Trends in choosing place of delivery and assistance during delivery in Nanded District, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: Delivery in a medical institution promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. Many initiatives under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) focus on increasing the institutional deliveries. This study describes the trends in choosing place of delivery in Nanded district at the end of the first phase of the mission. Key informants were interviewed to document the initiatives under NRHM implemented in the district. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 30 villages selected using one stage cluster-sampling method. A house-to-house survey was conducted in June 2009. A set of structured open-ended questionnaire was used for interviewing all women who had delivered during January 2004-May 2009. The outcomes studied were place of delivery and assistance during delivery. Analysis was done by calculating chi-square test and odds ratio. Interventions to improve the quality of health services and healthcare-seeking behaviour were implemented successfully in the district. The proportion of institutional deliveries increased from 42% in 2004 to 69% in 2009. A significant increase was observed in the proportion of institutional deliveries [60% vs 45%; [chi square] = 173.85, p<0.05, odds ratio (OR) = 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-1.97)] in the NRHM period compared to the pre-NRHM period. The deliveries in government institutions and in private institutions also showed a significant rise. The proportion of deliveries assisted by health personnel increased significantly during the NRHM period [62% vs 49%; [chi square] = 149.39; p < 0.05, OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.58-1.89] However, less than 10% of the deliveries in the home (range 2-9%) were assisted by health personnel throughout the study period. There was a wide geographic variation in place of delivery among the study villages. The results showed a significant increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries and deliveries assisted by health personnel in the NRHM period. Since a less proportion of deliveries in the home is conducted by health personnel, the focus should be on increasing the institutional deliveries. Special and innovative interventions should be implemented in the villages with a less proportion of institutional deliveries.

Key words: Community-based studies; Cross-sectional studies; Descriptive studies; Delivery; Rural health services; India
Article Type: Report
Subject: Childbirth (Demographic aspects)
Childbirth (Health aspects)
Rural health services (Evaluation)
Mothers (Patient outcomes)
Mothers (Demographic aspects)
Mothers (Control)
Infants (Patient outcomes)
Infants (Demographic aspects)
Infants (Control)
Authors: Pardeshi, Geeta S.
Dalvi, Shashank S.
Pergulwar, Chandrakant R.
Gite, Rahul N.
Wanje, Sudhir D.
Pub Date: 02/01/2011
Publication: Name: Journal of Health Population and Nutrition Publisher: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh ISSN: 1606-0997
Issue: Date: Feb, 2011 Source Volume: 29 Source Issue: 1
Geographic: Geographic Scope: India Geographic Code: 9INDI India
Accession Number: 254014400
Full Text: INTRODUCTION

The place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and well-being of the mother and the newborn (1). Institutional deliveries provide easy access to skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. One of the sociodemographic goals mentioned in the National Population Policy 2000 of India is to achieve 80% institutional deliveries and 100% deliveries to be assisted by skilled health personnel by 2015 (2). These two interventions have also been identified as important initiatives to reduce the maternal mortality ratio--the fifth Millennium Development Goal (3).

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 (20052006) reported that 31% of deliveries in rural India and 51% of deliveries in rural Maharashtra took place in an institution in the three-year period before the survey was conducted (4,5). The NFHS-3 also reported that health personnel assisted 40% of deliveries in rural India and 57% of deliveries in rural Maharashtra in the three-year period before the survey (4,5). The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), being implemented in the country from 2005 to 2012 (6), focuses on expanding and strengthening the existing rural health services. Simultaneously, it also includes various initiatives to promote institutional deliveries. The NRHM is being implemented in Nanded district, Maharashtra state in western India since April 2006.

This study describes the trends in institutional deliveries and assistance during delivery in the pre-NRHM and the NRHM period. We also document the various initiatives taken under the NRHM to increase the proportion of institutional deliveries in Nanded district.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 villages selected using the single-stage cluster-sampling method. The village-wise list of the 2001 census provided the sampling frame for selecting the villages.

Key informants, i.e. District Health Officer, Assistant District Health Officer, a few selected medical officers, and auxiliary nurse-midwives (ANMs), were interviewed to document the various initiatives taken under NRHM to increase the proportion of institutional deliveries in Nanded district.

The study included all women who were permanent residents of the sample villages, who had delivered during 1 January 2004-31 May 2009. Data were collected by a house-to-house survey in June 2009. A pre-tested open-ended questionnaire was used for collecting data. The outcomes studied were place of delivery and assistance during delivery. If the women were not present in the house at the time of the survey, proxy information was obtained from family members. Such proxy information was collected in the case of 53 deliveries.

Institutional delivery was defined as delivery in either government institutions (subcentres, primary health centres, first referral units, and district hospitals) or private clinics. Assistance by health personnel was defined as assistance by a doctor, a nurse, or an ANM.

The difference in the proportion of institutional and non-institutional deliveries and assistance by health professionals and others was assessed using the chi-square test and calculating the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Ethical clearance for conducting the study was obtained from the Ethical Committee, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded.

RESULTS

Many initiatives under NRHM are aimed at improving the proportion of institutional deliveries. The interventions have been implemented phase-wise since April 2006. These include interventions to improve the quality of services through staff appointments, development of infrastructure, provision of equipment, training and capacity-building, and public-private partnership. Provision of funds and strict monitoring ensured the successful implementation of the interventions. Attempts were made to improve the use of healthcare services through cash incentives, information, education, and communication (IEC) activities, and appointment of Rugna Kalyan Samitees (Table 1).

Trends in choosing place of delivery and assistance during delivery

A rising trend was observed after 2007 in the proportion of institutional deliveries, the proportion of deliveries in government institutions, and the proportion of deliveries in private institutions (Fig. 1).

The proportion of institutional deliveries increased from 42% in 2004 to 69% in 2009. The proportion of deliveries in the government institutions increased from 24% to 39%, and the proportion of deliveries in the private institutions increased from 18% in 2004 to 30% in 2009. The proportion of deliveries assisted by health personnel increased from 50% in 2004 to 70% in 2009 (Table 2).

A significant increase was observed in the proportion of institutional deliveries and deliveries in the government institutions and in the private institutions in the NRHM period compared to the preNRHM period (Table 3). Women were 1.8 times more likely to deliver in an institution in the NRHM period compared to the pre-NRHM period. Women were 1.46 times more likely to deliver in a government institution and 1.47 times more likely to deliver in a private institution in the NRHM period compared to the pre-NRHM period (Table 3). There was a significant increase in the proportion of deliveries assisted by the health personnel, with 1.73 times more chances of such assistance in the NRHM period.

Throughout the study period, less than 10% of the total number of deliveries in the home were assisted by the health personnel (Table 4).

The places of delivery during June 2008-May 2009 in the 30 villages were compared (Table 5). A wide variation was observed in the place of delivery among the study villages. In six villages, more than 50% of the deliveries had taken place in the government institutions. In three villages, no deliveries had occurred in the private institutions while, in four villages, more than 50% of the deliveries occurred in the home.

DISCUSSION

An increasing trend was observed in the proportion of institutional deliveries and deliveries assisted by health personnel over the study period which has been accelerated from 2007 as a result of the interventions under NRHM.

NRHM is being implemented in a campaign mode in which many initiatives, such as development of infrastructure and appointment of staff, are implemented phase-wise (7). The healthcare-seeking behaviour for intranatal care is a complex and multi-factorial entity. A number of social, economic, cultural and geographic factors are known to be related to the choice of the place of delivery (8-11). Hence, a multi-pronged and holistic approach, which addresses these issues, is needed to improve the number of institutional deliveries. The initiatives under NRHM address many of these issues, such as economic aspects, improving the quality of health services, behaviour change, etc. Many initiatives, such as Janani Suraksha Yojana, appointment of Rugna Kalyan Samitees, and development of infrastructure, are included in the basic framework of NRHM and have been implemented throughout the country under this mission. An impressive range of innovative approaches has also been adopted to address the local needs and gaps while implementing the programmes of NRHM (12). The roles of the Rugna Kalyan Samitees and Pregcare have been the innovative activities carried out in Nanded district.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Nearly 69% of the total number of deliveries (n=2,211) in 2008-2009 in rural Nanded were conducted in ins-titutions. A substantial increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries has been reported since the implementation of NRHM (13,14).

In this study, 39% of the total number (n=2,211) of deliveries in 2008-2009 were conducted in the government institutions and 30% in the private institutions. As the existing gaps in healthcare provision are met, it is expected that the contribution of public institutions in promoting institutional deliveries will substantially increase. The proportion of deliveries in the private institutions is also on the rise. However, studies have reported that the cost of delivery in the private sector is many times higher than that in the public sector (15,16). Public-private partnership and development of collective payment schemes to meet delivery-care needs have been recommended (16).

By May 2009, 70% of the deliveries in rural Nanded were assisted by the health personnel. All deliveries should be assisted by the health personnel if the sociodemographic goal is to be met. In this study, very few deliveries in the home were assisted by the health personnel. In a study of the national trends, two different trends in the proportion of deliveries attended by health personnel have been reported in six countries studied (17). One reflects a delivery-care model in which virtually all births are attended by health personnel in health facilities with a shift away from professional deliveries in the home towards professional deliveries in a health facility. In another model, an increase in attendance of professionals at delivery is driven by an increase in the number of births in the home by health personnel. The present study indicates that, in the first phase of NRHM, an increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries has contributed to an increase in the assistance during delivery by health personnel. The skilled attendance can only be provided when health professionals operate within a well-functioning health system, i.e. an enabling environment where drugs, equipment, supplies, and transport are available. However, increasing the proportion of institutional deliveries would have profound resource and logistical implications, and the health system needs to be ready to cater to the increasing demand.

Overall, there has been an increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries, yet regional variation remains within the country and between the districts too (18). The analysis of the institution-wise database on delivery status over a two-year period after the implementation of NRHM in Orissa showed that there was an overall 33% increase in institutional deliveries in the state but with a wide variation within the districts (19). In our study, there was a wide variation in the place of delivery among the villages which is the beginning of the regional variation. It is necessary to focus on the villages which report a high proportion of non-institutional deliveries.

This is a population-based study with a large sample-size which ensures that the findings are representative of the experiences of rural women of Nanded district. However, one of the limitations of the study is the proxy information in the case of 53 (0.64%) deliveries obtained during the survey. The increasing trend with time would lead to underestimation of the proportion of institutional deliveries for 2009. It is, therefore important to note that, although 2009 is mentioned in the study, the exact period of the study was only the first six months of 2009.

Conclusions

A significant increase was observed in the proportion of institutional deliveries and deliveries assisted by health personnel since the implementation of NRHM. It is necessary to sustain the achievements and further increase the coverage of the initiatives under NRHM. The villages with low proportion of institutional deliveries should be provided with specific interventions focusing on their needs and innovative approaches.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the contribution of all the Medical Officers, Health Workers, and Health Assistants who contributed in data collection. They also acknowledge the cooperation of the villagers who participated in this study.

REFERENCES

(1.) Dasgupta A, Deb S. Intranatal care practices in a backward village of West Bengal. J Obstet Gynecol India 2009;59:312-6.

(2.) India. National Commission on Population. National Population Policy, 2000. New Delhi: National Commission on Population, 2000. 2 p. (http://populationcommission.nic.in/npp_obj.htm, accessed on 9 September 2010).

(3.) Venkat B, Sudish SB, Durvasala R. Millennium health goals and India: status and progress. Hyderabad: Administrative Staff College of India, 2004.18 p.

(4.) International Institute for Population. Sciences. National family health survey (NFHS)-3, 2005-06: India. V. I. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences, 2007:208-20.

(5.) International Institute for Population Sciences. National family health survey (NFHS)-3, India, 2005-06: Maharashtra. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences, 2008:77.

(6.) India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Rural Health Mission: framework for implementation (2005-2012). New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2005. 168 p.

(7.) India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Guidelines for village health and sanitation committees, sub-centres, PHCs and CHCs. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2005. 18 p. (http://www.mohfw.nic.in/NRHM/Documents/ Guidelines_of_untied_funds_NRHM.pdf, accessed on 9 September 2010).

(8.) Sugathan KS, Mishra V, Retherford RD. Promoting institutional deliveries in rural India: the role of antenatal-care services. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences, 2001. 38 p. (National family health survey subject reports no. 20).

(9.) Thind A, Mohani A, Banerjee K, Hagig F. Where to deliver? Analysis of choice of delivery location from a national survey in India. BMC Public Health 2008;8:29.

(10.) Chakrabarti A. Factors governing maternal health care utilisation: evidence from rural India (abstract). 40th Annual Conference of the Indian Econometric Society, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore, 13-15 February 2004. Bangalore: Institute for Social and Economic Change, 2004. (http://ssrn.com/abstract=389280, accessed on 5 May 2010).

(11.) Pandey S, Shankar R, Rawat C, Gupta VM. Socio-economic factors and delivery practices in an urban slum of district Nainital, Uttaranchal. IJCM 2007;32:210-1.

(12.) India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Department for International Development. Directory of innovations implemented in the health sector (first draft). New Delhi: National Rural Health Mission, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2009. 267 p.

(13.) India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Four years of NRHM (2005-2009): making a difference everywhere. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2009. 58 p.

(14.) India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Concurrent assessment of Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) scheme in selected states of India, 2008: Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 2009. 59 p.

(15.) Iyengar SD, Iyengar K, Suhalka V, Agarwal K. Comparison of domiciliary and institutional delivery-care practices in rural Rajasthan, India. J Health Popul Nutr 2009;27:303-12.

(16.) Balaji R, Dilip TR, Duggal R. Utilization and expenditure on delivery care services: some observations from Nashik district, Maharashtra. Reg Health Forum 2003;7:34-41.

(17.) Bell J, Curtis SL, Alayon S. Trends in delivery care in six countries. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro, 2003. 62 p. (DHS analytical studies no. 7).

(18.) Bajpai N, Sachs JD, Dholakia RH. Improving access, service delivery and efficiency of the public health system in rural India: mid-term evaluation of the National Rural Health Mission. New York, NY: Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, 2009. 25 p. (CGSD working paper no. 37).

(19.) Lohani SK, Karmarkar M, Siya P. Mapping the status of institutional delivery in Orissa: a GIS based study 2005-07. Orissa: Mission Directorate, National Rural Health Mission: 2007. 76 p.

Geeta S. Pardeshi [1], Shashank S. Dalvi [1], Chandrakant R. Pergulwar [2], Rahul N. Gite [2], an Sudhir D. Wanje [1]

[1] Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded 431 605, India and [2] District Health Office, Zilla Parishad, Nanded 431 605, India

Correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed to:

Dr. Geeta S. Pardeshi

Snehniwas, Snehnagar

Workshop Road

Nanded 431 602

Maharashtra

India

Email: geetashrikar@yahoo.com

Fax: 02462-253001
Table 1. Interventions under NRHM aimed at improving the proportion
of institutional deliveries

Intervention                             Details

Cash incentives   Under the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), cash
                  incentives are provided to mothers to get them to
                  deliver their babies in a health facility. It covers
                  all pregnant women belonging to households of below
                  poverty-line (BPL) category, scheduled caste, or
                  scheduled tribes, over 19 years, and up to two
                  livebirths

Staff             Staff vacancies were identified as a major hurdle in
appointments      the implementation of the programme. Hence, new
                  appointments were made under which 149 of the 151
                  posts of medical officers in the district were
                  filled, and 91 of the 101 posts of medical officers
                  and specialists at the first referral units (FRUs)
                  were filled. A new cadre of general nurse-midwives
                  (GNMs) was appointed at the primary health centres
                  (PHCs)

Public-private    This was attempted through the mother NGO scheme,
partnership       accreditation of private clinics, and appointment of
                  specialists on a contract basis

Provision of      Blood-storage facilities were provided at three
equipment         first referral units, and baby-warmers, inverters,
                  oxygen cylinders, and solar heaters were provided
                  at the PHCs

Development of    Delivery-rooms were constructed in 161 of the 374
infrastructure    subcentres, and re- pairs and renovations were made
                  in 26 of the 63 PHCs in the first phase of the
                  programme

Training and      Three medical officers were trained for lifesaving
capacity-         anesthesia skills and posted at the FRUs, and
building          medical officers and paramedical staff were trained
                  in essential obstetric care

Role of Rugna     Rugna Kalyan Samitees are the registered societies
Kalyan Samitees   involving people's representatives in the management
                  of the hospital. In Nanded district, they have
                  provided funds for provision of transport facilities
                  during emergency, providing food to patients and
                  escorts during inpatient stay after delivery,
                  presenting clothes and coconut to mother at the time
                  of discharge, which is a traditional way of
                  honouring guests at the time of departure. These
                  activities have helped improve the image of the
                  public institutions

IEC activities    A group of 45 health workers and anganwadi workers
                  were selected and trained to conduct IEC on the topic
                  of maternal and child healthcare. Messages on the
                  importance of institutional deliveries were broadcast
                  on the radio regularly

Monitoring        The status of institutional deliveries was discussed
                  on a priority basis in the monthly meetings at the
                  District Health Office. Pregcare, a software
                  developed by the Assistant District Health Officer
                  at Nanded, was used for tracking all antenatal cases
                  and monitoring their antenatal care, intranatal
                  care, and postnatal care. All the subcentres were
                  linked through the PHCs to taluka medical officer
                  and finally to the district headquarters

Availability      Funds were available from NRHM and the Human
of funds          Development Mission which supported the institutional
                  deliveries as it contributed to reduce infant
                  mortality, an important component of human
                  development index

IEC=Information, education, and communication; NGO=Non-government
organization; NRHM=National Rural Health Mission

Table 2. Trends in choosing places and seeking assistance in
institutional deliveries, 2004-2009

                               Institutional deliveries

Year   Total no. of   Government    Institutional      Total
        deliveries    institution     deliveries

                      No.     %      No.     %       No.   %

2004      1,530       361   23.59    636   41.57    361   23.59
2005      1,419       341   24.03    638   44.96    341   24.03
2006      1,576       455   28.87    759   48.16    455   28.87
2007      1,477       405   27.42    759   51.39    405   27.42
2008      1,418       514   36.25    888   62.62    514   36.25
2009        793       313   39.47    550   69.36    313   39.47

       Assistance by health-
Year     personnel during
            delivery

          No.     %

2004      703   45.95
2005      695   48.98
2006      796   50.51
2007      801   54.23
2008      929   65.51
2009      557   70.24

Table 3. Comparison of proportion of place of deliveries and assistance
during deliveries

                                             Pre-NRHM
Delivery                  NRHM (n=3,688)     (n=4,525)      [chi
characteristics             No.     %        No.     %     square]

Institutional             2,197   59.57    2,033   44.93

Non-institutional         1,491   40.43    2,492   55.07   173.85

Delivery in govern-
ment institutions         1,232   33.41    1,157   25.57

Others                    2,456   66.59    3,368   74.43    60.11

Delivery in private
institutions                965   26.17      876   19.36

Others                    2,723   73.83    3,649   80.64    53.74

Assistance by health
personnel                 2,287   62.01    2,194   48.49

Assistance by relatives
and neighbours            1,401   37.99    2,331   51.51   149.39

Delivery                  OR (95% CI)
characteristics

Institutional

Non-institutional         1.8 (1.65-1.97)

Delivery in govern-
ment institutions

Others                    1.46 (1.32-1.60)

Delivery in private
institutions

Others                    1.47 (1.33-1.63)

Assistance by health
personnel

Assistance by relatives
and neighbours            1.73 (1.58-1.89)

CI=Confidence interval; NRHM=National Rural Health Mission;
OR=Odds ratio

Table 4. Proportion of home-deliveries conducted
by health personnel

                           Home-deliveries
        Total no. of     assisted by health
Year   home-deliveries        personnel
                            No.        %
2004         894            67       7.50
2005         781            71       9.09
2006         817            37       4.52
2007         718            42       5.84
2008         530            41       7.73
2009         243             7       2.88

Table 5. Distribution of place of delivery in the study villages

                              Place of delivery

% of total       Government       Private institution   Home (n=30)
deliveries   institution (n=30)         (n=30)

                 No.     %            No.    %          No.     %

<5                0     0              3   10.00         0     0.00
5-25              5    16.67          16   53.33         4    13.33
26-50            19    63.33          11   36.67        22    73.34
51-75             4    13.33           0    0.00         4    13.33
>75               2     6.67           0    0.00         0     0.00
Gale Copyright: Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.