the ground or roadside mud embankments; the soil was easy to dig because of recent rain. Due to dense undergrowth, we could not estimate the density of this spider in this area, but we estimated seven burrows per m2 area on the roadside embankments.

The burrow structure (Fig. 14) was a simple trapdoor, a single entrance leading to a short chamber that was wider at the base. The burrow was lined with a thick layer of offwhite silk as seen in the burrow of D. gravelyi new species; however, the silk was firm and did not break. We had to use a pair of scissors to take a cross-section of the burrow silk. The entrance had a circular wafer-thin hinged door, whose outer surface was covered with soil particles, camouflaging it in the surrounding. The mean length of the burrow (six burrows excavated) was 60 mm (range 60-80 mm). The diameter of the entrances of the burrows ranged between 15-20 mm (mean 15 mm). In Jadeshwar, these spiders were found making vertical burrows on ground, whereas in Balugaon, they were found in horizontal burrows on roadside embankments . At the slightest disturbance, these spiders jumped out of the burrow and disappeared in the nearby vegetation or leaf litter.

Diplothele walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890

Figs. 15-21

Diplothele walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890:621.

Adelonychia nigrostriata Walsh 1891:269. First synonymised by Gravely (1915).

Neotype.--INDIA: Orissa: neotype female, Barkuda Island, Chilikalake, Orissa, 133 m, 19[degrees]55'N, 85[degrees]15E, 18 August 2007, S. Behera, M. Siliwal and G. Sahu (WILD-07-ARA-195).

Other material examined.--INDIA: Orissa: 1 female, same data as neotype (WILD-07-ARA-196); 2 juveniles, same data as neotype (WILD-07-ARA-197, 241).

Diagnosis (female).--Differs from Diplothele halyi by having metatarsi longer than tarsi of all legs, distinct abdominal pattern and fovea larger (Pocock 1900). It differs from the two new species in absence of maxillary cuspules (Fig. 17); smaller in size; shallow, forked double entrance trapdoor burrow made up of very flimsy silk, which breaks while excavating the burrow (Fig. 21). Male not known.

Description of female neotype.--Total length 10.60. Carapace 4.86 long, 3.34 wide. Chelicerae 1.82 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 2.3, 1.76, 1.58, 1.0, 0.92, 7.56. II: 2.04, 1.5, 1.42, 1.0, 0.88, 6.84. III: 2.0, 1.38, 0.98, 1.0, 0.9, 6.26. IV: 2.58, 1.8, 2.0, 2.12, 1.32, 9.82. Palp: 1.46, 1.18, 0.9, -, 1.3, 4.8. Midwidths: femora I-II = 0.70, III = 1.0, IV = 0.8, palp = 0.6; tibia I-II = 0.62, III = 0.72, IV = 0.76, palp = 0.6. Abdomen 5.74 long, 4.00 wide. PLS, total length 1.66, (0.80 basal, 0.60 middle, 0.26 apical; midwidths 0.60, 0.40, 0.30 respectively), 0.20 apart.

Color in alcohol: Carapace, legs and palp yellowish-brown. Abdomen yellowish-cream, dorsally with irregular brown chevron marking running from dorsal to lateral sides (Fig. 15). Ventral side, yellowish-cream with few small brown spots and blotches between spinnerets and book lungs (Fig. 19).

Carapace covered with blackish-brown hair; few short and long black bristles on caput. Bristles: nine long, two short on caput in mid-dorsal line; two long, one short anteromedially; eight long, 12 short hairs between PME; four long, two short between ALE and clypeus edge. Fovea deep, straight with procurved ends. Interstrial ridges prominent, radiating from fovea.

Eyes: Group occupies 0.30 of head-width; ocular group front width, mid width, back width, length, 0.70, 0.90, 1.10, 0.80 respectively. Eyes in three rows, posterior row almost straight; posterior eyes opaque, rest transparent. MOQ front width 0.70, back width 0.80, length 0.50. Diameter, AME 0.30, ALE 0.40, PME 0.10, PLE 0.50. Eye interspaces: AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.10, ALE-ALE 0.20, PME-PLE adjacent, PME-PME 0.60.

Chelicerae: 2.36 long intact. Prolateral face glabrous, yellowish-orange with few small hairs; seven promarginal teeth and 12 basomesal teeth in 2-3 parallel lines. Rastellum on low mound, consists of nine short, thick, curved spines of which seven on mound and two in anterior line, accompanied by several pointed thin spines on dorsal, vertical face and upwards; two glabrous bands longitudinal on dorsolateral surface of chelicerae.

Labium: 0.60 wide, 0.40 long. Labiosternal groove shallow, broad with inconspicuous sigilla on either side, raised in center. Cuspules absent.

[FIGURES 15-21 OMITTED]

Maxillae: 1.10 long in front, 1.50 long in back, 0.80 wide; cuspules absent. Posterior heel slightly produced, anterior lobe short.

Sternum: 1.90 long, 1.60 wide. Sigilla indistinct.

Legs: uniformly yellowish-brown, covered with bristles and hairs; femora III thicker than rest; all legs of similar thickness; preening comb present on metatarsi III and IV; coxae IV widest; two glabrous bands running longitudinal on femora, patellae and tibiae (very prominent on patellae); leg formula 4123.

Spines: Leg III: pa, p = 5; ti, p = 1; mt, p = 3, r = 1, v = 6+10 distal; leg IV: mt, p = 2, r = 2, v = 10 distal. Elsewhere absent.

Scopula: Metatarsi I, 1/2 distal, scopulae not dense intermixed with few bristles; tarsi I, full, division with 2-3 rows of thin bristles; metatarsi II, distal half, rudimentary, scopuliform hair intermixed with few bristles; tarsi II, full, divided with 3-4 rows of bristles; metatarsi III, 1/4 distal, few scopuliform hairs intermixed with bristles and spines; tarsi III, full, divided with 6-7 rows of setae; metatarsi IV, few scopuliform hair distally; tarsi IV, full, divided with 6-7 rows of setae.

Trichobothria: Tarsi I, six clavate, 10-12 long and short filiform in two rows, for length; tarsi II, five clavate, 10 long and short filiform in two rows in v-shape; tarsi III, one (rest broken) clavate, 10 long filiform in distal half in two rows; tarsi IV, four clavate, 10 long in distal half in two rows. Clavate trichobothria confined to about basal 1/4 length of tarsi. Filiform in distal half on all tarsi in v-shape.

Claws: Claw tufts present on all legs and palp. All claws edentate, claws of legs I and II clearly smaller than on legs III and IV.

Abdomen: Cream with prominent irregular chevron marking running from dorsal to lateral sides; uniformly covered with short brown hairs. Ventrally cream with brown spots and blotches between spinnerets and book lungs.

Spermathecae: Two, finger-like, each stalk with outer lobe at distal half, outer lobe with sclerotized and twisted stalk (Fig. 20).

Spinnerets: PMS absent. PLS, covered with golden brown hair, apical segment dome-shaped.

Morphometry of female (WILD-07-ARA-196) (Table 1).--Total length 7.42. Carapace 2.94 long, 2.46 wide. Chelicerae 1.26 long. Sternum, 1.50 long and 1.30 wide. Labium 0.40 long, 0.60 wide. Maxillae 1.20 back length, 0.98 front length, 0.64 wide. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 1.68, 1.40, 1.24, 0.94, 0.88, 6.14. II: 1.46, 1.22, 1.12, 0.92, 0.86, 5.58. III: 1.24, 0.96, 0.88, 0.9, 0.86, 4.84. IV: 1.94, 1.20, 1.56, 1.66, 1.12, 7.48. Palp: broken. Midwidths: femora I = 0.64, II = 0.50, III = 0.78, IV = 0.64, palp = broken; tibia I = 0.56, II = 0.52, III = 0.64, IV = 0.62, palp = broken. Abdomen 4.48 long, 3.40 wide. PLS, total length 1.20 (0.60 basal, 0.40 middle, 0.20 apical; midwidths 0.50, 0.40, 0.20, respectively), 0.18 apart.

Distribution.--Orissa: Barkuda Island, Chilika Lake; Ganjam; Andhra Pradesh: Waltair (=Visakhapatnam) in Madras Presidency.

Remarks.--Roewer (1942:217, 218) incorrectly reported that Pocock (1900:175) had males of both D. walshi and D. halyi, whereas a male is known only for the latter.

Raven (1985) reported that the holotype of D. walshi was lodged in the Hope Collection, Oxford University but in checking with the current curator at the time, Ivor Lansbury, reported it could not be found. Raven, in 1983, also looked for it in a number of other European museums, including the Natural History Museum. We rechecked with the collections manager of the Hope Collection and it was reconfirmed that the type was lost. Our discovery of three species in the state of Orissa made the correct identification of D. walshi essential. The original locality given by O. Pickard-Cambridge (1890) was "Orissa, Calcutta" and the holotype was an immature female; the neotype is from that state. However, Calcutta is not in Orissa state, but as with many of these early collections, it is assumed that the published locality is a combination of the port of exit or the home of the collector. In this case, the collector was at the Calcutta Hospital (in West Bengal) and thus it is assumed that the spider's locality was the adjacent state of Orissa.

NATURAL HISTORY

These spiders were collected from Barkuda Island, Chilika Lake, southern Orissa. The vegetation on the Barkuda Island mainly consists of thorny shrubs (mainly Acacia spp. and Ziziphus spp.), cactus, and a few young trees. The burrows were constructed at the base of shrubs on the ground, amongst the roots in the loose soil. Burrows were very easy to dig as the soil was sandy. This spider seems to be very common on the island; in 30 minutes we found four spiders. Due to dense vegetation, we could not estimate the density of this spider population on the island.

The burrow structure (Fig. 21) was fork-shaped with two entrances leading to a short common chamber. The burrow was lined with silk, not as thick as that of D. gravelyi and D. tenebrosus, and being weak, broke on digging. Both entrances had circular, wafer-thin, hinged doors, their distance apart being about the diameter of an entrance. The outer surface of these hinged doors was covered with soil particles and bits of dry leaves, camouflaging it in the surrounding. The mean length of the burrow was 25 mm (range 15-25), of which the main chamber was about 8-10 mm long and the remainder was the length of the chambers leading to entrances. Diameter of the burrow entrances ranged between 6-7 mm (mean = 7 mm), similar to that reported by Gravely (1921).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to the following personnel: Sally Walker, Zoo Outreach Organisation for her constant support to the Indian Tarantula project; PCCF and Dr. S.K. Kar, Orissa Forest Department for giving permission to carry out spider surveys in different protected areas in Orissa; Dr. Peter Jager, Natural History Museum Senckenberg, for introducing MS to curators of various Natural History Museums; Suresh Kumar, Wildlife Institute of India, for commenting on the first draft of this paper; Saroj Behera and Ganapati Sahu, for their assistance during field work; Prof. M. Ganeshkumar, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore, for providing technical support; and Varad Giri, for providing much needed literature on trapdoor spider from the Bombay Natural History Society library. We thank DEFRA / FFI Flagship Species Fund (project No. 06/16/02 FLAG) for financial support to the Indian Tarantula project during the survey trip this spider was located. We are also very thankful to all the curators and researchers: Zoe Simmons, Hope Entomological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford; Rudy Jocque, Royal Museum for Central Africa; Bernhard A. Huber, Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Museum; Ambros Hanggi, Naturhsitorisches Museum Basel; Horweg Christoph, Natural History Museum Vienna; Nikolaj Scharff, Natural History Museum of Denmark; H. Dastych, University of Hamburg; Jason A. Dunlop, Museum fiir Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin; Christine Rollard, Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris for searching for the type specimen of D. walshi in their museums and university collections.

Manuscript received 24 July 2008, revised 26 January 2009.

LITERATURE CITED

Gravely, F.H. 1915. Notes on Indian mygalomorph spiders. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 11:257-287.

Gravely, F.H. 1921. The spiders and scorpions of Barkuda Island. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 22:399-421.

Gravely, F.H. 1935. Notes on Indian mygalomorph spiders. II. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 37:69-84.

Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1890. On some new species and two new genera of Araneida. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890:620-629.

Platnick, N.I. 2008. The World Spider Catalog, Version 8.5. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Online at http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html

Pocock, R.I. 1900. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Arachnida. Taylor and Francis, London. Pp. 1-279.

Raven, R.J. 1985. The spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182:1-180.

Roewer, C.F. 1942. Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940. Paul Budy, Bremen. Pp. 1-1040.

Siliwal, M. & S. Molur. 2007. Checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of South Asia including 2006 update of Indian spider checklist. Zoos' Print Journal 22(2):2551-2597 (plus 84 p. web supplement).

Simon, E. 1892. Histoire naturelle des araignees. Librairie Encyclopedique de Roret, Paris 1:1-256.

Walsh, J.H.T. 1891. A new trap-door spider from Orissa. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 59:269-270.

Manju Siliwal: Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society, 9-A, Lal Bahadur Colony, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641004, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: manjusiliwal@gmail.com

Sanjay Molur: Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society/ Zoo Outreach Organisation, 9-A, Lal Bahadur Colony, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641004, Tamil Nadu, India

Robert Raven: Queensland Museum, Grey Street, PO Box 3300, South Brisbane, 4101, Queensland, Australia
Table 1.--Taxonomic characteristics of three Diplothele species.

Character                        D. walshi

Size range of spider             7.42-10.60 mm
Color of spider in life          yellowish-brown
PMS                              absent
No. of maxillary cuspules        absent
Dorsal pattern on abdomen        chevron
Ventral pattern on abdomen       mottled
Rastellum                        9 short spines
Promarginal teeth (basomesal     7(12)
  teeth)
Patellae thorns III(IV)          present (absent)
scopula metatarsi III(IV)        1/4(few scopuliform hair
                                   distally)
Mt preening combs III(IV)        present
Shape of stalk of female         digitiform
  spermathecae
Shape of outer lobes of female   lobe with sclerotized and
  spermathecae                     twisted stalk

Habitat                          sandy soil, below shrubs,
                                   between roots
No. of burrow entrances          two (diameter of entrance)
  (distance between the two
  entrances)
Shape of burrow                  flimsy short fork/'Y' shape
Distribution                     Barkuda Island and nearby
                                   areas in Balugaon and
                                   Ganjam, Orissa

Character                        D. gravelyi

Size range of spider             14.70-16.90 mm
Color of spider in life          brown
PMS                              absent
No. of maxillary cuspules        3-4
Dorsal pattern on abdomen        chevron
Ventral pattern on abdomen       few small dots
Rastellum                        27-30 short spines
Promarginal teeth (basomesal     8(24)
  teeth)
Patellae thorns III(IV)          present (absent)
scopula metatarsi III(IV)        1/4(few scopuliform hair
                                   distally)
Mt preening combs III(IV)        present
Shape of stalk of female         digitiform
  spermathecae
Shape of outer lobes of female   curved towards inner side with
  spermathecae                     constriction at base and a
                                   notch towards distal end
Habitat                          rocky, close to water body,
                                   dry deciduous forest
No. of burrow entrances          two (two times entrance
  (distance between the two        diameter)
  entrances)
Shape of burrow                  perfect fork/'Y' shape
Distribution                     Satkosia WLS and nearby
                                   areas in Angul district, Orissa

Character                        D. tenebrosus

Size range of spider             17.00-21.62 mm
Color of spider in life          dark brown
PMS                              absent
No. of maxillary cuspules        3
Dorsal pattern on abdomen        chevron
Ventral pattern on abdomen       pallid
Rastellum                        39-42 short spines
Promarginal teeth (basomesal     9(20)
  teeth)
Patellae thorns III(IV)          absent (absent)
scopula metatarsi III(IV)        1/2(1/4)

Mt preening combs III(IV)        present
Shape of stalk of female         broader at base and gradually
  spermathecae                     narrowing towards apex
Shape of outer lobes of female   balloon shape with
  spermathecae                     constriction at base

Habitat                          roadside, mango orchard
                                   with dense undergrowth
No. of burrow entrances          one
  (distance between the two
  entrances)
Shape of burrow                  bulb like
Distribution                     Jadeshwar, Huma in Ganjam
                                   district; Berbera in Puri
                                   district, Orissa
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