Trees and their economic importance.
|Abstract:||The biological and logical meaning of trees, which are one of the important woody plants of our ecosystem, are reviewed in this article. Trees are mostly used for timber purposes, but in the present article the utility of trees with respect to their importance in restoring, reclaiming and rejuvenating denuded and disturbed soils, their ecological, ecodevelopmental and environmental use, and their educational and recreational value in gardening, landscaping and bioesthetic planning is described. In addition, the importance of trees is discussed with reference to their value as a source of sustenance: food, sugars, starches, spices and condiments, beverages, fumitories, masticatories and narcotics, medicines, essential oils, fatty oils and vegetable fats, waxes, soap substitutes, vegetable ivory, fodder, fuel, bioenergy or biofuel, fertilizers, fiber, pulp and paper, tannins, dyes, rubber and other latex products, gums, resins and cork. Lastly, the food plants of mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms, which feed on the leaves of many forest trees, are mentioned.|
|Publication:||Name: The Botanical Review Publisher: New York Botanical Garden Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2003 New York Botanical Garden ISSN: 0006-8101|
|Issue:||Date: Oct-Dec, 2003 Source Volume: 69 Source Issue: 4|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research|
II. Introduction and Classification of Trees
Trees are important to humankind not only economically, environmentally and industrially but also spiritually, historically and aesthetically, for they sustain human life through direct and indirect gains by providing a wide range of products for survival and prosperity. However, it is not always easy to define "tree." A tree is a large, long-lived (i.e., perennial) woody plant that attains a height of at least 6 m (20 ft) at maturity in a given locality and usually--but not always--has a single main self-supporting stem called a "trunk" or a "bole," which gives off spreading branches, twigs and foliage to make a crown (Venkatesh, 1976; Panshin & de Zeeuw, 1980; Hawkins, 1986). Since the diameter at breast height (dbh) of trees is determined internationally at 1.35 m (4.5 ft) above the ground, a tree must be unbranched--i.e., with a single trunk--at least up to 1.5 m (5 ft) from the ground. But this definition does not cover the following (Venkatesh, 1976), which are also considered trees:
* Palms are typically unbranched trees with only one trunk (columnar stem), called the "caudex," which ends in a crown of large leaves.
* Bamboos are trees without a main trunk but with a cluster of culms arising from the underground rhizome. These culms are unbranched, with distinct nodes and internodes that give them a jointed appearance.
* The banana tree (plant) has only a thick false stem (pseudostem), which is not woody but made up of a central core of soft tissues concealed by the fibrous and sheathing bases of large leaves. Strictly speaking, the banana plant is a giant herb.
* Tree ferns like Cyathaea and Alsophila have erect rhizomes with generally unbranched trunks, topped by a crown of graceful, feathery fronds that form a rosette at the apex.
* Bonsai--i.e., tailored or humanmade miniature or dwarfed living trees that have been prevented from reaching their normal size--are grown in pots and kept in greenhouses, drawing rooms, etc. This technique was first perfected by the Japanese.
In addition to the above definitions, the scientific distinction between trees, shrubs, lianas and undershrubs or semishrubs is not always clear. For example, many species of trees--.g. Rhododendron spp., which are large under normal conditions--become shrubs when growing near their altitudinal and latitudinal limits. Woody plants in which several branches arise from near the base, giving the plant a bushy appearance, are called "shrubs." Likewise, certain species of figs (Ficus spp.) begin their life as woody climbers called "lianas" but eventually end up as trees; i.e., they become arborescent. Similarly, Grewia scabrophylla at times is an undershrub, when exposed to annual fires; in other places, however, it grows into a tall shrub (Panshin & de Zeeuw, 1980). The science dealing with the study of woody plants--i.e., trees and shrubs--is called "dendrology."
Trees can be classified in several ways: Depending upon their utility or end products, they may be called "avenue," "ornamental," "shade bearing," "fragrant," "fruit bearing," "medicinal" or "drug yielding," "timber yielding," "fodder yielding," "nitrogen fixing," "venerated," "fuel yielding," "fiber yielding," "multipurpose trees," etc. Those trees that remain green in their dormant season due to persistence of leaves are called "evergreen trees." In such trees all the leaves do not fall off simultaneously, and the plants are never leafless. Those trees in which all the leaves of a plant fall at the end of one growing season one by one or simultaneously, leaving the plant leafless in the dormant season, are called "deciduous trees." All cone-being trees are called "conifers" or "coniferous trees," and all trees that are not cone bearing but are flower bearing are called "flowering trees" or "broad-leaved trees." Whereas conifers have needle-shaped leaves, flowering trees have broad or flattened leaves.
A conifer usually has a conical appearance and has an excurrent stem; i.e., its main stem is thickest at the base and gradually tapers toward the apex, with lateral branches in an acropetal succession. A flowering tree usually has a dome-shaped appearance and a deliquescent or decurrent stem in which the main trunk divides at some distance from the ground into several branches, which branch again and again, making the trunk appear to deliquese or melt away.
Ornamental trees that have showy flowers are called "ornamental flowering trees," and those with beautiful foliage and inconspicuous flowers are called "ornamental foliage trees." The former are usually deciduous; the latter, evergreen.
Those trees in which seeds are borne naked are called "gymnosperms" (from the Greek gymnos [naked] and sperma [seed]), and those trees in which seeds are enclosed within an ovary/fruit wall are called "angiosperms" (from the Greek angeon [vesicle] and sperma [seed]). The angiospermic trees are further classified into dicotyledonous or dicot trees, if they have two cotyledons in their seeds, and monocotyledonous or monocot trees, if they have only one cotyledon in their seeds. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms are sometimes placed under one division, called "spermatophyta," "siphonagama" or "phanerogams." "Spermatophytes" (from the Greek sperma [seed] and phyton [plant]) are those plants that are seed bearing. "Siphonagama" (from the Greek siphon [tube] and gamous [marriage]) are those plants in which fertilization occurs by means of a pollen tube. "Phanerogamous" (from the Greek phaneros [open] and gamous [marriage]) are those plants in which reproduction is not concealed or hidden but open; i.e., they bear flowers and produce seeds. Trees belonging to gymnosperms and angiosperms not only constitute the dominant component of any vegetation but also add to the biodiversity or biological diversity of any particular region.
III. The Economic Importance of Trees
Trees represent one of the important components of each and every terrestrial ecosystem and are a part of nature's precious gifts. Some are deciduous; others are evergreen. Some have beautiful flowers; others have beautiful fruits or foliage. Some are scented; others are ugly but economically very important. The welfare of humankind is affected not only by their density and diversity but also by their direct and indirect values, which are beyond estimation. In fact, each letter of the plural word "TREES" has a logical meaning (Seth, 2002):
A. TREES AS A SOURCE OF TIMBER
Trees are woody perennial plants, i.e. they are capable of producing wood through the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. The latter gives rise to secondary xylem (nontechnically called "wood") toward its inner side and to secondary phloem (nontechnically called "bark") toward its outer side. Wood produced by cycads is called "manoxylic." It is not compact--i.e., it is loose, not dense--with wide rays, pith and cortex and thus useless commercially. Wood produced by conifers, taxads, Ginkgo biloba and dicots is called "pycnoxylic." It is compact and dense, with narrow rays, pith and cortex and hence commercially very useful. The commercially useful woods are called "timbers," and timber that is used for building purposes is called "lumber." Tectona grandis (teak) and Cedrus deodara (deodar) are, respectively, considered the best angiospermic and gymnospermic timbers in the world.
Woods obtained from timber trees are used for construction and other miscellaneous purposes like agricultural implements, boat and ship building, carts and carriages, carving and turnery, cooperage (barrel making), electric poles, engraving and printing blocks, furniture and cabinet work, matches and match boxes, mathematical instruments, musical instruments, packing cases and boxes, pencil and pen holders, picture framing, railway carriage and wagon building, railway sleepers, rifle parts, shoe heels and boot lasts, shuttles, sports goods, tea chests, toys, etc. For examples of these one may consult Anonymous (1970-1972, 1983) and Trotter (1940, 1944).
B. TREES IN THE RESTORATION, RECLAMATION AND REJUVENATION OF DENUDED AND DISTURBED SOILS
Planting trees on denuded and waste land, along roads, railway tracks, deserted areas, watersheds, etc. protects soil from erosion by wind or water by firmly binding it with roots and by diverting runoff during rains. The sides of the roads, railway tracks and watersheds can thus be protected. Desertification can likewise be controlled by planting trees. The trees also retain moisture in the soil, and if nitrogen-fixing trees are grown, the nutrient status of the soil can be enriched tremendously.
The sap of Cassia fistula (amaltas) leaves contains certain chemicals that have a purgative action on the digestive organs of grazing animals like goats, cows and buffalo, and thus amaltas is well suited for planting on wastelands. Wild fruit trees like Zizyphus jujuba (ber) and Morus alba (toot) can also be propagated on wastelands in and around villages.
C. ECOLOGICAL, ECODEVELOPMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENT USES OF TREES
1. Natural Purifiers of the Environment
Plants, including shrubs and trees, act as biological filters by helping cleanse the environment. They are the best natural purifiers of environment pollution; i.e., they improve the quality of the air we breathe. First, they act as the oxygen banks on this planet. They play an important role in maintaining the oxygen cycle, which is essential for the survival of all forms of life. Second, they may help reduce pollution. Leaves can absorb gaseous pollutants on their surfaces, especially if their surfaces are waxy, spiny or hairy. In addition, stems, branches and twigs can intercept particulates. Third, they reduce oxides of carbon in the air, can also fix atmospheric nitrogen, disintegrate waste and act as sinks of pollution or pollutant scavenges by absorbing and metabolizing toxic gases and heavy metals (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).
Different species as well as individuals within a species can vary in their tolerance to pollutants. High concentrations of pollutants can damage and even kill many tree species. Trees that are particularly sensitive could be used as early warnings of high pollution levels.
2. Environmental Screens
When properly grown in urban and rural areas, trees act as wind barriers by decreasing the force of the wind and reducing the level of noise from highways and other sources. Even individual trees, if strategically planted around a house, can provide relief from noise and annoying lights at night. Trees thus reduce stress on human beings. Ecologically they act as wind breaks and shelter belts, thus providing protection against soil erosion and a defense against encroachment by seas, floods and deserts.
3. The Physical Environment
Trees help to reduce temperature by providing shade and by intercepting, absorbing and reflecting solar radiation, especially in warmer places, where there is year-round warmth and sunshine (Schubert, 1979). Trees also function as natural air conditioners by evaporating water from their leaves through the process of transpiration. A single large, well-watered city tree can transpire about 380 liters (100 gallons) of water in one day, thus producing the cooling effect of five average room air conditioners running 20 hours a day (Schubert, 1979). Trees thus improve the microclimate; i.e., they help control and stabilize the climate of the region and of the world as a whole. A single tree standing alone may not affect the overall surrounding much, but a belt or groups of trees or many trees scattered throughout the neighborhood can be quite effective (Schubert, 1979).
Trees, both native and ornamental, harbor wildlife. They directly feed and house the majority of world's creatures and animals like insects, birds, small mammals and reptiles, which we need in order to live. Thus they play a major role as one of the important components of natural and humanmade biodiversity.
5. Urban and Rural Afforestation Programs
Large-scale urbanization and industrialization have led to the development of severely eroded, barren and denuded areas, rocks, cliffs, etc. on which direct plantation of trees is difficult. In such cases shrubs act as the primary colonizers of denuded areas. The successful growths of shrubs create favorable conditions for tree growth by way of retaining moisture, increasing soil nutrient status and sheltering the trees from frost, wind and other biotic interferences through the process of secondary succession. The whole forest-management program can thus bring not only greenery to the Himalayas and other urban and rural regions of India but also stability to the environment by restoring the ecological balance (Maithani et al., 1991).
6. Road Safety
The presence of shrubs and trees along roadsides makes their edges and curves conspicuous, thus making a natural guide for safe driving, and for this purpose the lower portions of their stems are usually painted white (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).
7. Protection of Road Surfaces
The semimelting of tar or bitumen in summers, cracking of road surfaces during hot weather and mechanical damage to road surfaces by heavy downpours and hailstorms can largely be prevented by growing roadside trees with thick crowns (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).
D. THE EDUCATIONAL AND RECREATIONAL VALUE OF TREES
Increased urbanization and industrialization have resulted in isolating humans from nature. Trees can help make urban areas green, livable and beautiful. Trees with colorful flowers or foliage add extra attractiveness. They are the dominant elements of gardens and contribute substantially to the garden atmosphere.
According to Kohli (1996), the comfortable urban life needs better avenue trees and shrubs, because:
* An agricultural component is not feasible;
* Comfortable temperatures and microclimates for residents are needed;
* Pollutants that pose major problems are to be removed;
* Cool shade is needed in summer; and
* Dense populations need vegetation for gaseous exchange.
Trees are thus a source of pleasure and recreation when they are planted along roads and railway tracks and in botanical gardens, arboreta, city parks, squares, home gardens, public places, industrial areas, etc. The cultivation of trees for their aesthetic or recreational value is known as "arboriculture." In an ornamental garden they are usually planted either as specimen trees or in groups. The educational and recreational value of trees can be studied under the following headings:
1. Shade and Shelter (or Avenue Trees)
The concept of avenue planting is as old as the vedic period. It was during the period of Ashoka (260 B.C.) and later during the reign of Kanishka (A.D. 78-101) and the Mughals, however, that the foundations of proper roadside avenues were laid.
When properly grown, the tall, fast-growing and majestic trees with thick foliage along roadsides provide not only shade for pedestrians and travelers but also shelter for stray animals from scorching heat, wind, rain, etc. Species selected for such purposes should not be thorny or prickly (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).
The other important factors for selection of roadside trees, according to Chakraverty and Jain (1984) and Randhawa (1961, 1965-1983), are:
* The trees should be branchless up to 3-4 m above the soil surface so that vehicles can pass easily, particularly on narrow roads.
* On national highways or on very wide roads, two to three deep rows of large trees spaced 5-6 m apart should be planted. These trees should have good, dense crowns so they can provide adequate shade and protection from rain, sun and hail.
* Dwarf trees or medium-sized-to-large shrubs, preferably ever blooming in nature, should be selected for boulevards and road medians.
* The trees should not have spreading crowns that might obstruct the growth of trees in the opposite row.
* Trees on the two sides of the road should not be opposite each other; they should be planted alternately.
* Fuel-wood species and fodder species should not be chosen for the roadsides, because they are likely to be lopped, pruned and chopped by the neighboring inhabitants, thus destroying the landscaping and giving the avenue a shabby appearance.
* The root system of the trees should be neither very spreading nor very shallow. Trees with very robust and spreading root systems damage the masonry work of roads, foot paths and adjacent buildings. On the other hand, trees with shallow root system, like Millingtonia hortensis (mahanim), topple over in storms and obstruct traffic. Thus trees with deep root systems should be selected.
* Trees like Ficus benghalensis (bat or barghad) have hanging aerial roots, which would obstruct traffic and pedestrians, so they should not be selected.
* Soft-wooded and brittle trees like Albizia lebbek, Cassia siamea, Eucalyptus spp., Eugenia jambolana, Ficus glomerata, Millingtonia hortensis and Sygyzium cumini should not be planted along roadsides, for they tend to break in storms and block traffic.
* During summers and rainstorms, protection from sun and rain are most needed, so trees that shed their leaves during these periods should not be planted. Moreover, fallen leaves in the rainy season make the road slippery and block the drainage system.
* Various species of Acacia, Zizyphus, etc., which are prickly or thorny, should not be planted because the fallen prickles or thorns cause trouble for pedestrians, animals and people and may also damage the tires of cycles and vehicles.
* The trees should have the ability to withstand winter lopping, when little shade is required. These loppings can be utilized as fuel wood (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).
* Too many species should not be mixed within short distances, particularly on roads away from cities and towns.
Randhawa (1965-1983) recommended avenue trees for planting purposes: as foliage trees for outer avenues for town roads, Albizia procera (safed siris), Anthocephalus cadamba (kadam), Averrhoea carambola (kamrak), Bassia latifolia (mahua), Callistemon lanceolatum (lal botal brush), Dalbergia sissoo (shisham), Eugenia operculata, Mangifera indica (mango), Melia azedarach (drek), Pithecolobium saman (rain tree), Platanus orientalis (chinar), Polyalthia longifolia (ashoka), Putranjiva roxburghii, Sterculia alata, Tamarindus indica (imli), etc; as flowering trees for inner avenues for town roads, Bauhinia purpurea (gulabi kachnar), B. variegata (kachnar), Cassia fistula (amaltas), Colvillea racemosa (kilbili), Gliricidia maculata (madre tree), Grevillea robusta, Jacaranda mimosaefolia (nili-gul-mohur), Lagerstroemia flosreginae (jarul, crepe flower), L. thorelli (barri sanwani), Peltophorum ferrugineum (ivalvagai), Poinciana regia (gul mohur), Spathodea nilotica (fountain tree), etc.
2. Ornamental Flowering Plants
Ornamental trees that have showy flowers are called "ornamental flowering trees." India has the largest number of flowering trees in the world, indigenous as well as exotic, that can be utilized for beautifying towns. Many trees bloom at a particular season and appear more effective when planted in groups.
In small and medium-sized gardens, ornamental trees should be planted only in the boundaries as foundation planting. An "arboretum" is a garden of trees. While planting a tree, beauty and utility should be combined deftly. The best time for planting trees is during the rainy season.
Dwarf ornamental flowering trees suitable for small compounds are Acacia auriculiformis, Alangium lamarckii, Bauhinia purpurea, B. variegata, Brownea ariza, B. coccinea, Butea frondosa, Cassia fistula, C. javanica, C. marginata, Cochlospermum gossypium, Cordia sebestena, Crataeva religiosa, Erythrina blakei, E. cristagalli, Gliricidia maculata, Guaicum officinale, Holarrhena antidysentrica, Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Kleinhovia hospita, Lagerstroemia thorelli, Mesua ferrea, Milletia auriculata, Plumeria alba, P. rubra, Pongamia glabra, Saraca indica, Solanum wrightii, Spathodea nilotica, Sterculia colorata, Tecomella undulata, Thespesia populnea, etc. (Cowen, 1950; Randhawa, 1965-1983).
For large compounds, some examples of beautiful flowering trees are Anthocephalus indicus, Bombax malabaricum, Cassia grandis, C. nodosa, Chorisia speciosa, Colvillea racemosa, Lagerstroemia flos-reginae, Millingtonia hortensis, Peltophorum ferrugineum, Poinciana regia and Sterculia colorata (Cowen, 1950; Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Trivedi (1983, 1987, 1996) recommended the following small trees for the hills: Acacia alata (with bright yellow flowers), A. dealbata (with light yellow flowers), Bauhinia variegata (with rose, purple and white flowers), Magnolia grandiflora (with white flowers), Prunus serrulata (with pink flowers), Rhododendendron arboreum (with crimson flowers) and R. campanulatum (with magenta flowers). Trivedi also recommends a few trees for cultivation on the plains.
3. Ornamental Foliage Plants
Ornamental trees with beautiful foliage but inconspicuous flowers are called "ornamental foliage trees." Common examples are palms, evergreen conifers, Acacia auriculiformis, Averrhoa carambola, Callisternon lanceolatum, Citharexylum subserratum, Diospyros embryopteris, Eucalyptus spp., Ficus infectoria, F. retusa, Kigelia pinnata, Phyllanthus emblica, Polyalthia longifolia, Putranjiva roxburghii, Tamarindus indica and Terminalia arjuna (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).
Evergreen shrubs and trees provide a structure for the garden during winter months. Without them the garden will look bleak and dull, when the foliage of most herbaceous perennials disappears, leaving only bare stems and branches.
In temperate regions conifers constitute the most important and showy group of plants. Many varieties show symmetrical growth and are frequently used in formal gardens. They keep their ornamental effect even in winter, when most broad-leaved trees shed their leaves. Common examples of foliage trees in the hills are the species of Araucaria, Cryptomeria and Cupressus (Trivedi, 1983, 1987, 1996).
4. Ornamental Fragrance Plants
Many trees combine beauty with fragrance. Some trees that are commonly cultivated for scent or fragrance are Acacia podalyriaefolia, Anthocephalus indicus (kadam), Biota orientalis, Citrus aurantifolium (lime), C japonica, C limon (lemon), Cymphomandra betacea, Gardenia lucida, G. latifolia, G resinifera (dekamali), Galphimia gracilis, Grewia asiatica, Luculia gratissima, Magnolia grandiflora (bara champa), Michelia champaca (champa or champak), Mimusops elengi (maulsari), Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (harsinghar), Plumeria tuberculata, Rhododendron formosum and Sambucus nigra (Randhawa, 1961). In home gardens these can be planted opposite windows and doors of bedrooms, so that one can enjoy their fragrance in the evening, particularly in summer months (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983; Trivedi, 1990).
Some examples of fragrant ornamental trees for large compounds are Dillenia indica, Mimusops elengi and Pterospermum acerifolium (Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Trees with snow-white, fragrant flowers against the background of dark green foliage are very delightful for moonlit gardens. Some common examples in this category are Bauhinia alba, Citharexylum subserratum, Crutaeva religiosa, Delonix regia, Dillenia indica, Erythrina variegata, Gardenia resinifera, Gliricidia alba, Holarrhena antidysentrica, Lagerstromia indica (white), Millingtonia hortensis, Mimusops elengi, M. hexandra, Plumeria acutifolia, P. alba, Prunus domestica and Wrightia tinctoria (Randhawa, 1961).
5. Ornamental Fruiting Plants
Trees commonly grown for their beautiful, attractive and colorful fruits are Citrus microcarpea, Hazara orange and other Citrus spp., papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas cornosus), tree tomato (Cymphomandra betacea), banana (Musa paradisiaca), strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), quince (Cydonia oblonga), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), common spindle tree (Euonymus europeaus), gean (Prunus avium), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) (Lunardi, 1987; Trivedi, 1983, 1987, 1996). Planting of trees in and around children's park can provide vitamins and nutrients to children when they eat the fruit as they play.
6. Ornamental Hedges
Hedges provide a natural background for a garden, as a frame does for a painting. The hedge may be external or internal. An external hedge--live fence--is usually tall, measuring about 1.5-2.5 m (5-9 ft) high, and it may replace the compound wall; thus it demarcates the garden from the public road. It also serves as a protective screen against wind and noise pollution. Species selected for external hedges should be tall, fast-growing and evergreen, with thick and dense foliage from the base to the top. The blooms should not clash with the general color scheme. An internal hedge that separates parts within a garden is not as tall. It is usually 30-90 cm (1-3 ft) tall. Species that are capable of growing under adverse conditions and require minimal maintenance are selected for both types of hedges.
Species of Biota, Cupressus, Ilex, Juniperus, Thuja, etc. are used for evergreen hedges. The following flowering trees may be used for making colorful hedges: Bauhinia acuminata, Bougainvillaea spp., Erythrina indica, Hibiscus spp., Meyenia erecta, Plumbago capensis, Sesbania aegyptica, Strobilanthes spp. and Tecoma stans (Randhawa, 1961).
7. Live Screens and Fences
In cities and towns trees can be utilized for screening the premises of adjacent houses and thus maintaining privacy. Servants' quarters and other unsightly views like manure pits, potting areas, etc. in large gardens can also be screened by growing closely spaced, small trees. Species with prickles or spines or having stiff branches or both with nonedible leaves should be preferred, according to the requirements. Ideally, the species selected for this purpose should be fast growing, of medium height, long-lived, capable of growing under adverse conditions and with minimal maintenance requirements (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).
8. Sculpture and Topiary
Topiary is an art of shaping hedges--shrubs--and trees into an ornamental form like a ball, spiral, table, cube, etc., into a figure like a bird, beast or human or into a theme such as a farmer with a pair of bullocks. A formal garden is most suitable for topiary work because it creates an Old World appearance. The most common examples used for such purposes are Buxus sempervirens, Cupressus macropoda, Murraya exotica and Taxus baccata (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).
Ornamental trees are not only a source of recreation and pleasure but also educate people, when visitors in gardens and travelers along roadsides wish to know the names and uses of such trees. If roads and gardens are named after some dominant shrub and tree species, the work of making them familiar to the public becomes easier (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).
10. Landscaping and Bioaesthetic Planning
Shrubs and trees improve the landscape. For example, trees along roadsides are a source of beauty not only to the road but also to the length and breadth of the area through which the road runs. Along roads, fuelwood, fodder and thorny species should not be chosen. Shrubs and trees constitute two of the most important components of landscaping and bioaesthetie planning of urban cities and towns. Many species bloom at a particular season and appear more effective when planted in groups (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).
As far as possible, native species should be selected, because, apart from their aesthetic value, scenic beauty and immediate utility, these trees involve reduced maintenance costs, preserve biological diversity and prevent species extinction. They are also a valuable national asset and a reserve of timber and fuel in case of emergency. It is estimated that India has the largest number of flowering trees in the world, indigenous as well as exotic, that can be utilized for beautifying cities and towns.
It may he mentioned here that bioaesthetic planning of ornamental trees has a close relationship with plant ecology. Plants must be planted only in those localities or habitats that are similar to their natural habitats or surroundings, because the texture of the soil, the availability of water resources, the amount of rainfall, the presence of rivers, canals and tanks and the temperature play an important role in the growth and survival of the trees (Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Trees must be planted in habitats that are similar to their natural surrounding--i.e., that have approximately the same edaphic and climatic conditions--otherwise either dwarfing may occur or the species will not be able to survive. Some examples of ornamental flowering trees suited to moist localities are Amherstia nobilis, Bauhinia purpurea, Brownea ariza, B. coccinea, Cassia javanica, C. marginata, C. nodosa, Colvillea racemosa, Guaicum officinale, Lagerstroemia flos-regine, L. thorelli, Milletia auriculata, Poinciana regia, Peltophorum ferrugineum, Pithecolobium saman, Saraca indica and Solanum wrightii (Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Examples of ornamental flowering trees suited to dry localities are Acacia auriculiformis, Butea frondosa, Cassia fistula, Cochlospermum gossypium, Cordia subestena, Erythrina blakei, E. indica, Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Melia azadirachta, Plumeria alba, Pongamia glabra, Spathodea campanulata, S. nilotica, Sterculia colorata, Tecomella undulata and Thespesia populnea (Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Drought-resistant trees suitable for arid regions are Albizia lebbek (siris), Butea frondosa (dhak), Cassia fistula (amaltas), Casuarina equisetifolia (beefwood tree), Eucalyptus citriodora (safeda), Melia azedarach (Persian lilac, bakain), Morus indica (mulberry), Phoenix daetylifera (khajoor), Prosopis juliflora (mesquite bean), Salvadora persica (pilu), etc. (Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Some examples of salt-resistant trees are Azadirachta indica (neem), Butea frondosa (dhak), Bassia latifolia (mahua), Eucalyptus citriodora (safeda), Phoenix dactylifera (khajoor), Phyllanthus emblica (amla), Psidium guava (amrood), Tamarix articulata (farash) and Thespesia populnea (bhendi) (Randhawa, 1965-1983).
Trees for swamps and marshy areas are Eucalyptus rostrata, Salix tetrasperma (willow), S. babylonica, Sapium sebiferum (makhan), Tamarix articulata (farash), plantain, etc. (Randhawa, 1965-1983). Sapium sebiferum, known as Chinese tallow tree, is a medium-sized, deciduous tree whose leaves display lovely autumn tints. It is used for stream training in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesb.
From one end of the world to the other we can trace the extreme power of trees over the minds of humans. Christmas trees, May trees, pomegranates, Ginkgo biloba, bo trees, etc. can be cited as occupying a place in the religious and ceremonial activities in diveve cultures throughout the world. In India alone 99 trees are venerated (Bennet et al., 1992). In ancient times rishis worshiped several trees as Vrikshadevta and Vanadevta. Groves of trees and flower gardens were tended with loving care and were called "vrikshavatika" and "pushpavatika," respectively. Several such protected forest groves or gardens, including Ashoka Vatika, Chitrakoot and Panchvatti, were known in ancient India.
12. Art and Culture
A tree laden with flowers and/or fruits is a great joy to the beholder. Native trees have a special place in Indian folk songs. Immortal poets and writers like Valmiki and Kalidasa have sung songs in praise of trees. Even folktales have celebrated the importance and beauty of trees in India (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).
Indian trees have a personality of their own. The beauty of Indian trees has been sketched or painted by many artists (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983), like Bireshwar Sen and his wife, Lakshmi, Sarbjeet Singh, Ganga Singh, Anil Roy Chowdhry, Gopal Ghosh, Manishi Day, Madhava Menon, Devyani Kanwal Krishna, Sudhir Khastgir, Francis Brunell, Madame Sass Brunner and her daughter Elizabeth, A. K. Gohel, R. A. Eklund, E. Blatter, P. N. Sharma, A. K. Sharma, H. Smith, Margaret Thacker, G. Millard (Lady Kinnear), Sister Marychionia, Lady Douie, S. H. Prater, H. Robinson and H. N. Wandrekar. Many of their works have been included in books on Indian botany (Seth et al., 2002).
Kalidasa observed that the women of Alkapuri rubbed the dust of lodhra flowers on their cheeks, maghya flowers decorated their temples, kuruvaka flowers hung from the knots of their hair and sirisha flowers decorated their ears. Elsewhere, in the monsoon kadamba flowers glorified women's heads. The women carried pink lotuses in their hands, decorated their tress knots with white champaka, wore bracelets of jasmine around their wrists and wore garlands of jasmine and bela (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).
India's vast, rich Sanskrit literature contains the names of several trees, including the ornamental trees arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), asoka (Saraca indica), champaka (Michelia champaca), chuta (Mangifera indica), devadaru (Cedrus deodara), gandharaja (Gardenia florida), kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba), kamikara (Pterospermum acerifolium), ketaki (Pandanus odoratissimus), kimsuka (Butea frondosa), kovidara (Bauhinia purpurea), kunda (Jasminum pubescens), kuravaka (Lawsonia alba), lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), mandara (Erythrina indica), naga kesara (Mesua ferrea), narikela (Cocos nucifera), parijataka (Nyctanthes arbortristis), punnaga (Calophyllum inophyllum), sala (Shorea robusta), krishna sirish (Albizia amara), pitsirish (Albizia lebbek), tala (Borassus flabelliformis) and vakula (Mimusops elengi) (Randhawa, 1961; Anonymous, 1986; Dwivedi, 2000).
E. TREES AS A SOURCE OF SUSTENANCE
Trees are one of the major sources of sustenance: food; sugars; starches; spices and condiments; beverages; fumitories, masticatories and narcotics; medicines; essential oils; fatty oils and vegetable fats; waxes; soap substitutes; vegetable ivory; fodder; fuel, bioenergy or biofuel; fertilizers; fiber; pulp and paper; tannins; dyes; rubber and other latex products; gums; resins; and cork. These are described separately under the following headings:
Trees as a source of food include edible fruits, vegetables and tree legumes. Botanically, a fruit is a matured or ripened ovary, along with its contents and adhering accessory structures, if any. The seeds inside the fruits are the fertilized ovules. Sometimes seeds are formed without fertilization. This phenomenon is called "agamospermy," a kind of parthenogenesis. A fruit that matures without seed formation is called "parthenocarplc fruit." Fruits are eaten raw. Vegetables are edible plants that store reserve food mainly carbohydrates--in roots, stems, leaves or fruits and that are eaten either cooked or raw. Legumes--or pods--are the proteinaceous fruits of family Leguminosae. Some of these are edible. The important food-yielding trees are depicted in Table I.
Sugar is a plant product surpassed in importance only by cereals and potatoes. It is one of the most important reserve food supplies, not only for the plant in which it is found but also also because it serves as the most necessary food source of energy--for humans. Sugar in plants may occur in the form of sucrose (a disaccharide of glucose and fructose that, to humans, tastes sweeter than either of its constituent monosaccharides) or cane sugar, glucose or grape sugar and fructose or fruit sugar. It occurs in roots (beets, carrots, parsnips, etc.), stems (sugarcane, maize, sorghum, sugar maple), flowers (palms), bulbs (onion) and many fruits. The important trees yielding sugars of commercial interest are shown in Table II.
Starch, a complex carbohydrate, is a polymer of glucose units linked by alpha bonds. It exists in two forms in plants: unbranched or linear polymers called "amyloses," in which hundreds of glucose molecules form coiled molecules of starch; and branched polymers called "amylopectins," in which only 40-60 glucose molecules that form branched chains do not coil.
Soluble starch (starch grains soaked in hot water until they burst and form a thin, clear solution or paste) is used in the textile industry for strengthening fibers and cementing loose ends together, making the thread smoother and easier to weave and thus giving a finish to the goods. It is used as a mordant in calico printing and a thickener or vehicle for colors. It is also used in laundry work, in toilet powders, in medicine, as a sizing agent in the paper industry, as binding material for china clay and many derivatives or products like dextrin, glucose, industrial alcohol and nitrostarch.
Starch is one of the main reserve foods for green plants, which store it in thin-walled cells in the form of grains of different sizes, shapes and microscopic and physical characteristics. The chief sources of commercial starch are maize, potato, wheat, rice, sago, cassava and arrowroot, of which the last two are obtained from shrubs and sago is obtained from trees.
Arrowroot starch is obtained from the tubers of many tropical plants, including: Maranta arundinacea (Marantaceae), yielding Indian arrowroot; Canna edulis (Cannaceae), yielding Queensland arrowroot; Curcuma angustifolia (Zingiberaceae), yielding East Indian arrowroot; and Zamia floridanda (Cycadaceae), yielding Florida arrowroot. Only the last is a small, shrublike plant.
Sago starch is obtained from the starchy pith of the stems of Metroxylon sagu, of the family Arecaceae. Other important species that yield sago starch are: Arenga saccharifera, Borassus flabellifer, Caryota urens, Metroxylon koenigii, M. leave and M. rumphii, all Arecaceae; Manihot esculenta, of the family Euphorbiaceae; and Cycas species, of the family Cycadaceae, a gymnosperm. Starchy pith is removed after the trees are cut, and, after washing, the starch is freed by sedimentation. Dried, it is known as "sago flour"; it is made into a flour and then dried in the sun or in ovens to obtain shiny, granular starch, called "pearl sago." Both are used almost entirely for food purposes, like khir, kanji, payasam, kesari, uppuma, vaangibath, sago curd bhath, vadam (pappad), macaroni and spaghetti.
4. Spices and Condiments
Spices and condiments are flavoring agents obtained from plants. They are difficult to distinguish, so the terms are used interchangeably. Because they have little nutritive value, they are not classified as foods. They contain essential oils, which impart flavor and aroma to food and add greatly to the pleasure of eating. They stimulate the appetite and increase the flow of gastric juices. For these reasons they are often referred to as "food accessories" or "adjuncts." The important spice- and condiment-yielding trees are shown in Table III.
5. Nonalcoholic Beverages
Beverage plants are those plants which yield beverages or drinks--nonalcoholic or alcoholic--that are palatable and refreshing. Nonalcoholic beverages usually contain caffeine, an alkaloid, which has stimulating and refreshing qualities. Alcoholic beverages are those that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups; e.g., ethanol (C[H.sub.3]-C[H.sub.2]-OH). They may be fermented or distilled. Fruit juices and other beverages that contain neither caffeine nor alcohol are called "soft drinks." They have a high sugar content and thus are a good source of energy. The important nonalcoholic-beverage woody plants are shown in Table IV.
6. Fumitories, Masticatories and Narcotics
Some narcotic substances are smoked or chewed by humans for pleasure or to seek a "world full of new sensation or some flight from reality." Narcotic substances that are used for smoking purposes are called "fumitories," and those that are used for chewing purposes are called "masticatories." They have a distinct stimulating or even narcotic effect due to the presence of various alkaloids. They are also used in religious ceremonies. The important woody plants of these categories are shown in Table V.
Several trees are a source of important drugs. These are obtained from the bark of Bauhinia variegata (kachnar), Barringtonia acutangula (hijjal), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (dalchini), C. calisaya, C. ledgerina, C. officinalis, C. robusta, C. succirubra (all yielding quinine), Mimusops elengi (maulsari), Myrica nagi (kaiphal), Symplocos racemosa (lodh), Saraca indica (ashok), Terminalia arjuna (arjun) and Toddalia asiatica (kanj). The stems and wood of Acacia catechu (katha), Pinus roxburghii (chir) and Santalum album (safed chandan) yield drugs. Drugs are also obtained from the fruit of Aegle marmelos (bael), Cassia fistula (amaltas), Emblica officinalis (amla), Terminalia bellerica (bahera) and T. chebula (harar). The seeds of Croton tiglium (jamalgota), Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Ricinus communis (arand) and Strychnos nux-vomica (kuchla) are also used for obtaining drugs.
8. Essential Oils
Like all other necessities of humans, oils are one of the main necessities of daily life. India holds a prominent position in the world oil industry. Oils are of two types: essential, volatile or distilled oils; and fatty, nonvolatile, expressed or fixed oils. These two types of oils can be distinguished in Table VI.
Essential oils are by-products of carbohydrate and fat metabolism and occur in some 60 families. The important ones are Apiaceae (= Umbellifereae), Asteraceae (= Compositae), Fabaceae (= Leguminosae), Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae (= Labiatae), Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae (= Graminae) and Rutaceae. They occur in small concentrations, from minute traces to as much as 1-2%, or even more, in specialized cells, glands or ducts, either in one particular organ of the plant or distributed over many parts. They may be present in flowers (e.g., roses), fruits (e.g., oranges), leaves (e.g., eucalyptus), bark (e.g., cinnamomum), roots (e.g., ginger), woods (e.g., cedar) or seeds (e.g., cardamon) and many resinous exudations.
The utility of essential oils to the plant itself is obscure. The characteristic aroma and flavor they impart to flowers, fruits and seeds probably attract insects and other animals, which play an important role in pollination and/or in the dispersal of fruits and seeds. When essential oils are present in high concentrations, the unpleasant odor may serve to repel enemies like parasites, animals and insects. The essential oils may have antiseptic and bactericidal properties and may thus act as a wound fluid. They affect transpiration and other physiological processes by minimizing the effect of heat on transpiration. They play a vital role as hydrogen donors in oxido-reduction reactions as potential sources of energy.
Because of their odor and high volatility, essential oils are also put to a variety of uses by humans. They are extensively used in the manufacture of perfumes, sachets, soaps and other toilet preparations. The perfumes are stored in closed, compactly filled containers since they deteriorate due to oxidation and polymerization when they come into contact with air. In confectionary and aerated waters they are used as flavoring materials or essences for ice creams, candies, cordials, liqueurs, nonalcoholic beverages, tobacco, etc. They are very valuable in medicine, dentistry and pharmaceuticals because of their therapeutic, antiseptic and bactericidal properties. They are used as insecticides and deodorants, as solvents in paint and varnish industries and in the manufacture of several synthetic odors and flavors, such as attars and scents. Some of the essential oils (e.g., clove oil) are used as clearing or cleaning agents in histological work. They are also used in such diversified products as chewing gum, toothpaste, dhoop, agar batis, incense, shoe polish, library paste and fish glue. The important essential oil-yielding trees are listed in Table VII.
9. Fatty Oils and Vegetable Fats
Vegetable fatty oils are called "fixed oils" or "nonvolatile oils" because they do not evaporate or become volatile like the essential oils. They are also called "nondistilled oils" because they cannot be distilled without being decomposed.
Chemically, fatty oils consist of glycerin in combination with a fatty acid. The so-called fats or tallows are solids at ordinary temperatures and contain stearic or palmitic acid. Their iodine number (the number of grams of iodine absorbed by 100 g of the fats in a medium in which it is soluble) is below 70. On the other hand, oils are liquids at ordinary temperatures and contain oleic acid.
Oils are of three types: drying, semidrying and nondrying. The drying oils are able to absorb oxygen and, on exposure, dry into thin elastic film. They are used mainly in the paint and varnish industry. Their iodine number is higher than 150. The semidrying oils absorb oxygen slowly and only in limited amounts. They form a soft film only after long exposure. Their iodine number is between 100 and 150. The nondrying oils remain liquid at ordinary temperatures and do not form a film. Their iodine number is between 70 and 100.
The fatty oils are insoluble in water but soluble in various organic solvents. When a fat is boiled with an alkali, it decomposes, and the fatty acid unites with the alkali to form soap. If soda is used, a hard soap is obtained; and if potash or lye is used, a soft soap is obtained.
When fats break down, they yield fatty acids and glycerin, of which they are composed, and usually develop a rancid odor and taste. The fatty oils are bland (balmy) and lack the strong taste, odor and antiseptic qualities of essential oils. Thus they are available as indispensable articles in human food. Important species that yield fatty oils and vegetable fats are listed in Table VIII.
Waxes are quite similar to fats but are esters of monohydric alcohols rather than glycerides. They are harder than fats and have a high melting point. They are less easily hydrolyzed and do not become rancid. Waxes are usually found on the epidermis of leaves and fruits. They serve to prevent excessive loss of water through transpiration, because of their impervious character. The commercially important waxes obtained from trees are shown in Table IX. Wax is also obtained from the leaves of the raffia and licuri palms, sugarcane and esparto.
11. Soap Substitutes
Saponins are a group of water-soluble glucosides that yield soap froth in water, form emulsions with oils and fats, and are capable of absorbing large amounts of gases such as carbon dioxide. Because of these properties they are used for cleansing and other purposes, both at home and in industry. The important saponin-containing trees are listed in Table X.
It may be added here that leaves of a familiar garden plant, bouncing bet or soapwort (Saponaria officinalis, family Caryophyllaceae), when placed in water, produce a lather that is utilized for washing and imparting luster to silk and woolen fabrics. Similarly, bulbs of the Californian soaproot (Chlorogalum pomeridianum, family Liliaceae) yield a good lather, which is utilized for washing fabrics.
12. Vegetable Ivory
The seeds of Phytelephas macrocarpa, in the family Arecaceae, commonly called "ivory nut" or "tagua palm tree," is the chief source of vegetable ivory. It is extensively used as a substitute for true ivory. It can be carved and used in the manufacture of buttons, chess pieces, poker chips, dice, knobs, inlays, billiard balls, toys, etc. Metroxylon amicarum, in the Arecaceae family, can likewise be used for these purposes.
The leaves of trees and shrubs are rich in calcium and phosphorus. Although considered inferior to grasses, trees in different parts of India are lopped for fodder, especially when grasses are scarce. The important fodder-yielding trees are Acacia nilotica (= A. arabica), A. catechu, Acer spp., Aegle marmelos, Bauhinia variegata, Celtis australis, Dendrocalamus strictus, Ficus glomerata, F. religiosa, Grewia spp., Helicteres isora, Kydia calycina, Leucaena leucocephala, Melia azedarach, Millettia auriculata, Morus australis, M. serrata, Ougeinia oojeinsis, Populus ciliata, Quercus glauca, Q. incana, Zizyphus mauritiana and Z nummularia (Singh, 1982; Anonymous, 1983).
14. Fuel, Bioenergy or Biofuel
Bioenergy is the energy available from biological sources, both living and immediate remains. Fuel is any material that burns readily in air. Biofuels are materials of biological origin that are used for producing heat and other forms of energy. Fuel is a great necessity of modern life. Wood, peat and coal, which represent three stages in the carbonization of the original woody plant tissue, are important fuel substances.
Because their moisture content is lower than that of green wood, seasoned or oven-dried wood makes excellent fuel: 99% of it is combustible, so it leaves only a small amount of ash. Hardwoods, such as ash, beech, hickory, maple and oak, which burn for a longer time and provide more uniform heat than does gymnospermic wood, are excellent fuelwoods. The mean calorific value of oven-dried Indian hardwoods is about 9000 btu. The different forms of energy that can be obtained from wood are shown in Table XI.
The qualities needed for fuelwood are physical properties of the wood as well as environmental and silvicultural properties of the species. Small-diameter, thornless shrubs and trees, which are easy to cut with primitive tools and easy to transport, are generally preferred. Likewise, fuelwood that is easy to split and either has a low moisture content or dries rapidly is preferred over other wood, because considerable heat is lost in burning moist wood. Such wood is also nontoxic and produces less smoke. For health reasons, too, these are important fuelwoods: ventilation is poor in village houses. While burning, wood should neither split nor spark. Wood density is positively correlated with the calorific value of fuelwood. A negative correlation also exists between wood density and growth rate, so fast-growing species generally have inferior burning properties. The best fuelwood species burn slowly and produce good heat from glowing charcoals. Acacia and Casuarina spp. are regarded as the best fuelwood species (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).
Some common fuelwood species of India are Acacia catechu, A. leucocephala, A. nilotica var. cupressiformis, A. nilotica var. indica, Albizia amara, A. lebbek, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Borassus flabellifer, Carrissa spinarum, Dalbergia sissoo, Delonix elata, Eucalyptus spp., Euphorbia spp., Leucaena leucocephala, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Moringa tinctoria, Morus serrata, Pithecellobium dulce, Prosopis juliflora, P. spicigera, Psidium guajava, Sesbania sesban, Syzygium cuminii, Tamarix indica, Thespesia populnea, Zizyphus mauritiana, etc. (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).
Several species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of Rhizobium, including R. leguminosarum, R. lupini, R. meliloti and R. phaseoli, live inside the root nodules of leguminous trees. Similarly, Frankia, a nitrogen-fixing mycelial bacterium, is associated symbiotically with the root nodules of several nonlegume plants, including Alnus, Casuarina, Coriaria, Myrica and Rubus. Both Rhizobium and Frankia are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. When the roots of these plants decay, they enrich the soil with nitrogen salts.
Botanically, a fiber is a special type of cell (sclerenchymatous) that has thick walls, a narrow lumen and tapering ends. Chemically, it is made up of cellulose and lignin. Commercially, a plant fiber is a strand consisting of one or hundreds of cells that varies in length from a fraction of a millimeter to 2 meters or more. Depending on how fibers are used, they can be classed as textile fibers (for fabrics, netting, cordage), brush fibers, plaiting and rough weaving fibers (for hats, sandals, baskets, chairs, etc.), filling fibers, natural fabrics and papermaking fibers.
The important fiber-yielding woody plants, including trees and shrubs, are Abroma angusta, Abutilon spp., Acacia leucocephala, Ananas comosus, Antiaris toxicaria, Boehmeria nivea, Borassus flabellifer, Butea monosperma, Caryota urens (leaves), Cordia dichotoma, C. rothii, Ficus bengalensis, F. cunia, F. religiosa, Grewia glabra, G. elastica, G. optiva, G. tiliaefolia, G. vestita, Hardwickia binata, Hibiscus spp., Malachra capitata, Marsdenia volubilis, Pandanus spp. (leaves), Sterculia foetida, S. urens, S. villosa, Trema orientalis and Urena lobata. Most fibers are obtained from the bark of these plants. Silky flosses produced in the fruits of Bombax ceiba, Ceiba pentandra and Cochlospermum religiosum are also used as fibers for filling purposes. The well-known coir fiber is obtained from the fibrous mesocarp of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera. It is coarse, stiff, buoyant and elastic and is therefore used for ship ropes, mats, brushes, ropes, etc. (Watt, 1889-1893; Anonymous, 1983; Maithani et al., 1991).
17. Pulp and Paper
An important use of fibers is in the manufacture of paper, which is playing an increasingly important role in modern civilized society. It can be divided into two categories: cultural paper (printing and writing paper) and industrial paper (packing and wrapping papers and boards).
The word "paper" comes from the Latin papyrus (the name of Cyperus papyrus of the family Cyperaceae), a sedge plant, the pith of which was used for paper in Egypt as early as 2400 B.C. The Chinese, however, were the first to actually make the paper. In 1799 Louis Robert of France invented the papermaking machine, which was improved by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier of London in 1803.
The important and major raw materials of the pulp and paper industry are wood fibers (furnishing more than 90% of all the paper produced in the world), cotton and linen rags (yielding fine grades of paper, because of their high cellulose content), agricultural residues (bamboo, bagasse, straw, etc.) and waste paper (for recycled paper). Raw materials of minor importance are esparto grass (Stipa tebnacissima, family Poaccae), textile fibers (jute, hemp, coir, ramie, sisal hemp, sunn hemp, etc.), bast fibers of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, family Moraceae) and fibers of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus), baobab (Adansonia digitata) and Daphne cannabina. Chinese and Japanese rice paper is made from Tetrapanax papyriferum, Edgeworthia tomentosa and Wickstroemia canescens.
Generally, softwood tracheids are preferred over hardwood fibers for papermaking because the tracheids of conifers are longer (about 2-4 mm) than are hardwood fibers (0.5-1.5 mm). Spruce wood is the most important raw material for pulp. Its fibers are long and strong, with a maximum content of cellulose. Almost free of resins, gums and tannins, it is light colored, sound and usually free of defects. The important species used are Picea rubens (red spruce), P. glauca (white spruce), P. sitchensis (sitka spruce), etc.
The other important raw materials for pulp are pines, other conifers and hardwoods, like Pinus australis (yellow pine), P. banksiana (jack pine), Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock), T heterophylla (western hemlock), Abies balsamea (balsam fir), A. concolor (white fir), Larix laricina (tamarack), Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata (aspens), Fagus grandifolia (beech), Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Betula lutea (birch).
Although ancient Indian written records are on the leaves of the tree called "bhojpatra" (Betula alnoides, family Betulaceae), the art of papermaking in India started with the installation of first papermaking machine at Serampore in West Bengal in 1830. The main fibrous raw materials for papermaking are Bambusa arundinacea, Boswellia serrata, Dendrocalamus strictus, Eulaliopsis binata (Sabai grass) and Pinus roxburghii. These are followed by Abies pindrow, Adansonia digitata, Agave americana, Arundo donax, Bambusa polymorpha, B. tulda, Broussonetia papyrifera, Daphne papyracea, Dendrocalamus giganteus, D. hamiltonii, Eucalyptus citriodora, E. globulus, Ochlandra truvancorica and Populus ciliata. The following Indian hardwood species are used for making bleachable pulp: Albizia lebbeck, Anogeissus latifolia, Chloroxylon swietenia, Gmelina arborea, Lannea coromandelica, Prosopis chilensis, Pterocarpus marsupium, Sesbania grandiflora, Sterculia urens, Tectona grandis and Terminalia bellerica.
Tannins are soluble, astringent, bitter and complex phenolic substances of plant origin. These are glycosidal in nature and acidic in reactions. They may be hydrolizable or condensed in nature. Whereas hydrolyzable tannins are easily split into alcohols and acids by water, condensed tannins are not, for they are made up of polymers of cyclic compounds. Tannins may be present in individual cells or in special containers known as "tannin sacs." In individual cells, tannins are found in the cell sap or are impregnated in the cell's walls, often accumulating in large quantities in dead tissues such as cork or present in bark, wood, leaves, roots, fruits and galls.
The biological functions of tannins are not very clear. It is thought that tannins protect the protoplast against desiccation, decay and injury by animals. It may be concerned with the formation of cork or with protection of the plant. Economically, tannins are important in various ways. They have the ability to unite with certain types of proteins, such as those in animal skins (hides), to form a strong, flexible, resistant and insoluble substance known as "leather." The process and art of converting raw hides and skins of animals into leather, usually through the use of certain chemicals, is called "tanning." Tannins react with salts of iron to form dark blue, blue-black or greenish black compounds, which are the basis of tannin or writing inks. Tannins are also useful in medicine, because of their astringent nature. Tanning materials are often utilized in oil drilling to reduce the viscosity of the drill without reducing the specific gravity. Tannins may be obtained from the different parts of the trees, as shown in Table XII.
Dyes are colored compounds (pigments) that are capable of being fixed to fabrics permanently; i.e., they neither fade on exposure to light nor wash out with soap. Therefore, a colored organic substance is not necessarily a dye. For example, trinitrotoluene, which is yellow in color, cannot fix to a cloth and therefore is not a dye. On the other hand, picric acid, which is also yellow in color, can fix to a cloth and therefore is a dye. A large number of plants secrete or contain pigments, but only about 150 are commercially important. In addition, synthetic or aniline dyes are now obtained from coal-tar products. These are cheaper, brighter, more permanent and easier to use, and they offer a wider range of colors. Among the chief uses of dyes is in coloring fabrics in the textile industry, where they are used with weak salt solutions of various metals like iron, chromium, aluminum or tin. A fine layer of metallic oxide, which forms an insoluble compound with the dye, is deposited on the cloth. Such salts of metals that increase the adherence of various dyes to the fabrics are called "mordants." These actually form a chemical bridge between the fiber molecules and the dye. Dyes are also used for coloring paints, varnishes, leather, ink, paper, wood, furs, food, cosmetics and medicines. A partial list of important dye-yielding trees in given in Table XIII.
20. Rubber and Other Latex Products
Rubber is obtained from the milky juice or latex of various tropical or subtropical woody plants. Latex is a gummy white liquid full of minute globules, a mixture of water, hydrocarbons, resins, oils, proteins, acids, salts, sugars and caoutchouc, a substance used as a source of rubber. Rubber is a polyterpene consisting of a long chain of thousands of isoprene (hydrocarbon) units. The tissue containing latex is called "laticiferous tissue." It consists of latex cells or latex coenocytes and latex vessels, the latter being formed by the fusion of many latex cells. Laticifers occur in bark, leaves and other softer parts of trees.
Laticifers are not known in gymnosperms. They are present in a large number of species and genera belonging to about 20 families, mostly dicotyledonous. Important rubber plants belong to Apocyanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae.
Latex performs five functions in plants: healing of wounds; protection (warding off the attack of animals) because of the presence of bitter or poisonous alkaloids; storage of food reserve (for nutrition); formation and storage of excretory products; and transport of materials (conduction or translocation or as a fluid reservoir).
Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, coined the term "rubber," owing to the fact that it could be used for removing pencil marks. In 1839 Charles Goodyear discovered the vulcanization process, in which sulphur is added to rubber to cross-link the molecules of isoprene chains. This process makes the latex impervious to weather conditions and improves its elasticity. Rubber is one of the best insulating and dielectric materials available. The important rubber-yielding woody plants are shown in Table XIV.
Gums contain large amounts of sugars and are closely allied to pectins. They are colloidal in nature and have the ability to dissolve in water and form a viscid solution (viscous liquids) or to absorb water and swell to form a gelatinous paste. On exposure to air these pastes dry to hard, clear, glassy masses by losing their water. Gums are insoluble in alcohol and ether.
Gums exude naturally or in response to wounding from the stems and are formed by disintegration of internal tissues, mostly from the decomposition of cellulose through a process known as "gummosis." They are mostly obtained from bark or secondary phloem.
Gums are used in a variety of ways. The finer grades are utilized in finishing silk, clarifying liqueurs and preparing high-quality watercolors. The intermediate grades are used in printing inks, in sizing, finishing and dyeing textile fabrics, in confectionery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The cheaper grades are used as adhesives, in calico printing, in sizing of paper and in the paint industry. In the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries gums act as emollients or demulcents or serve to bind or emulsify mixtures in lotions, ointments and creams. They may add body and bulk to foodstuffs like commercial ice creams.
Commercial gums are dried exudations of dry-region plants belonging to the Anaeardiaceae, Combretaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae. One hundred or more species of Acacia alone are known to yield gum. The important gum-yielding trees are shown in Table XV.
Although resins resemble gum in superficial appearance, they differ in origin and chemical composition. Some resins are sticky, viscous liquids; others are hard, brittle, amorphous solids, generally clear or transparent but sometimes opaque. Important resin-yielding families, differences among three main types of resins and resin-yielding trees are presented in Tables XVI, XVII and XVIII, respectively.
Resins represent oxidation products of various essential oils. They are complex and varied in their chemical composition. Chemically, they are polymerized terpenes that are usually mixed with volatile oils. Unlike gums, resins are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether, turpentine, spirit, carbon disulphide and other solvents. The latter property is utilized to form varnishes; when applied in thin films, the solvent evaporates, leaving behind a hard, waterproof layer of resin. Resins are fusible; that is, when heated they first soften and then melt to a more or less clear, sticky fluid. They are resistant to most reagents and to decay but, when ignited, burn with a smoky flame.
Resins are very important in industry. Two types are used in manufacturing varnishes and lacquers. The first type comprises resins that, after melting, can be combined with linseed oil or turpentine and utilized for forming amber, copal and other oil varnishes. Oil varnishes are superior but costly.
The word "copal" is of Mexican origin. In England many of the harder copals are known as "animes." The copals are resins of recent semifossil or fossil tropical and subtropical tree species. They contain almost no oil and yield a hard, elastic varnish, which is much used for outdoor work.
The second type of resins comprises those that dissolve in alcohol, turpentine or other volatile solvents. They are utilized for forming spirit varnishes, such as rosin, damar, sandarac, mastic and elemis. Spirit varnishes are less expensive and more easily prepared and applied. They produce brilliant, transparent finishes. All damars are used chiefly in spirit varnishes and in the manufacture of nitrocellulose lacquers. Damar varnishes are softer, less durable and adhere better. They are used mainly for varnishing paper because of their luster and light color. They are also used for indoor work and in histology. "Elemi" is a collective name for several oleoresins of different origin that exude as clear, pale liquids. Most tend to harden on exposure, but some may remain soft.
Resinous substances have been used for waterproof coatings and also for decorative coatings for ages. The ancient Egyptians varnished their mummy cases, and the Incas utilized resins in their embalming mixtures. Resins are also used in the preparation of soap--they dissolve in alkali to form soap--and in medicine, for sizing paper, as a stiffening material for mats, in the preparation of fixatives, incenses, perfumes, tobacco flavorings, sealing wax, plastics, linoleum, oilcloth, printers' ink, adhesives, etc. Their combustible properties are utilized for making torches; their waterproofing qualities, for making boats.
Resins tend to lessen the amount of water lost from the tissues of plants. Because of their antiseptic properties, resins prevent decay, and, when present in wood, add strength and durability.
Resin is secreted in plant tissues in specialized canals or cavities called "resin ducts," which are lined with a special layer of secretory cells, called the "epithelial layer," that secrete resin into the cavity through a thin cuticular layer. Resin ducts may be present in leaves, wood and bark of stems. They normally ooze out through the bark and harden on exposure to air. Commercial resins, however, are extracted from artificial wounds or fossil materials.
Commercial cork is obtained from the outer bark (phellem) of cork oak, Quercus suber, an evergreen tree of the family Fagaceae. It is native to the western Mediterranean region: about 70% of the world's commercial cork comes from Portugal alone. Cork is nothing more than thin-walled but strong cellulosic cell wails, which are heavily coated with suberin, a substance that is impervious to water. Cell lumens, which represent nearly 53% of the total cork volume, are filled with air, thus making cork very light--its specific gravity is 0.15-0.25.
Cork is buoyant, light and highly compressible, but it is resilient, chemically inert to moisture and common liquids, resistant to deterioration, an excellent insulator, a nonconductor of electricity, a low thermal conductor and impervious to water and other liquids. It imparts no flavor or odor to substances, is slow to catch fire, absorbs sound and vibrations and has a high coefficient of friction. All of these properties render commercial cork invaluable in the world market, and it is used either as natural cork or as composition cork, the latter as linoleum, linotiles, binder-coated cork and cork (insulation) boards. Cork is used in the preparation of stoppers, hats and helmets, tips for cigarettes, carburetor floats, fishing-net floats, golf-club handles, penholders, fishing rods, life preservers, floats and life jackets, surf balls, seals for jars, sealing liners, shoe insoles, sporting goods, picture frames, small cork balls in referees' whistles, etc.
24. Food for Silkworms
Mulberry silk accounts for 95% of the world's silk production. It is produced by Bombyx mori L., which feeds on the leaves of mulberry plants. Morus is the Latin word for "mulberry" (French: muries; Italian: gelso; Japanese: lewwa). It belongs to the family Moraceae, of the order Unisexuales or Urticales. The following species of Morus are known in the world: acidosa, arabica, atropurpurea, australis, bombycis, boninensis, cathayama, celtidifolia, cordatifelia, indica, glabrata, insignis, japonica, kagayamae, laevigata, latifolia, lhou, macroura, microphylla, miyabean, mizuho, mollis, mongolica, mosozygia, multicaulis, nigra, nigriformis, notabilis, pabularia, philippinensis, rotundifolia, rubra, serrata, sinensis, tiliaefolia and yoshimurai (Seth & Lal, 2002).
Tasar silk is the product of the secretion from the silk glands of Antheraea proylei and A. mylitta, the temperate and tropical tasar silkworms, respectively. Although Antheraea species are polyphagous in nature, the food plants of first choice are known as "primary" and others, as "secondary." The three main food plants of tropical tasar silkworms are: Terminalia alata, syn. T. tomentosa, vern. asan; Terminatia arjuna, vern. arjun; and Shorea robusta, vern. sal. In addition to the three main food plants, the tasar silkworm may feed on the following (Seth, 2000a):
* Anogeissus latifolia; axlewood, vern. dhawa, dhaura, dhaunta; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Bauhinia variegata; vern. kachnar; family Caesalpiniaceae, order Rosales
* Bombax ceiba, syn. Salmalia malabarica, Bombax malabaricum, Gossampinus malabarica; silk cotton tree, vern. semul, shembal, raket-senbal, kaanti sembal, pagun; family Bombacaceae, order Malvales
* Canthium dicoccum, syn. C. didymum, Plectronia didyma; vern. rangruri; family Rubiaceae, order Rubiales
* Capadessa fruiticosa: vern. nalbali; family Meliaceae, order Geraniales
* Careya arborea; kumbi, vern. kumbi; family Lecythidaceae, order Myrtales
* Carissa carundus; karunda, vern. karumcha, karaunda; family Apocynaceae, order Gentianales
* Celastrus paniculatus; vern. malkangni; family Celastraceae, order Celastrales
* Chloroxylon swietenia; East Indian satinwood, vern. bhirra, girya; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales
* Dodonaea viscosa; vern. aliar, sinatha; family Sapindaceae, order Sapindales
* Ficus benjamina; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales
* Ficus religiosa; peepal, vern. pipal, pipli; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales
* Ficus retusa; vern. kamrup, chilkan; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales
* Ficus tsiela; vern. jari; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales
* Ficus tsjakela; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales
* Hardwickia binata; anjan, vern. anjan; family Caesalpiniaceae, order Rosales
* Lagerstroemia indica; common crape myrtle, vern. saoni; family Lythraceae, order Myrtales
* Lagerstroemia parviflora; landau, vern. Sida, dhaura, Bali, Sidi; family Lythraceae, order Myrtales
* Madhuca indica, syn. M. latifolia, Bassia latifolia; mahua, mowra, illipe, butter tree, vern. mahua, mohwa, mauwa; family Sapotaceae, order Sapindales
* Melastoma malabathricum; vern. phutki; family Melastomataceae, order Myrtales
* Ricinus communis; castor, castor seed, vern. erandi, bharenda; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Shorea roxburghii, syn. S. talura; lac tree of South India; family Dipterocarpaceae, order Parietales
* Syzygium cuminii, syn. Eugenia jambolana, E. cuminii; jaman, jambolan, blackplum, java plum, vern. jamun, jam; family Myrtaceae, order Myrtales
* Tectona grandis; teak, vern. sagun, sagwan; family Verbenaceae, order Lamiales
* Terminalia bellerica; belleric myrobalan, bahera, vern. bahera; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Terminalia catappa; Indian almond tree, vern. deshibadam; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Terminalia chebula; chebulic myrobalan, vern. haritaki, harar; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Terminalia coriacea, syn. T. tomentosa var. coriacea; leathery murdah, vern. tani; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Terminalia crenulata, syn. T. tomentosa var. crenulata; vern. karu maruthu, tehmbava; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Terminalia paniculata; flowering murdah, kindal, vern. kinjal; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales
* Zizyphus jujuba, syn. Z. sativa, Z. vulgaris; vern. pitni ber, ban ber, beri; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales
* Zizyphus mauritiana, syn. Z. jujuba; Indian jujube, common jujube, vern. ber, hevi; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales
* Zizyphus rugosa, vern. bhand, churna; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales
* Zizyphus xylopyra, including Z. glaberrima santapau; katber, kathber, ghont; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales
The introduction of two oak tasar silkworms, Antheraea proylei and A. pernyi, has enabled India to produce oak tasar silk. The main food plants of oak tasar silkworms belong to Quercus species, the oaks of the family Fagaceae, order Fagales. The other food plants of temperate tasar belong to genera like Castanopsis and Lithocarpus, of the family Fagaceae, order Fagales, and Salix, of the family Salicaceae, order Salicales. The different species of these food plants are (Seth, 2000b):
* Castanopsis hystrix, syn. C. rufescens; vern. katus, hingori
* Castanopsis indica; Indian chestnut, vern. bank katus, serang
* Lithocarpus dealbatus, syn. Quercus dealbata
* Quercus aegilops; valonia oak
* Quercus acutissima, syn. Q. serrata
* Quercus borealis; American red oak
* Quercus castaneaefolia; chestnut-leaved oak
* Quercus cerris; turkey oak
* Quercus coccinea; scarlet oak
* Quercus crispula
* Quercus dentata
* Quercus dilatata; green oak, moru oak, vern. moru, tilonj
* Quercus floribunda
* Quercus frainetto; Hungarian oak
* Quercus glauca; blue Japanese oak, vern. bran, siri, inai
* Quercus griffithii; vern. dingim
* Quercus hispanica var. lucombeana; lucombe oak
* Quercus ilex; evergreen oak, holly or holm oak, vern. bechur, iri
* Quercus infectoria; gall oak, Dyer's oak, vern. majuphal, mazu, muphal
* Quercus lamellosa; vern. buk, shalshi
* Quercus lanata, syn. Q. lanuginosa; woolly oak, vern. ranj, kiani
* Quercus lanceaefolia, syn. Castanopsis lanceaefolia; vern. siri, shingra
* Quercus leucotrichophora, syn. Q. incana; ban oak, gray oak, vern. ban, rin, vari, iri
* Quercus libani; Lebanon oak
* Quercus lineata; vern. phalut
* Quercus lusitanica; Lusitanian oak
* Quercus mongolica
* Quercus myrsinaefolia
* Quercus palustris; pin oak
* Quercus petraea; sessile oak
* Quercus prinus
* Quercus reticulatum; net leaf oak
* Quercus robur; English oak
* Quercus rubra
* Quercus semecarpifolia; brown oak of Himalaya, kharsu oak, vern. karshu, kharshu
* Quercus semiserrata; vern. schop
* Quercus suber; cork oak
* Quercus undulata
* Salix viminalis; English willow, osier, basket willow, vern. bibsu, kumanta
Eri silk, also known as "errandi" or "endi," is produced by the eri silkworm Samia ricini, syn. Philosamia ricini, Attacus ricini. It belongs to the family Saturniidae, order Lepidoptera. Being polyphagous, it may feed on the leaves of a large number of plants (Seth, 2000c):
* Ricinus communis; castor, castor seed, vern. erandi; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Ailanthus altissima, syn. A. glandulosa; ailanto, tree of Heaven, vern. barkessuru, barpat; family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales
* Ailanthus excelsa; vern. maharuk, barkessuru; family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales
* Ailanthus grandis; family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales
* Ailanthus triphysa, syn. A. malabarica; vern. guggal dhup, family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales
* Caricapapaya; papaya, papaw tree, vern. papeeta; family Caricaceae, order Geraniales
* Cinnamomum cecidodaphne; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Coriaria nepalensis; vern. masuri, makola; family Coriariaceae, order Sapindales
* Evodia fraxinifolia; vern. payam; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales
* Gmelina arborea; gumhar, vern. gambhar, gumbhar, kambhari; family Verbenaceae, order Lamiales
* Heteropanax fragrans; vern. kesseru, tarla; family Araliaceae, order Umbellales
* Hodgsonia heteroclita; vern. thebow; family Cucurbitaceae, order Passiflorales
* Jatropha curcas; physic nut, purging nut, vern. botera, bagbherenda, jangliarandi, safedarand; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Jatropha multifida; coral plant, vern. bhotera; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Manihot eseulenta, syn. M. utilissima, M. aipi, M. dulcis, M. palmata; cassava, manioc, tapioca, vern. simul-alu; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Ricinus virdia; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Sapium eugeniifolium; vern. korha, family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Sapium sebiferum; Chinese tallow tree, vern. pippal-yang, vilayati-shisham, paharishisham; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales
* Zanthoxylum armatum, syn. Z. alatum; vern. darmar, Nepali dhaniya, tejphal, tumru; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales
* Zanthoxylum limonella, syn. Z. budrunga, Z. rhetsa; vern. bazramani; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales
* Zizyphus mauritiana, syn. Z. jujuba; Indian jujube, common jujube, vern. baer, ber; family Rhamnaceae, order Rhamnales
Muga silk is produced by the muga silkworm Antheraea assama Westwood, syn. A. asamensis Helf., A. mejankari Moore. It belongs to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Lepidoptera and family Satumiidae. The muga silkworm is polyphagous (Seth, 2000d). Its primary food plants are:
* Machilus bombycina; vern. som; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Litsaea monopetala, syn. L. polyantha; vern. soalu, meda, ketmarra, patoia, kakuri; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
Its secondary food plants are:
* Actinodaphne angustifolia, syn. A. hookeri; pisa, vern. petarichawa; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Cinnamomum glanduliferum; cinnamon, vem. dieng-puin-waith, dieng-sing, gonhorai, gonhorai-arong, gonsalu, gonsarai, malligiri, marisgiri; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Cinnamomum obtusifolium, syn. Actinodaphne obovata; vern. patichanda, patihanda; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Gmelina arboraea; gumhar, vern. bambari; family Verbenaceae, order Lamiales
* Litsaea cubeba, syn. L. citrata; vern. mezankari, sittimbar; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Litsaea nitida, vern. kothalua; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Litsaea salicifolia; vern. dighleti, digloti; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Magnolia pterocarpa, syn. M. sphenocarpa; vern. panchapa; family Magnoliaceae, order Magnoliales
* Michelia champaca; champak; family Magnoliaceae, order Magnoliales
* Michelia oblonga; family Magnoliaceae, order Magnoliales
* Machilus odoratissima; machilus, vern. kawala; family Lauraceae, order Laurales
* Symplocos grandiflora; family Symplocaceae, order Ebenales
* Symplocus paniculata, syn. S. crataegoides; sapphire berry, sweet leaf, vern. ludh; family Symplocaceae, order Ebenales
* Symplocos ramosissima; vern. lodh; family Symplocaceae, order Ebenales
* Zanthoxylum armatum, syn. Z. alatum and its var. planispinum, Z. planispinum; vern. darmar, Nepali dhaniya, tejphal, tumru; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales
* Zanthoxylum limonella, syn. Z. budrunga, Z. rhetsa; vern. bazramani; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales
* Zizyphus jujuba, syn. Z. sativa, Z. vulgaris; vern. ber, pitni ber; family Rhamnaceae, order Rhamnales
* Zizyphus mauritiana, syn. Z. jujuba, Indian jujube, common jujube, vern. bear, ber; family Rhamnaceae, order Rhamnales
A large number of wild silkworms are known in nature. They, too, produce silk by feeding on the leaves of a number of plants. However, the silk they produce is not of good quality. The food plants of these wild silkworms are: Acer campbellii, A. caudatum, Actinodaphne sikkimensis, Anacardium occidentale, Ardisia species, Artemisia vulgaris, Bischofia javanica, Careya arborea, Cedrella serrata, C. toona, Clerodendron infortunatum, Coriaria nepalensis, Cydonia oblonga syn. C. vulgaris, Dalbergia sissoo, Dillenia indica, D. pentagyna syn. D. pentagynia, Emblica officinalis syn. Phyllanthus emblica, Eugenia fruiticosa, Glochidion hohenackeri syn. G. lanceolarium, G. velutinum, Juglans rigia, Lagerstroemia speciosa syn. L. flos reginae, Lannea coromandelica syn. Odina wodier, Leucosceptrum canum, Litsaea glutinosa syn. L. sebifera, Lyonia ovalifolia syn. Pieris ovalifolia, Machilus odoratissima, Mangifera indica, Melastoma malabathricum, Meyna laxiflora syn. Vangueria spinosa, Microcos paniculata syn. Grewia microcos, Mimusops elengi, Mitragyna rotundifolia syn. Stephegyne diversifolia, Ocimum spp., Phyllanthus lanceolaria, Prunus cerasoides syn. P. puddum, Pterospermum semisagittatum, Pyrus communis, P. pashia, Salix babylonica, S. tetrasperma, Sapium insigne, Schleichera oleosa, syn. S. trijuga, Symplocos paniculata, syn. S. crataegoides, S. racemosa, Syzygium cuminii syn. Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia alata syn. T. tomentosa, Turpinia nepalensis, T. pomifera, Wendlandia thyrsoidea syn. W. notonia, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium and Z armatum syn. Z. alarum (Seth, 2000e).
As discussed above, trees are of great importance to people, not only economically and ecologically but also ornamentally and bioaesthetically. Because trees meet the needs of humans, the primary objective of any afforestation, biodiversity, ecodevelopment, bioaesthetic or landscape plan must be both to protect native tree-growing areas from further destruction and to plant trees in large areas. For any society, planting and care of trees serve as important endeavors and symbolize hope for the future. Multipurpose trees and shrubs have the capacity to provide for a variety of end uses while reversing the process of land degradation.
Most of our environmental problems can be solved to a great extent if we grow more trees, especially in urbanized localities and cities. Because people in different parts of the world have become aware of the needs of trees and forests, many countries have started celebrating annual "Forest Festivals" or "Tree Festivals" or "Greening Weeks" or "Arbor Days." In India, too, tree planting has been adopted as a national policy. The first successful tree-planting week was celebrated in Delhi in July 1947, with the participation of national leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajendra Prasad and Abdul Kalam Azad, among many others (Randhawa, 1961, 19651983). In 1950 the celebration was renamed "Vana Mahotsava" (Grand Festival of Forests [or Trees]) (Seth et al., 1962).
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M. K. SETH
Department of Bio-Sciences
Himachal Pradesh University
Shimla 171 005, H.P., India
I. Abstract II. Introduction and Classification of Trees III. The Economic Importance of Trees A. Trees as a Source of Timber B. Trees in the Restoration, Reclamation and Rejuvenation of Denuded and Disturbed Soils C. Ecological, Ecodevelopmental and Environment Uses of Trees 1. Natural Purifiers of the Environment 2. Environment Screens 3. The Physical Environment 4. Wildlife 5. Urban and Rural Afforestation Programs 6. Road Safety 7. Protection of Road Surfaces D. The Educational and Recreational Value of Trees 1. Shade and Shelter (or Avenue Trees) 2. Ornamental Flowering Plants 3. Ornamental Foliage Plants 4. Ornamental Fragrance Plants 5. Ornamental Fruiting Plants 6. Ornamental Hedges 7. Live Screens and Fences 8. Sculpture and Topiary 9. Education 10. Landscaping and Bioaesthetic Planning 11. Veneration 12. Art and Culture E. Trees as a Source of Sustenance 1. Food 2. Sugars 3. Starches 4. Spices and Condiments 5. Nonalcoholic Beverages 6. Fumitories, Masticatories and Narcotics 7. Medicines 8. Essential Oils 9. Fatty Oils and Vegetable Fats 10. Waxes 11. Soap Substitutes 12. Vegetable Ivory 13. Fodder 14. Fuel, Bioenergy or Biofuel 15. Fertilizers 16. Fibers 17. Pulp and Paper 18. Tannins 19. Dyes 20. Rubber and Other Latex Products 21. Gums 22. Resins 23. Cork 24. Food for Silkworms IV. Conclusions V. Literature Cited
T Timber, the first and the foremost use of trees R Restoration, reclamation and rejuvenation of denuded and disturbed soils by using trees to control soil erosion and desertification, protect watersheds, improve soil nutrient status (by growing nitrogen-fixing trees) and retain moisture in the soil E Ecological, ecodevelopmental and environmental use of trees for effective and efficient purification of the environment because trees act as oxygen banks and eliminate air pollutants; for abating or moderating temperature, noise and wind by planting trees as environmental screens, thus affecting the microclimate; for harboring wildlife; for maintaining biodiversity; and for conserving energy E Educational and recreational value in gardening, landscaping, bioesthetic planning, art, culture and religion S Source of sustenance; i.e., food, fuel, fodder, fertilizer, fiber, medicine, tannin, dyes, oils, etc.
Table I Trees as a source of food Common name Genus and species Tree legumes Algaroba Prosopis chinensis, P. juliflora Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua Honey locust Gleditsia triacanthus Tamarind or imli Tamarindus indica Rain tree or vilaiti sirris Samanea saman Nittas Parkia biglobosam P. filicoidea, P. roxburghii Manila tamarind or jangal Pithecellobium dulce jalebi Nuts with high fat content Brazil nut, "neggertoes," Bertholletia excelsa "cream nuts" Cashew nut or kaju Anacardium occidentale Coconut or nariyal Cocus nucifera Filbert Corylus avellana Hazelnut Corylus americana, C. cornuta, C. colurna Hickory Carya ovata Pecan nut Carya illinoensis Pilinut Canarium ovatum Pine nut Pinus edulis, P. gerardiana (Chilgoza), P. kesiya, etc. Walnut Juglans nigra, J. regia European beech Fagus sylvatica Jangli badam Terminalia catappa Queensland nut Macadamia turnifolia Macadamia nut Macadamia turnifolia, M. integrifolia Nuts with high protein content Almond Prunus amygdalus Beechnut Fagus grandifolia, F. sylvatica Pistachio nut, green almond Pistacia vera Acorn Quercus spp. Chestnut Castanea dentata Fruit vegetables Avocado, alligator pear Persea americana Breadfruit Artocarpus altilis Jackfruit, kat-hal Artocarpus heterophyllus Pome fruits Apple, vern. seb Malus pumila, syn. M. domestica Pear, vern. nakh Pyrus communis Quince Cydonia vulgaris Chinese pear or sand pear, Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta vern. nashpati Medlar Mespilus germanica Stone fruits Apricot, vern. khurmani Prunus armeniaca Cherry, sweet Prunus avium Cherry, sour, vern. gilas Prunus cerasus Cherry, Himalayan Prunus cerasoides Cherry, Himalayan bird Prunus cornuta Cherry, European bird, Prunus padus vern. jaman Peach, vern. aru Prunus persica Plum, vern. alucha, Prunus domestica alu-bukhara Citrus fruits Sweet orange, musambi Citrus sinensis Sour orange, khatta Citrus aurantium Mandarin orange, santara Citrus reticulata Pomelo, grapefruit Citrus paradisi Lemon, bara (pahari) nimbu Citrus limon Lime, nimbu or kaghzi nimbu Citrus aurantifolia Shaddock, chakotra Citrus maxima Other fruits Emlic, amla Emblica officinalis Pineapple, ananas Ananas comosus Mulberry, tut, shahtoot Morus alba, M. australis, M. nigra, M. rubra, etc. Money jack, lakoocha, Atrocarpus lakoocha barhal, dahrua Chinese date, jujube, her, Zizyphus mauritiana badara Limeberry, chini narangi Triphasia trifolia Cherimoya, Hanuman phal, Annona cherimolia Lakshman phal Jambolan, jamun, jambaba Syzygium cumini Wild jujube, jharber Zizyphus nummularia Carambola, karmal Averrhoea carambola Bael, bilva Aegle marmelos Custard apple, sweet sop, Annona squamosa sharifa Date, pind khajur Phoenix dactylifera Fig Ficus carica Guava, amrood Psidium guajava Jujube, ber Zizyphus mauritiana Litchi Litchi chinensis Loquat Eriobotrya japonica Mango, aam Mangifera indica Olive Olea europaea Papaya, papeeta Carica papaya Pomegranate, anar Punica granatum Sapodila, sapota, chiku Manikara achras Kumquat Fortunella japonica Wild date, khajur Phoenix sylvestris Gorgan nut, makhana (seeds) Euryale ferox Phalsa Grewia subinaequalis Durian Durio zibethinus Granadilla, passion fruit Passiflora edulis, P. incarnata, P. lauri-olia, P. lingularis, P. mollissima, P. quadrangularis Rose apple, gulabjaman Syzygium jambos Japanese persimon, kaki Diospyros kaki Common name Family Tree legumes Algaroba Mimosaceae Carob bean Caesalpiniaceae Honey locust Caesalpiniaceae Tamarind or imli Caesalpiniaceae Rain tree or vilaiti sirris Mimosaceae Nittas Mimosaceae Manila tamarind or jangal Mimosaceae jalebi Nuts with high fat content Brazil nut, "neggertoes," Lecythidaceae "cream nuts" Cashew nut or kaju Anacardiacae Coconut or nariyal Arecaceae Filbert Corylaceae Hazelnut Corylaceae Hickory Juglandaceace Pecan nut Juglandaceae Pilinut Burseraceae Pine nut Pinaceae Walnut Juglandaceae European beech Fagaceae Jangli badam Combretaceae Queensland nut Proteaceae Macadamia nut Proteaceae Nuts with high protein content Almond Rosaceae Beechnut Fagaceae Pistachio nut, green almond Pistaciaceae Acorn Fagaceae Chestnut Fagaceae Fruit vegetables Avocado, alligator pear Lauraceae Breadfruit Moraceae Jackfruit, kat-hal Moraceae Pome fruits Apple, vern. seb Rosaceae Pear, vern. nakh Rosaceae Quince Rosaceae Chinese pear or sand pear, Rosaceae vern. nashpati Medlar Rosaceae Stone fruits Apricot, vern. khurmani Rosaceae Cherry, sweet Rosaceae Cherry, sour, vern. gilas Rosaceae Cherry, Himalayan Rosaceae Cherry, Himalayan bird Rosaceae Cherry, European bird, Rosaceae vern. jaman Peach, vern. Aru Rosaceae Plum, vern. alucha, Rosaceae alu-bukhara Citrus fruits Sweet orange, musambi Rutaceae Sour orange, khatta Rutaceae Mandarin orange, santara Rutaceae Pomelo, grapefruit Rutaceae Lemon, bara (pahari) nimbu Rutaceae Lime, nimbu or kaghzi nimbu Rutaceae Shaddock, chakotra Rutaceae Other fruits Emlic, amla Euphorbiaceae Pineapple, ananas Bromeliaceae Mulberry, tut, shahtoot Moraceae Money jack, lakoocha, Moraceae barhal, dahrua Chinese date, jujube, her, Rhamnaceae badara Limeberry, chini narangi Rutaceae Cherimoya, Hanuman phal, Annonaceae Lakshman phal Jambolan, jamun, jambaba Myrtaceae Wild jujube, jharber Rhamnaceae Carambola, karmal Averrhoaceae Bael, bilva Rutaceae Custard apple, sweet sop, Annonaceae sharifa Date, pind khajur Arecaceae Fig Moraceae Guava, amrood Myrtaceae Jujube, ber Rhamnaceae Litchi Sapindaceae Loquat Rosaceae Mango, aam Anacardiaceae Olive Oleaceae Papaya, papeeta Caricaceae Pomegranate, anar Punicaceae Sapodila, sapota, chiku Sapotaceae Kumquat Rutaceae Wild date, khajur Arecaceae Gorgan nut, makhana (seeds) Euryalaceae Phalsa Tiliaceae Durian Bombacaceae Granadilla, passion fruit Passifloraceae Rose apple, gulabjaman Myrtaceae Japanese persimon, kaki Ebenaceae Common name Remarks Tree legumes Algaroba Flowers a source of honey; pods used as stock feed Carob bean Dried pod edible Honey locust Pods eaten by animals Tamarind or imli Pods used for tart; fruits pulp used for chutney or sauce Rain tree or vilaiti sirris Sweet pulp of black pods excellent food stock Nittas Pods and seeds edible Manila tamarind or jangal Aril edible jalebi Nuts with high fat content Brazil nut, "neggertoes," Contain 65-70% fats and 17% proteins "cream nuts" Cashew nut or kaju Swollen peduncle, thalamus and cotyledons edible Coconut or nariyal Endosperm edible Filbert Kernels edible Hazelnut Kernels edible Hickory Kernels edible Pecan nut Kernels edible Pilinut Seeds edible Pine nut Cotyledons edible Walnut Cotyledons edible European beech Jangli badam Queensland nut Macadamia nut Nuts with high protein content Almond Seeds edible Beechnut Seeds edible Pistachio nut, green almond Seeds edible Acorn Eaten by animals Chestnut Seeds edible Fruit vegetables Avocado, alligator pear Fruits edible Breadfruit Fruits edible Jackfruit, kat-hal Fruits edible Pome fruits Apple, vern. seb Fleshy thalamus edible Pear, vern. nakh Fleshy thalamus edible Quince Fleshy thalamus edible Chinese pear or sand pear, Fleshy thalamus edible vern. nashpati Medlar Fleshy thalamus edible Stone fruits Apricot, vern. khurmani Seeds edible Cherry, sweet Seeds edible Cherry, sour, vern. gilas Seeds edible Cherry, Himalayan Seeds edible Cherry, Himalayan bird Seeds edible Cherry, European bird, Seeds edible vern. jaman Peach, vern. Aru Seeds edible Plum, vern. alucha, Seeds edible alu-bukhara Citrus fruits Sweet orange, musambi Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Sour orange, khatta Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Mandarin orange, santara Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Pomelo, grapefruit Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Lemon, bara (pahari) nimbu Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Lime, nimbu or kaghzi nimbu Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Shaddock, chakotra Glandular hairs arising from endocarp edible; fruit is hesperidium Other fruits Emlic, amla Fruit rich in tannin and vitamin C; commonly pickled and used as medicine; epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible Pineapple, ananas Mulberry, tut, shahtoot Succulent perianth and fleshy axis edible Money jack, lakoocha, barhal, dahrua Chinese date, jujube, her, Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible badara Limeberry, chini narangi Cherimoya, Hanuman phal, Juicy mesocarps of individual berries Lakshman phal edible Jambolan, jamun, jambaba Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible Wild jujube, jharber Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible Carambola, karmal Bael, bilva Inner fleshy layer of pericarp and placentae edible Custard apple, sweet sop, Inner fleshy layer of pericarp and sharifa placentae edible Date, pind khajur Pericarp edible Fig Fleshy receptacle or thalamus edible Guava, amrood Inferior (or false) berries (i.e.. pericarp is fused with thalamus); epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp edible Jujube, ber Epicarp and mesocarp edible Litchi Aril edible Loquat Fruit is a pome where thalamus is enlarged to form fleshy, edible part; pericarp is cartilaginous and encloses seed-bearing loculi Mango, aam Fleshy mesocarp edible Olive Epicarp and mesocarp edible; commercial olive oil is obtained from fruit pulp and seeds Papaya, papeeta Pomegranate, anar Seeds with juicy testa edible Sapodila, sapota, chiku Kumquat Wild date, khajur Only one carpel develops into a one-seeded edible berry Gorgan nut, makhana (seeds) Seeds edible Phalsa Durian Granadilla, passion fruit Rose apple, gulabjaman Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible Japanese persimon, kaki Table II Sugar-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Sugar and sap from sweet sap of maples Sugar maple Acer saccharum Aceraceae Black maple Acer nigrum Aceraceae Sugar from unopened inflorescences of palms Date palm Phoenix dactylifera Aceraceae Wild date palm Phoenix sylvestris Aceraceae Palmyra palm Borassus flabellifer Aceraceae Coconut palm Cocos nucifera Aceraceae Toddy palm Caryota urens Aceraceae Gomuti palm Arenga pinnata Aceraceae Honey palm Jubaca chinensis Aceraceae Nipa palm Niga fruticans Aceraceae Glucose, dextrose or grape sugar Fructose, levulose or fruit sugar Manna or mannose Manna ash tree Fraxinus ornus Oleaceae Nectar Gulabi kachnar Bauhinia purpurea Caesalpinae Bottle brush Callistemon lanceolatum Myrtaceae Horse chestnut Aesculus indica Hippocastanaceae Jamun Eugenia jambolana Myrtaceae Neem Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Shisham Dalbergia sissoo Fabaceae Soapnut Sapindus spp. Sapindaceae Tun Cedrela toona Meliaceae Barna Crataeva religiosa Capparidaceae Chinese tallow Sapium sebiferum Euphorbiaceae Common name Remarks Sugar and sap from sweet sap of maples Sugar maple Incisions are made through the bark into the Black maple sapwood or large roots and sap is collected, usually in March and April, when temperatures reach 25[degrees]F at night and 55[degrees]F during the day; sugar is sucrose Sugar from unopened inflorescences of palms Date palm In wild date palm sugar is obtained from Wild date palm tender upper portions of the stem; the tips of Palmyra palm inflorescences or stems are cut and sweet sap Coconut palm that oozes out and collected is called "toddy"; Toddy palm its sugar content is about 14%; it is boiled Gomuti palm and cooled to obtain hard crude sugar called Honey palm "jaggary," and it can be fermented to make the Nipa palm beverage called "arrack"; sugar is sucrose Glucose, dextrose or Present in edible fruits of many trees and grape sugar shrubs Fructose, levulose or Present in edible fruits of many trees and fruit sugar shrubs Manna or mannose Manna ash tree The juice oozes out from slits made in the bark and dries into flake-like a sweet substance called "manna," used mainly in medicine Nectar Gulabi kachnar Secreted by attractive flowers of many species Bottle brush in various families; mainly sucrose, with some Horse chestnut glucose and fructose; main food of bees, which Jamun partially digest it; it is thus converted into Neem honey; containing 70-75% invert sugar, Shisham proteins, mineral salts and water, honey is an Soapnut excellent food for humans and is used in Tun medicine, in the tobacco industry and in the Barna preparation of mead, a fermented beverage Chinese tallow Source: Information on nectar-yielding trees is from Randhawa, 1965-1983. Table III Spice- and condiment-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Cassia, vern. tejpat Cinnamomum cassia, syn. Lauraceae C. tamala Dalchini or Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae cinnamon Sassafras Sassafras albidum Lauraceae Cloves Syzygium aromaticum Myrtaceae Allspice Pimenta dioica Myrtaceae Juniper berries Juniperus communis and Cupressaceae other species Star anise or anasphal Illicium verum Apiaceae Nutmeg (seed or kernel) Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae and mace (aril) Sweet bay or laurel Laurus nobilis Lauraceae Common name Part used Cassia, vern. tejpat Bark Dalchini or Ceylon Bark cinnamon Sassafras Root bark Cloves Unopened flower buds Allspice Fruits Juniper berries Mature cones Star anise or anasphal Fruit Nutmeg (seed or kernel) Seeds and mace (aril) Sweet bay or laurel Leaves Table IV Important beverage-yielding woody plants Common name Genus and species Family Coffee Coffea arabica, C. canephora, Rubiaceae C. liberica, C. robusta, C. stenophylla Cocoa or chocolate Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae Mate or Paraguay tea Ilex paraguariensis Aquifoliaceae Guarana Paullinia cupana Sapindaceae Cola Cola nitida Sterculiaceae Cassine Ilex vomitoria Aquifoliaceae Yoco Paullinia yoco Sapindaceae Coca and cocaine Erythroxylon coca Erythroxylaceae Caffeine Common name Part used content (%) Coffee Coffee seeds called "beans" 1-1.5 Cocoa or chocolate Seeds Mate or Paraguay tea Leaves Guarana Seeds 3-4.5 Cola Seeds 2 Cassine Fresh or dried leaves and shoots Yoco Bark 3-4 Coca and cocaine Dried leaves Table V Trees used as fumitories and mascatories Common name Genus and species Family Bidi or tendu Diospyros melanoxylon Ebenaceae Areca, betal nut or supari Areca catechu Arecaceae Catechu, katha, khair or Acacia catechu Mimosaceae khadira Cola or kola nuts Cola nitida Sterculiaceae Common name Remarks Bidi or tendu Dried leaves used for wrapping the tobacco and as a fumitory Areca, betal nut or supari Betal nuts (drupes) chewed along with pan (leaves of Piper betle) Catechu, katha, khair or Katha obtained from heartwood applied to khadira pan (leaves of Piper betle) Cola or kola nuts Seeds of cola tree used as a masticator in tropical Africa; it contains 2% caffeine, essential oil and a glucoside, chelonian, which is a heart stimulant Table VI Differences between essential and fatty (fixed) oils Essential oils Fatty (fixed) oils They evaporate or volatilize in They do not evaporate or become contact with air and hence are volatile when they come into called "volatile oils" contact with air and hence are called "nonvolatile oils" They can be readily removed from They cannot be distilled without the plant tissues without any being decomposed and hence are change in their composition called "expressed oils" and hence are called "distilled oils" They possess a pleasant taste, They do not possess a strong taste have a strong, aromatic odor or odor and are colorless and may be colored They are typically liquids At normal (room) or high temperatures they are either liquids or fluids and are called "oils"; at normal or cold temperatures they may be solids or semisolids and are called "fats." Quite obviously, what is an oil in a warm climate may be a fat in a cold climate. They are very complex in their Chemically these vegetable fatty chemical composition. The two oils are close to animal fats. principal groups are terpenes, They consist of glycerine and which are hydrocarbons, and fatty acid, which is an oleic acid oxygenated and sulphuretted oils. if it is an oil but stearic or palmatic acid if it is a fat. They have antiseptic qualities They generally do not possess antiseptic properties They are used for diverse Most of them are edible and are purposes, but not as food available as food for humans Soap is not formed when they are When a fat is boiled with an treated with an alkali alkali, it decomposes and the fatty acid unites with an alkali to form soap. If potash or lye is used, a soft soap is obtained; if soda is used, a hard soap is obtained. They can be obtained by They can be obtained by a distillation, expression or combination of expression and extraction extraction, but not by distillation Table VII Essential-oil-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Ylang-ylang Cananga odorata Annonaceae Neroli: true oil of Citrus aurantium Rutaceae neroli or neroli bigarade Neroli Portugal Citrus sinensis Rutaceae Mandarin oil Citrus reticulata Rutaceae Petitgrain oil Citrus spp.; in India, Rutaceae C. aurantium, C. limettoides Orange oil Citrus spp.; in India, Rutaceae C. aurantifoli, C. reticulata Bergamot Citrus aurantium subsp. Rutaceae bergamia Mexican linaloe Bursera penicillata, Burseraceae B. glabrifolia Mysore linaloe Bursera penicillata Burseraceae Cayenne linaloe Aniba panurensis Lauraceae Brazilian bois de rose Ariba rosaeodora var. Lauraceae amazonia Sandalwood oil, vern. Santalum album and Santalaceae safed chandan related spp. Champaca oil Michelia champaca Magnoliaceae Camphor, camphor gum, Cinnamomum camphora Lauraceae mushkapur, camphor oil Cedarwood oil Juniperus virginiana Cupressaceae Deodar oil Cedrus deodara, Junipe- Pinaceae, Cupres- rus macropoda saceae Clove oil, vern. Syzygium aromaticum Myrtaceae loungka-tel Oil of turpentine, Pinus spp. Pinaceae pine oil Cinnamon oil Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae Eucalyptus oil Eucalyptus citriodora, Myrtaceae E. diver, E. globulus, etc. Nutmeg oil Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae Macassar oil Schleichera trijuga Sapindaceae Agar oil, agar attar Aquillaria agallocha Thymelaeaceae Keora oil, attar of Pandanus tectorius Pandanaceae kewda, attar keora, (= P. odoratissimus) keora water, sandali attar, kewda or oil kewda Cajeput oil Melaleuca leucadendron Myrtaceae Elengi oil Mimusops elengi Sapotaceae Common name Remarks Ylang-ylang Oil is extracted from flower petals. Cananga oil is used in some of the finest perfumery creations in France; cheaper grades are used in soap making. Neroli: true oil of Oil is extracted from flowers of the sour neroli or neroli orange bigarade Neroli Portugal Oil is extracted from flowers of the sweet orange Mandarin oil Oil from peels is used in confectionery, toilet products and pharmaceutical preparations Petitgrain oil Oil extracted from leaves and twigs is used to add a pleasant bouquet to scents, cosmetics, skin creams and soaps Orange oil Oil extracted from ripe peels is used to add a pleasant bouquet to scents, cosmetics, skin creams and soaps Bergamot Greenish oil extracted from ripe peels has a soft, sweet odor and is used for scenting toilet soaps, in mixed perfumes and as a clearing agent Mexican linaloe Very aromatic oil extracted from the wood is widely used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics, etc. and for flavoring food and beverages Mysore linaloe Very aromatic oil extracted from husks of berries is widely used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics, etc. and for flavoring food and beverages Cayenne linaloe Very aromatic oil is widely used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics, etc. and for flavoring food and beverages Brazilian bois de rose Very aromatic oil extracted from the wood is widely used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics, etc. and for flavoring food and beverages Sandalwood oil, vern. Oil extracted from the wood is largely used safed chandan as a perfume and in soaps, face creams and toilet powders. In medicine it has cooling, diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant properties. An excellent fixative, it is much used in blends. The sweet-scented wood is utilized for boxes and chests. Champaca oil One of the most famous perfumes of India, it is used for various purposes Camphor, camphor gum, Camphor is solid with tough, white, mushkapur, camphor oil translucent granule-like masses at ordinary temperatures. Extracted from the wood, twigs and leaves, it is used in the manufacture of celluloid, nitrocellulose compounds and expensive perfumes and in medicine for inflammations, rheumatic pains and sprains, as a cardiac stimulant and to relieve diarrhoea. The by-product is called "safrole." Cedarwood oil Oil extracted from the heartwood is valuable as a clearing agent in the preparation of permanent microscopic mounts and for use with oil-immersion lenses because of its high refractory index. It is also used in soaps, perfumes, liniments, deodorants and cleaning and polishing preparations and as an adulterant of geranium and sandlewood oils. Because of its insecticidal properties it is utilized as a moth repellent and in fly sprays. Deodar oil The variants of cedarwood oil used in India are obtained from chips, sawdust or wood of Cedrus deodara and from the shavings and sawdust of Juniperus macropoda Clove oil, vern. Oil extracted from flower buds is used in loungka-tel perfumes, soaps, confectionery and medicine, as a stimulant, carminative and in flatulence and as a clearing agent in histological work for microscopy Oil of turpentine, Oil from resins is used in the manufacture of pine oil varnishes, lacquers, disinfectants, paints, linoleum, sealing wax, oilcloth, lubricating compounds, inks, etc. Cinnamon oil Oil from chips and waste bark is used in the preparation of cinnamon quills and as denitifrices and perfumes Eucalyptus oil Oil from the leaves and terminal branchlets is a source of citronellal, citronellol and menthol. It is widely used in perfumery, as a mosquito repellent, germicide and disinfectant and in medicine in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Nutmeg oil Oils from nutmeg (the aromatic kernels) and mace (the arils) of the fruits of Myristica fragrans (vern. jaiphal) are used externally to treat rheumatism and in soaps and perfumes. Oil obtained from the leaves is used in the preparation of chewing gum, flavoring essences and cosmetics. Macassar oil Extracted from seeds of the gum-lac tree (vern. gausam), the oil has a valuable stimulating and cleansing effect on the scalp, promoting hair growth. It is also used to cure skin diseases, itches, rheumatism and headaches. Agar oil, agar attar Agar oil, from resinous portions of the wood, is pale yellow to brownish yellow or dark amber in color. It is used in perfumery and as an incense. True agar is heavier than water. Keora oil, attar of Screwpine flowers are unusually large: a kewda, attar keora, single flower weighs up to 150 g. The oil is keora water, sandali used in the preparation of fragrant hair attar, kewda or oil oils, perfumes, etc. kewda Cajeput oil Oil extracted from fresh leaves and twigs is used in pharmaceuticals as throat lozenges, gargles, etc. and in medicine as a remedy for colds, throat diseases, headaches, etc. Elengi oil The essential oil, from bulletwood flowers, is a pale yellow, mobile liquid with a very delicate, sweet and tenacious floral odor. It is used in the manufacture of perfumes. Table VIII Fatty-oil- and vegetable-fat-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Drying oils from seeds Tung oil Aleurites fordii, Euphorbiaceae A. montana Kekuna, candle nut, Aleurites moluccana Euphorbiaceae lumbang oil Walnut oil Juglans regia Juglandaceae Laurelwood oil Calophyllum inophyllum Guttiferae Margosa oil Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Oiticia oil Licania rigida Rosaceae Nondrying oils from seeds Castor oil Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Olive oil Olea europaea Oleaceae Vegetable fats Coconut oil Cocos nucifera Arecaceae Palm oil, palm-kernel oil Elaeis guineensis Arecaceae Mahua oil, mowra or bassia Madhuca indica Sapotaceae fat; mahua or illipe butter Phulwara butter Diplokneura butyracea Sapotaceae (= Madhuca butyracea) Carapa oil Xylocarpus moluccensis Meliaceae Nutmeg butter Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae Pongam oil Pongamia pinnata Papilionaceae Babassu oil Orbignya martiana, Arecaceae O. oleifera Cohune oil Orbignya cohune Arecaceae Licuri oil Syagrus coronata Arecaceae Murumuru oil Astrocaryum murumuru, Arecaceae A. tucuma, A. vulgare Cocoa butter Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae Shea butter Butyrospermum parkii Sapotaceae Borneo tallow Shorea aptera Dipterocarpaceae Chinese vegetable tallow Sapium sebiferum Euphorbiaceae Macassar oil Schleichera oleosa Sapindaceae Ucuhuba butter, otoba Virola spp. Myristaceae butter Common name Remarks Drying oils from seeds Tung oil Used in the paint and varnish industry; also used for waterproofing wood, paper and fabrics, and therefore valuable for outdoor paints Kekuna, candle nut, Used in making paint, varnish, lacquer, lumbang oil linoleum and soft soap Walnut oil Mature and old kernels yield a drying oil. An edible oil, it is also used for white paint, artists' oil paints, printing ink and soap. Laurelwood oil Used as an illuminant, for soap making and to treat rheumatism Margosa oil Used as an antiseptic and for burning purposes Oiticia oil Used in the paint and varnish industry; also used in making linoleum and printing inks and for improving the elasticity of rubber products Nondrying oils from seeds Castor oil Used as a purgative, a lubricant and an illuminant; also used in soaps, the textile industry, typewriter inks, perfumes, varnishes and paints Olive oil Used mainly as salad and cooking oil; also used in soap making, as a lubricant and in medicine Vegetable fats Coconut oil Dried coconut meat yields oil. Refined coconut oil is edible. Used for cooking, confectionery, making candy bars, soap, cosmetics, shaving cream, shampoo and other toilet preparations and also as an illuminant. Palm oil, palm-kernel oil Extracted from the fibrous pulp of nuts and from kernels. Used in making soap and margarine and as a fuel for diesel engines; also used for making glycerin, shampoo, soap and candles. Mahua oil, mowra or bassia Oil obtained from seeds is used mainly in fat; mahua or illipe the manufacture of laundry soap and also butter in making candy, in the jute industry, and to treat skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, constipation, piles, etc. Phulwara butter Oil obtained from seeds is used mainly in the manufacture of laundry soap and also in making candy, in the jute industry, and to treat skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, constipation, piles, etc. Carapa oil Oil obtained from seeds is used for soap and as an illuminant Nutmeg butter Seeds contain about 40% of a yellow fat, used in soap, ointment, perfumes and candles and also to treat rheumatism Pongam oil Oil obtained from seeds is used for soap making, as an illuminant, and in the treatment of skin diseases and rheumatism Babassu oil Oil obtained from nuts is used as a substitute for coconut oil and for making bullet-proof glass, explosives and lubricants Cohune oil Oil obtained from nuts is used as a substitute for coconut oil and for making bullet-proof glass, explosives and lubricants Licuri oil Oil obtained from nuts is used as a substitute for coconut oil and for making bullet-proof glass, explosives and lubricants Murumuru oil Oil obtained from nuts is used as a substitute for coconut oil and for making bullet-proof glass, explosives and lubricants Cocoa butter Fat obtained from beans is used for cosmetics and perfumes, as a base for ointments and as a lubricant for massaging Shea butter The fat is edible and is used as a substitute for cocoa butter and in making soap and candles Borneo tallow Fat from kernels is used for soap making and as a substitute for cocoa butter Chinese vegetable tallow Obtained from a thick layer of hard, white fat on seeds, it is used in soap, cosmetics and candles. Seeds yield drying oil, used for paints, varnishes and plastics and as an illuminant. Macassar oil Oil from seeds is used in cooking, as a hair oil and for illumination Ucuhuba butter, otoba Used for various purposes butter Table IX Wax-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Carnauba wax Copernicia cerifera Arecaceae Wax tree Ceroxylon andicola Arecaceae Myrtle wax Myrica pensylvanica, Myricaceae M. cerifera Japanese wax Rhus succedanea Anacardiaceae Common name Remarks Carnauba wax The most important vegetable wax from the wax palm tree (the "tree of life" in Brazil), it occurs as an exudation on leaves and is used in the manufacture of candles, soap, high-luster varnish, paint, car wax, shoe polish, carbon paper, batteries, insulation, phonograph records, salve, sound film, ointment, etc. Wax tree Used as a substitute for carnauba wax Myrtle wax Berries are covered with thick layer of wax, used for the manufacture of soap and candles with a pleasant fragrance Japanese wax Berries yield wax, used in the manufacture of candles, wax matches, pencils, leather, furniture polish, soap and lipstick and in the vulcanization of rubber Table X Saponin-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Soap nut or soap Sapindus emarginatus, Sapindaceae berries, vern. S. mukorossi, ritha S. saponaria Soapbark Quillaja saponaria Rosaceae Common name Remarks Soap nut or soap Used as a soap substitute for washing hair and berries, vern. woolen, silken and other delicate fabrics; also ritha used in the preparation of hair tonic Soapbark Dried inner bark contains 9% saponin, used for washing delicate fabrics, cleaning lenses and precision instruments, as an expectorant and emulsifying agent in medicine and in the manufacture of shampoo, cosmetics and hair tonic Table XI Forms of energy obtained from wood Process Form of energy Direct burning Heat, fire Gasification Producer gas Carbonization (the process of Charcoal (has twice as much heating wood and converting it heating power as wood and burns into carbon) without flame or smoke) Pyrolysis Charcoal, gas, oil Hydrolysis, fermentation Ethanol Gasification, synthesis Methanol Table XII Tannin-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Tannins obtained from bark Mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum, Bruguiera con- jugata, B. cylindrica, B. parviflora, Rhizophora candelaria Wattle Acacia dealbata, A. decurrens, A. leucocephala, A. mearnsii, A. mollis, A. nilotica, A. polyacantha Avaram Cassia auriculata Konnai bark Cassia fistula Sumac Rhus mysurensis Arjun Terminalia arjuna Indian almond Terminalio catappa Jujube Zizyphus mauritiana, Z. nummularia, Z. oenophlia Ceriops Ceriops roxhurghiana Cuddaph almond Buchanania lanzan Casuarina Casuarina eguisetifolia, C. suberosa Sal Shorea robusta Pomegranate Punica granatum Hog plum Spondias pinnata Oak Lithocarpus densifora, Quercus alba, Q. borealis, Q. infectorea, Q. leuco- trichophora, Q. montana, Q. velutina Mallet Eucalyptus occidentalis Hemlock Tsuga canadensis, T. heterophylla European larch Larix decidua Norway spruce Picea abies Tanekaha bark Phyllocladus trichomanoides Tannins obtained from wood Chestnut Castanea dentata, C. sativa Quebracho Schinopsis balansae, S. lorentzii Tannins obtained from leaves Sumac Rhus copallina, R. glabra, R. mysurensis, R. punjabensis, R. succedanea, R. typhina Smoke tree, Indian sumac Cotinus coggyria Gumghatti, dhawa sumac Anogeissus latifolia Sicilian sumac Rhus coriaria Tannins obtained from fruits Myrobalan Terminalia bellerica, T. catappa, T. chebula, T. citrina, T. tomentosa Emblic myrobalan Emblica officinalis Divi divi Caesalpinia coriaria, C. digyna Wild jujube Zizyphus xylocarpa Pomegranate Punica granatum Tora Caesalpinia spinosa Algarobilla Caesalpinia brevifolia Valonia Quercus macrolepsis Tannins obtained from roots Palmetto Sabal palmetto Common name Family Tannins obtained from bark Mangrove Rhizophoraceae Wattle Mimosaceae Avaram Caesalpiniaceae Konnai bark Caesalpiniaceae Sumac Anacardiaceae Arjun Combretaceae Indian almond Combretaceae Jujube Rhamnaceae Ceriops Rhizophoraceae Cuddaph almond Anacardiaceae Casuarina Casuarinaceae Sal Dipterocarpaceae Pomegranate Punicaceae Hog plum Anacardiaceae Oak Fagaceae Mallet Myrtaceae Hemlock Pinaceae European larch Pinaceae Norway spruce Pinaceae Tanekaha bark Podocarpaceae Tannins obtained from wood Chestnut Fagaceae Quebracho Anacardiaceae Tannins obtained from leaves Sumac Anacardiaceae Smoke tree, Indian sumac Anacardiaceae Gumghatti, dhawa sumac Combretaceae Sicilian sumac Anacardiaceae Tannins obtained from fruits Myrobalan Combretaceae Emblic myrobalan Euphorbiaceae Divi divi Caesalpiniaceae Wild jujube Rhamnaceae Pomegranate Punicaceae Tora Caesalpiniaceae Algarobilla Caesalpiniaceae Valonia Fagaceae Tannins obtained from roots Palmetto Arecaceae Common name Remarks Tannins obtained from bark Mangrove Bark is very hard and heavy and contains 22-33% tannin; extract is the cheapest source of tanning material Wattle Wattles contain 40-50% tannin. Bark, removed when trees are 5-15 years old, is ground to a powder. Pods also contain tannin. Wattles yield a very firm, pink leather, used for soles. Avaram Contains 18-23% tannin; used for tanning Konnai bark Contains 10-12% tannin; used for tanning Sumac Used for tanning Arjun Contains 20-24% tannin; used for tanning Indian almond Used for tanning Jujube Used for tanning Ceriops Bark contains 20-37% tannin; leaves, 9-15% Cuddaph almond Used for tanning Casuarina Used for tanning Sal Bark contains 3-9% tannin; used for tanning Pomegranate Bark and fruit used for tanning Hog plum Used for tanning Oak Bark contains 6-30% tannin; used for tanning Mallet Bark contains 35-50% tannin Hemlock Bark contain 8-30% tannin; used for tanning European larch Norway spruce Tanekaha bark Tannins obtained from wood Chestnut Wood contains 30-40% tannin Quebracho Wood, known as "axe breaker," is one of the hardest known woods; its specific gravity is 1.30-1.40. Wood contains 40-60% tannin; used for tanning. Tannins obtained from leaves Sumac 10-25% tannin in leaves/leaf galls; used for tanning Smoke tree, Indian sumac Used for tanning Gumghatti, dhawa sumac Leaves contain 32-39% tannin; used for tanning Sicilian sumac Leaves contain 20-35% tannin Tannins obtained from fruits Myrobalan Nuts contain 30-40% tannin; used for tanning Emblic myrobalan Tannin content 28% in fruit, 21% in twigs, 8-9% in stems, 22% in leaves Divi divi Pods contain 40-50% tannin; used for tanning Wild jujube Used for tanning Pomegranate Fruit shells and bark used for tanning Tora Fruits contain 43-51% tannin; used for tanning and making ink and as a black dye Algarobilla Used for tanning Valonia Sun-dried acorn cups contain 45% tannin; used for tanning Tannins obtained from roots Palmetto Tannin content in roots is low (10%) Table XIII Dye-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Dyes obtained from wood Logwood Haematoxylon campechianum Cutch Acacia catechu, A. catechuoides, A. sundra Sappan wood, Brazil wood, Caesalpinia echinata, C. sappan Braziline Red sandalwood, red Pterocarpus santalinus sanderswood, santaline Fustic Chlorophora tinctoria Osage orange Maclura pomifera Camwood Baphia nitida Barwood Pterocarpus erinaceous, P. soyauxii Artocarpus Artocarpus heterophyllus, A.lakoocha Dyes obtained from leaves Lodh Symplocos crataegoides Chlorophyll a ([C.sub.55] [H.sub.72][O.sub.5] [N.sub.4]Mg), Chlorophyll b ([C.sub.55] [H.sub.70][O.sub.6] [N.sub.4]Mg); all green plants Dyes obtained from roots and tubers Indian mulberry Morinda angustifolia, M. bracteata, M. citrifolia, M. tinctoria Dyes obtained from bark Bishopwood Bischofia javanica Teak Tectona grandis Quercitron Quercus velutina Lokao, buckthorn Rhamnus globosa, R. utilis Dyes obtained from flowers Flame of the forest, dhak Butea monosperma Tree of sorrow Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Sweet indrajao Wrightia tinctoria Red cedar Toona ciliata Dyes obtained from fruits Kamla, kamela Mallotus philippinensis Dyes obtained from seeds Annatto Bixa orellana Dharauli Wrightia tomentosa Dyes obtained from different parts Gum resin, gamboge Garcinia cambogia, G. cowa, G. hanburyi, G. morella, G. xanthochymus Common name Family Dyes obtained from wood Logwood Caesalpiniaceae Cutch Mimosaceae Sappan wood, Brazil wood, Caesalpiniaceae Braziline Red sandalwood, red Papilionaceae sanderswood, santaline Fustic Moraceae Osage orange Moraceae Camwood Fabaceae Barwood Papilionaceae Artocarpus Moraceae Dyes obtained from leaves Lodh Symplocaceae Chlorophyll a ([C.sub.55] [H.sub.72][O.sub.5] [N.sub.4]Mg), Chlorophyll b ([C.sub.55] [H.sub.70][O.sub.6] [N.sub.4]Mg); all green plants Dyes obtained from roots and tubers Indian mulberry Rubiaceae Dyes obtained from bark Bishopwood Euphorbiaceae Teak Verbenaceae Quercitron Fagaceae Lokao, buckthorn Rhamnaceae Dyes obtained from flowers Flame of the forest, dhak Papilionaceae Tree of sorrow Oleaceae Sweet indrajao Apocyanaceae Red cedar Meliaceae Dyes obtained from fruits Kamla, kamela Euphorbiaceae Dyes obtained from seeds Annatto Bixaceae Dharauli Apocyanaceae Dyes obtained from different parts Gum resin, gamboge Guttiferae Common name Remarks Dyes obtained from wood Logwood Heartwood contains purplish red dye; with iron salts it becomes black; used for making inks and in histological work as a stain; also used for dyeing Cutch Heartwood contains 44-69% catechin; used as a dyeing stuff, as a masticatory and in medicine; cutch is the by-product Sappan wood, Brazil wood, Heartwood yields a red dye; used for Braziline dyeing cotton and wool and for preparing red ink Red sandalwood, red Heartwood yields a red dye; used for sanderswood, santaline dyeing cotton and wool and for preparing red ink Fustic Natural yellow, brown and olive dyes obtained from heartwood are used for dyeing Osage orange Bright orange wood yields orange- yellow, gold and green dyes Camwood Redwood dye is obtained Barwood Yields shades of brown, red and violet dyes Artocarpus Yields bright yellow dye; used by Buddhist monks Dyes obtained from leaves Lodh Yellow dye is obtained Chlorophyll a ([C.sub.55] Used for coloring food, soap and [H.sub.72][O.sub.5] similar products [N.sub.4]Mg), Chlorophyll b ([C.sub.55] [H.sub.70][O.sub.6] [N.sub.4]Mg); all green plants Dyes obtained from roots and tubers Indian mulberry Roots yield red and yellow dyes Dyes obtained from bark Bishopwood Red and tan dyes are obtained Teak Yields yellow dye for coloring baskets Quercitron Yields bright yellow dye used for dyeing Lokao, buckthorn Yields green dye used for dyeing silks and cottons Dyes obtained from flowers Flame of the forest, dhak Yields yellow dye used in Holi festivals Tree of sorrow Yields orange dye used for coloring silk and cotton Sweet indrajao Yields blue dye Red cedar Yields yellowish red dye used for dyeing cotton Dyes obtained from fruits Kamla, kamela Yields red dye used for dyeing silk Dyes obtained from seeds Annatto Used for coloring foodstuffs as well as wools, paints, varnishes and soaps Dharauli Yields yellow dye Dyes obtained from different parts Gum resin, gamboge Pith, flowers, leaves and fruits yield a yellow emulsion used for making watercolors and gold-colored spirit varnishes for metals Table XIV Rubber-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Elastic rubber Hevea or Para rubber Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae Castilla or Panama rubber Castilla elastica Moraceae Caucho rubber Castilla ulei Moraceae Ceara or Manicoba rubber Manihot glaziovii Euphorbiaceae Assam or India rubber Ficus elastica Moraceae Mangabeira Hancornia speciosa Apocyanaceae Chilte rubber Cnidosceolus spp. Euphorbiaceae Nonelastic rubber Gutta-percha Pelaguium ellipticum, Sapotaceae P. gutta, P. polyanthum Balata Manilkara bidentata Sapotaceae Jelutong Dyera costulata Apocyanaceae Chicle, sapodilla, naseberry Manilkara achras Sapotaceae Sorva, leche caspe Couma macrocarpa Apocyanaeae Common name Remarks Elastic rubber Hevea or Para rubber 98% of the world's rubber comes from this tree, which is native to Amazonia; in India it is a plantation crop in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka Castilla or Panama rubber Native to Mexico and Central America Caucho rubber Native to Amazonia Ceara or Manicoba rubber Native to Brazil; also grown in India Assam or India rubber Native to northern India and Malaysia; of low grade and little commercial value Mangabeira Native to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay Chilte rubber Nonelastic rubber Gutta-percha Obtained from grayish white latex of this Malaysian tree; latex, present in sacs that occur in the cortex, phloem, pith and leaves, is used for insulation, submarine cables, golf balls, waterproofing and adhesives and as a substitute for chicle Balata Native to Trinidad and South America; used for insulation, submarine cables, golf balls, waterproofing and adhesives and as a substitute for chicle Jelutong A Malayasian tree; used as a substitute for chicle Chicle, sapodilla, naseberry Native to the Yucatan Peninsula, cultivated in India; latex contains 20-25% gutta-percha-like gum called "chicle," which is the basis of the chewing gum industry; also used in making surgical tape and dental supplies Sorva, leche caspe A large Amazonian tree; used as a substitute for chicle Table XV Gum-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Gum arabic, kumta Acacia senegal Khair Acacia catechu Babul, acacia, kikar Acacia nilotica Acacia Acacia modesta Son khair, kaiger Acacia ferruginea Karaya, kandya, katira, Sterculia urens, S. villosa kuteera, katillo, kullo, India or sterculia gum Gum ghatti Anogeissus latifolia Gum locust, carob Ceratonia siliqua Cellulose gum, caboxy- methyl cellulose gum; green plants -- Limonia acidissima Hog gum Cochlospermum religiosum Cycas gum Cycas circinalis Larch gum Larix occidenialis Mesquite gum, kabuli kikar Prosopis chilensis, P glandu- losa, P. juliora Cherry gum Prunus cerasoides, P. cerasus East Indian copal Canarium bengalense Gum benzoin, benjamin Styrax benzoin Jhingan gum Lannea coromandelica Malabar kino gum Pterocarpus marsupium Bengal kino Butea monosperma -- Astragalus prolixus Garmezu Astragalus strobiliferus Gum neem Azadirachta indica Wood apple, kut bel Feronia limonia Bialam Anisoptera scaphula Cowa Garcinia cowa Semla gond Bauhinia retusa Albizia gums Albizia chinensis, A. lebbek, A. odoratissima, A. procera Bauhinia gums Bauhinia purpurea, B. race- mosa, B. variegata -- Chloroxylon swietenia Mango Mangifera indica -- Terminalia bellerica -- Terminalia tomentosa Common name Family Gum arabic, kumta Mimosaceae Khair Mimosaceae Babul, acacia, kikar Mimosaceae Acacia Mimosaceae Son khair, kaiger Mimosaceae Karaya, kandya, katira, Sterculiaceae kuteera, katillo, kullo, India or sterculia gum Gum ghatti Combretaceae Gum locust, carob Caesalpiniaceae Cellulose gum, caboxy- methyl cellulose gum; green plants -- Rutaceae Hog gum Cohlospermaceae Cycas gum Cycadaceae Larch gum Pinaceae Mesquite gum, kabuli kikar Mimosaceae Cherry gum Rosaceae East Indian copal Burscraceae Gum benzoin, benjamin Styracaceae Jhingan gum Anacardiaceae Malabar kino gum Papilionaceae Bengal kino Papilionaceae -- Papilionaceae Garmezu Papilionaceae Gum neem Meliaceae Wood apple, kut bel Rutaceae Bialam Dipterocarpaceae Cowa Guttiferae Semla gond Mimosaceae Albizia gums Mimosaceae Bauhinia gums Mimosaceae -- Rutaceae Mango Anacardiaceae -- Combretaceae -- Combretaceae Common name Remarks Gum arabic, kumta Gum obtained from bark; used for all purposes mentioned in the text Khair Gum obtained from bark; used for all purposes mentioned in the text Babul, acacia, kikar Gum obtained from bark; used in confectionery Acacia Used in medicine and in printing calico Son khair, kaiger Gum obtained from bark; used for all purposes mentioned in the text Karaya, kandya, katira, Gum obtained from heartwood; used as a kuteera, katillo, kullo, substitute for gum tragacanth, also India or sterculia gum in the cosmetic and cigar industries in several emulsions, lotions, pastes and as a laxative; forms a strong adhesive gel with a little water Gum ghatti Used as a substitute for gum arabic; also used in ceramics, foods and the petroleum industry, as a drilling mud conditioner, and in the explosives industry Gum locust, carob Not a true gum because it is obtained not from wounded woody tissues but from the endosperm of seeds; was used by Egyptians as an adhesive for binding mummies, now used in the food industry and for other purposes mentioned in the text Cellulose gum, caboxy- Prepared by mixing purified cellulose methyl cellulose gum; with sodium monochloroacetate in an green plants alkaline medium; extra whitening and brightening of detergents is due to this gum; also used in the paper, textile, food and paint industries -- Substitute for gum arabic Hog gum Substitute for gum arabic; is edible Cycas gum Larch gum Gum obtained from wood chips; used as a substitute for gum arabic Mesquite gum, kabuli kikar Gum obtained from stems; used for printing calico Cherry gum Used as a substitute for gum arabic East Indian copal Gum obtained from stems; used as a hard-drying varnish Gum benzoin, benjamin Source of benzoic acid Jhingan gum Used in printing calico and as sizing in the paper and textile industries Malabar kino gum Valuable medicine in diarrhea and dysentery Bengal kino Valuable medicine in diarrhea and dysentery -- Gum obtained from stems; used in cosmetics, printing calico and confectionery Garmezu Gum obtained from stems; used in confectionery Gum neem Wood apple, kut bel Gum obtained from trunk and branches; used as a substitute for gum arabic Bialam Cowa Gum obtained from trunk and branches; used for preparing yellow varnish Semla gond Substitute for gum arabic; used for sizing cloth and paper and for water-proofing terraced roofs Albizia gums Used for various purposes Bauhinia gums -- Yields amber or reddish brown gum Mango Substitute for gum arabic -- Contains crystals of calcium carbonate -- Used as incense Table XVI Resin-yielding families Family Resin Gymnosperms Pinaceae Calophony, balsam, Canada balsam, kauri-resin, manil copal, oleo-resin, sandarac Fossil conifers Amber (from Pinus succinifera) Angiosperms Anacardiaceae Mastic Apiaceae Ammoniacum, asafoetida, galbanum Berberidaceae Podophyllum Burseraceae Elemi, frankincense, myrrh Caesalpiniaceae Copal Convolvulaceae Jalap, seamony Dipterocarpaceae Dammars Guttiferae Gamboge Hamamelidaceae Storax Liliaceae Acaroid resin, aloes, dragons blood Leguminosae (Fabaceae) Balsam of perum, Congo copal, copaiba balsam, Peru balsam, tolu balsam Styracaceae Benzoin Zygophyllaceae Guiacum Table XVII Differences among three main types of resins Hard resins Oleo resins Little, if any, essential oil Considerable essential oils as well as resinous materials Usually solid, more or less More or less liquid in nature transparent, brittle substances No particular odor or taste Distinct aroma and flavor Nonvolatile and very poor Volatile essential oil component conductors of electricity but become negatively electrified when friction is applied; readily fusible and burn in air with a smoky flame Common examples: copals, Common examples: balsams, damars elemis, turpentines Hard resins Gum resins Little, if any, essential oil Mixture of both true gums and resins, thus contain small amounts of essential oils and traces of coloring matter Usually solid, more or less Occur naturally as milky exudations, transparent, brittle collected as tears or irregular substances masses No particular odor or taste May have an aroma and flavor Nonvolatile and very poor conductors of electricity but become negatively electrified when friction is applied; readily fusible and burn in air with a smoky flame Common examples: copals, Common examples: anmoniacum, damars asafoetida, galbanum Table XVIII Resin-yielding trees Common name Genus and species Family Hard resins Zanzibar copal, Trachylobium verrucosum Fabaceae Madagascar copal, Mozambique copal Inhambane copal Copaifera conjugata Fabaceae Congo copal, Angola Copaifera aemeusii, Fabaceae copal C. mopane Sierra Leone copal Copaifera copallifera, Fabaceae C. salikounda Accra copal, Benin Daniella ogea Fabaceae copal South American copal, Hymenaea courbaril Fabaceae Demerara copal, Para copal Manila copal Agathis alba Araucariaceae Kauri copal, kauri Agathis australis Araucariaceae gum Damar mata kuching Hopea micrantha Dipterocarpaceae Damar penak Balanocarpus heimii Dipterocarpaceae Damar temak Shorea hypochra Dipterocarpaceae Sal damar, guggal Shorea robusta Dipterocarpaceae dhuma, ral dhuma, lal dhuma Kala damar Shorea tumbuggaia Dipterocarpaceae White damar, piney Vateria indica Dipterocarpaceae resin, Indian copal, dhupa Black damar Canarium strictum Burseraceae Batavian damar Shorea wiesneri Dipterocarpaceae Rock damar Hopea odorata Dipterocarpaceae Amber Pinus (= Pinites) Pinaceae succinifera (principal source) Amber Hymenaea spp., Copaifera Fabaceae spp. (other sources) Lacquer Rhus verniciflua, R. Anacardiaceae succedanea Burmese lacquer, Melanorrhoea usitata Anacardiaceae thitsi Shellac Butea monosperma, Papilionaceae Cajanus cajan Shellac Schleichera oleosa Sapindaceae Shellac Zizyphus xylopyrus Rhamnaceae Shellac Ficus religiosa Moraceae Shellac Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae Acaroid or grass-tree Xanthorrhoea hastilis, Liliaceae resins X. tateana, X. australis Sandarac Tetraclinis articulata, Cupressaceae Callitris quadrivalvis Chios mastic Pistacia lentiscus Pistaciaceae Bombay mastic Pistacia cabulica Pistaciaceae Malbar, gum or Indian Pterocarpus marsupium Fabaceae kino West African kino Pterocarpus erinaceus Fabaceae Bengal kino Butea monosperma Fabaceae Gum kino Eucalyptus camaldulensis Myrtaceae Gum kino Dipteryx odorata, Coc- Polygonaceae coloba uvifera Lesch Antiaris toxicaria Moraceae Oleoresins Turpentine, birja, Pinus australis, P. Pinaceae biroja, lisha, caribaea, P. ponderosa lassa (in America); P roxbur ghii, P. wallichiana, P. merkusii, P. insu- laris, P. kesiya (in India); P. pinaster, P. maritima (in France); P. pinaster, P. halepensis, P. nigra, P. pinea (in Spain); P. pinaster, P. pinea (in Portugal); P. halepensis (in Greece); P. sylvestris (in Russia, Poland and Germany) Venetian turpentine Larix decidua Pinaceae Bordeaux turpentine Pinus pinaster Pinaceae Strasbourg turpentine Abies alba Pinaceae Jura turpentine Picea abies Pinaceae Canada balsam Abies balsamea Pinaceae Oregon balsam Pseudotsuga taxifolia Pinaceae Spruce gum Picea rubens Pinaceae Balsam of Peru Myroxylon pereirae Fabaceae Balsam of Tolu Myroxylon balsamum Papilionaceae Levant styrax or Liquidamber orientalis Hamamelidaceae storax American styrax Liquidamber styraciflua Hamamelidaceae Siam benzoin, Styrax benzoides, Styraceae balsamic resin S. tankinense Sumatra benzoin Styrax benzoin Styraceae Copaiba, Copaiba Copaifera spp., espe- Fabaceae balsam, capaiva cially C. officinalis, C. reticulata Gurjan balsam Dipterocarpus alatus, Dipterocarpaceae D. indicus, D.turbintus Illurin balsam, Daniella oliveri, Fabaceae African copaiba, D. thurifera Sierra Leone frankincense Manila elemi Canarium luzonicum Burseraceae African elemi Boswellia frereana Burseraceae Mexican elemi Amyris balsamifera, Rutaceae A. elemifera Brazilian elemi Bursera gummifera, Burseraceae Protium heptaphyllum Mecca balsam Commiphora opabalsomum Burseraceae Mexican linaloe Bursera penicillata Burseraceae Salai gum, Indian Boswellia serrata: Burseraceae olibanum Gum resins Ammoniacum Dorema ammoniacum Apiaceae Herabol myrrh Commiphora myrrha Burseraceae Bisabol, sweet myrrh Commiphora erythraea Burseraceae Gum resin Commiphora caudata Burseraceae Frankincense of Boswellia carteri Burseraceae olibanum Indian frankincense, Boswellia serrata Burseraceae luban Opopanax Commiphora kataf Burseraceae Opopanax Opopanax chironium Apiaceae Ceylon gambose, Garcinia hanburyi, Guttiferae Indian gamboge G. morella Madar Calotropis gigantea, Asclepiadaceae C. hamiltonii Common name Remarks Hard resins Zanzibar copal, Hardest of all copals except amber; living, Madagascar copal, semifossil or fossil in nature; yellowish Mozambique copal to brownish red Inhambane copal Congo copal, Angola Living as well as fossil in nature; light copal yellow Sierra Leone copal Light yellow Accra copal, Benin Locally called "ogea gum" in Liberia, Ghana copal and Nigeria South American copal, Softest of all copals Demerara copal, Para copal Manila copal Living, semifossil or fossil in nature; yellow Kauri copal, kauri Living, semifossil or fossil in nature; gum yellow Damar mata kuching Damar penak Damar temak Sal damar, guggal Used as an ingredient of "samagri," which is dhuma, ral dhuma, burned in religious ceremonies lal dhuma Kala damar Used as an incense and in marine yards as a substitute for pitch White damar, piney Used in medicine to treat chronic resin, Indian bronchitis, diarrhea and rheumatism copal, dhupa Black damar Used as a substitute for burgundy pitch in medical plasters Batavian damar Rock damar Used in varnishes Amber Fossilized terpenoid resin occurring on the shores of the Baltic Sea, it is the only jewel of plant origin. It is exceedingly hard, brittle, yellow to brown or even black, transparent or opaque with a characteristic aromatic odor; when rubbed, it takes a high polish and becomes negatively charged. Used for beads, ornaments, mouthpieces of pipes and holders for cigars and cigarettes, etc. Sometimes organisms of the past are embedded in it. Amber Fossilized terpenoid resin occurring on the shores of the Baltic Sea, it is the only jewel of plant origin. It is exceedingly hard, brittle, yellow to brown or even black, transparent or opaque with a characteristic aromatic odor; when rubbed, it takes a high polish and becomes negatively charged. Used for beads, ornaments, mouthpieces of pipes and holders for cigars and cigarettes, etc. Sometimes organisms of the past are embedded in it. Lacquer Natural varnish exuded from Asiatic trees, it affords protection because it remains unchanged by acids, alkalis, alcohol or heat up to 160[degrees]F Rhus succedanea yields liquid resin from the mesocarp of fruits, which is used in ointments, wax varnishes, etc. Burmese lacquer, Affords protection because it remains thitsi unchanged by acids, alkalis, alcohol or heat up to 160[degrees]F Shellac Not strictly a plant product but a resinous substance secreted on the twigs of many trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh"). Used in the manufacture of phonograph records, high-grade insulators, spirit varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink, watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers and as sizing in paper and stiffening in felt hats. Shellac Not strictly a plant product but a resinous substance secreted on the twigs of many trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh"). Used in the manufacture of phonograph records, high-grade insulators, spirit varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink, watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers and as sizing in paper and stiffening in felt hats. Shellac Not strictly a plant product but a resinous substance secreted on the twigs of many trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh"). Used in the manufacture of phonograph records, high-grade insulators, spirit varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink, watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers and as sizing in paper and stiffening in felt hats. Shellac Not strictly a plant product but a resinous substance secreted on the twigs of many trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh") Used in the manufacture of phonograph records, high-grade insulators, spirit varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink, watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers and as sizing in paper and stiffening in felt hats. Shellac Not strictly a plant product but a resinous substance secreted on the twigs of many trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh"). Used in the manufacture of phonograph records, high-grade insulators, spirit varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink, watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers and as sizing in paper and stiffening in felt hats. Acaroid or grass-tree Resin collected around the bases of old resins leaves is yellow from the first species and red from the other species. Used in making sealing wax and spirit varnishes and as a substitute for rosin in paper sizing and ink; also as a source of picric acid and in medicine. Sandarac Secreted in the form of small tears on the bark, it is hard, white and rather brittle. Used for coating labels, negatives, cardboard leather and metal and in dental cement, incense and fumigating powder. Chios mastic Excreted from the bark in the form of long, ovoid, pale yellow, brittle tears. Used for coating metals and both oil and watercolor pictures; in the preparation of transparent varnishes and in chewing gum; also used in perfumery, medicine, lithographic work and as a cement for dental work. Bombay mastic Dull, milk-colored resin. Used for coating metals and both oil and watercolor pictures; in the preparation of transparent varnishes and in chewing gum; also used in perfumery, medicine, lithographic work and as a cement for dental work. Malbar, gum or Indian Used in medicine for throat troubles and in kino tanning West African kino Red resin, used in medicine for throat troubles and in tanning Bengal kino Used in medicine for throat troubles and in tanning Gum kino Secreted between the wood and the bark Gum kino Secreted between the wood and the bark Lesch White resin, used for poisoning arrows and in medicine Oleoresins Turpentine, birja, Exuded from coniferous trees as a viscous, biroja, lisha, honey-like liquid or a soft, sticky lassa substance called "pitch." On distillation it yields essential oil (called "oil" or "spirit of turpentine") and rosin (the residue). The oil is used in the paint and varnish industry, in printing cotton and wool, as a solvent for rubber and guttapercha, in medicine and in the manufacture of pine oil, terpineol, camphor, pine tar, vormeol, voneol acetate and other chemicals. The rosin, or colophony, is a brittle, friable, faintly aromatic, solid used in the manufacture of soap, varnish, paint, oilcloth, linoleum, sealing wax, adhesives, printers' ink, floor and roof coverings, rubbers, drugs, plastics, etc. and as a sizing material for paper. Rosin oil is used as grease, a lubricant and a solvent. Venetian turpentine Used in histology, lithographic work, varnishes and veterinary medicine; yellowish or greenish liquid with a characteristic taste and odor Bordeaux turpentine The residue, called "Burgundy pitch," is a stimulant and counterirritant and is used in plastics, ointments and pharmaceuticals Strasbourg turpentine The residue, called "Burgundy pitch," is a stimulant and counterirritant and is used in plastics, ointments and pharmaceuticals Jura turpentine Canada balsam True turpentine (oleoresin) from the balsam fir, it is a viscid, yellowish or greenish substance used as a mounting medium for microscopic work and a cement for optical lenses; also used as an irritant, stimulant and antiseptic, as a component in collodion and many plasters and as a fixative for soap and perfumes. Technically, balsams are aromatic oleoresins that contain benzoic or cinnamic acid and are less viscous and contain less oil than turpentines. On distillation balsams yield essential oils that are used in medicine and as fixatives in the perfume industry. Oregon balsam A viscid, yellowish or greenish substance used as a mounting medium for microscopic work and a cement for optical lenses; also used as an irritant, stimulant and antiseptic, as a component in collodion and many plasters and as a fixative for soap and perfumes Spruce gum Obtained from wood and bark, the oleoresin is thin, clean, bitter and sticky, hardens on exposure to air and has a pleasing, resinous taste. Used as a masticatory because it softens in the mouth and becomes reddish. Balsam of Peru A dark, reddish brown, thick, viscous, syrupy liquid obtained by wounding the tree. Used in medicine for treating slow-healing wounds and skin diseases (especially during World War II) and, because of its stimulating and antiseptic effect on mucous membranes, for treating coughs, bronchitis, etc.; also used as a substitute for vanilla, as a fixative in perfumes and in the soap industry. The common name is a misnomer because the tree grows in Central America, not in Peru. Balsam of Tolu A brown or yellowish brown, plastic substance with a pleasant aromatic taste and odor; used for almost the same purposes as balsam of Peru Levant styrax or A semiliquid, sticky, grayish brown, opaque, storax aromatic substance obtained from inner bark by wounding the tree; used in cosmetics, soap, adhesives, lacquers and incense as a fixative, in perfumes and in medicine for the treatment of coughs and scabies American styrax A clear, thick, brownish yellow semisolid or solid substance obtained from inner bark by wounding the tree; used in cosmetics, soap, adhesives, lacquers and incense; as a fixative in perfumes; and in medicine for the treatment of coughs and scabies. India imports it from France. Siam benzoin, Yellowish or brownish, pebble-like hard and balsamic resin brittle tears with a milky white center and a strong, vanilla-like aroma; used as incense and in medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, carminative and expectorant; in the manufacture of perfume, soap, toilet water, lotion, tooth powder and fumigating materials; a source of benzoic acid Sumatra benzoin Reddish or grayish brown tears that aggregate to form blocks or lumps; used as incense and in medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, carminative and expectorant; in the manufacture of perfume, soap, toilet water, lotion, tooth powder and fumigating materials; a source of benzoic acid Copaiba, Copaiba Obtained by boring holes into heartwood, it balsam, capaiva is a thin, clear, colorless liquid that turns yellow and viscid with age, is aromatic and has a bitter taste; used in making lacquer, varnish and tracing paper, as a fixative in perfume and soap; in photography for half-tones and shadows and in medicine as a laxative, disinfec- tant, diuretic and mild stimulant Gurjan balsam Thick, opaque and grayish, it is used in medicine and for caulking and varnishing boats Illurin balsam, Thick, very fragrant, pungent, pepper-like African copaiba, oleoresin Sierra Leone frankincense Manila elemi Oozes from trunk bark in fragrant, white masses on tree trunks; used locally for torches, for caulking boats, in lithographic work, in the manufacture of cements, adhesives and ink, in perfume, in medicine, in plastics and ointments, and in the varnish industry to make products tough and elastic African elemi Mexican elemi Brazilian elemi Mecca balsam A greenish, turbid oleoresin with an odor of rosemary; used in incense, perfumes and medicine Mexican linaloe Obtained from the aromatic fruits; used in perfume Salai gum, Indian Used as an incense, in medicine for olibanum rheumatism, nervous diseases and ointments and as a fire lighter Gum resins Ammoniacum Exudes from stems and flowering branches as a milky juice that hardens on exposure to form brittle, brownish yellow tears, which occur singly or in masses; used in perfumery and in medicine as a circulatory stimulant Herabol myrrh Oozes from stems as a pale yellow liquid that hardens to form brown or black tears; used in perfumery, as a constituent of mouthwash and dentifrices and in medicine as a tonic, stimulant and antiseptic Bisabol, sweet myrrh Used in incense, perfumes and embalming and as a constituent of Chinese joss sticks Gum resin A pale yellow liquid that gradually solidifies and turns brown or black; used in medicine, as incense and for embalming Frankincense of Exudes from bark as a clear, yellow resin olibanum that hardens into small yellow grains; used in incense and perfumes and as a fixative for face powders, pastilles and fumigating powders Indian frankincense, Obtained from bark, the oleo-gum-resin luban contains: oily, turpentinic liquid, used as a substitute for turpentine oil; a rosin-like resin, used in the soap industry; and gum, used in printing calico Opopanax Used in perfumery and in medicine Opopanax An herb used in perfumery and in medicine Ceylon gambose, Yellow emulsion obtained from the pith, Indian gamboge leaves, flowers and fruits; used in preparing watercolors and gold-colored spirit varnishes and in medicine as a violent cathartic Madar Used as a substitute for gutta-percha
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