Substance use and mental health problems as predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care.
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental
health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster
care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline
interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in
foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of
an HIV prevention program. Final logistic regression models indicated
that delinquent behavior and marijuana use were the most significant
predictors of engaging in any one HIV risk behavior. Adolescents who
reported delinquent behaviors, alcohol use, and marijuana use and who
were female were more likely than their counterparts to engage in
vaginal sex without using a condom. Future research is needed to further
identify risk and protective factors for substance use, mental health
problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in foster
care. HIV prevention efforts for these vulnerable adolescents should
target those with substance use and delinquent behaviors.
KEY WORDS: adolescents; foster care; HIV risk; mental health; substance use
Teenagers (Health aspects)
Teenagers (Psychological aspects)
Youth (Health aspects)
Youth (Psychological aspects)
HIV infection (Research)
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.
Auslander, Wendy F.
|Publication:||Name: Health and Social Work Publisher: National Association of Social Workers Audience: Academic; Professional Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health; Sociology and social work Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 National Association of Social Workers ISSN: 0360-7283|
|Issue:||Date: Feb, 2011 Source Volume: 36 Source Issue: 1|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research|
|Product:||Product Code: E121930 Youth|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States|
As many as 250,000 adolescents currently reside in the care and
custody of the U.S. foster care system (U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, 2006). Adolescents enter into foster care placements
because of neglect or physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and,
therefore, all have histories of maltreatment. Examination of the
empirical research indicates that these adolescents are at increased
risk for using substances (Thompson & Auslander, 2007), developing
mental health problems (Landsverk, 1999; Pilowsky, 1995; Trupin, Tarico,
Benson, Jemelka, & McClellan, 1993), and engaging in HIV sexual risk
behaviors (Auslander et al., 2002; Becker & Barth, 2000; Elze,
Auslander, McMillen, Edmond, & Thompson, 2001). However, the extent
to which the co-occurrence of mental health problems and substance use
places adolescents in foster care at increased risk of engaging in HIV
sexual risk behaviors has not been sufficiently examined.
Adolescents involved with the foster care system have consistently reported substance use at rates equal to or greater than those of adolescents in the general population. Findings from earlier studies indicated that 20 percent to 50 percent of adolescent samples reported use of alcohol or other substances while in foster care, with substantial numbers reporting problematic use and continued use after exiting care (Taussig, Clyman, & Landsverk, 2001). In addition, the 1998-1999 Washington State Adolescent Foster Care Survey (Kohlenberg, Nordlund, Lowin, & Treichler, 2002), which estimated the rates of alcohol and other drug use among adolescents ages 12 to 17 years who resided in family foster care, found that 34 percent of the 231 participants had used alcohol at least once in the past year, with 13 percent using alcohol in the past month. Twenty-three percent reported marijuana use in the past year, with 10 percent reporting use in the past month. An examination of 2002 and 2003 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 2005) found that 38 percent of the approximately 680,000 youths (ages 12 to 17) who had ever been in foster care had used alcohol in the past year, and 34 percent had used marijuana or other illicit drugs. White youths who had ever been in foster care were more likely than their African American counterparts to have used alcohol (41 percent versus 30 percent) or illicit drugs (36 percent versus 27 percent) in the past year. No gender differences in alcohol or illicit drug use were found. Thompson and Auslander (2007) noted similar findings among adolescents currently in foster care, with white adolescents being more likely than African American adolescents to report current marijuana use and use of both alcohol and marijuana. Moreover, female adolescents were as likely as their male counterparts to use alcohol, marijuana, or both.
A number of studies have provided evidence of the prevalence of mental health problems among foster care adolescents. Mech, Ludy-Dobson, and Hulseman (1994) reported that over half of the foster care youths in their study had social--emotional adjustment problems. Trupin et al. (1993) found that 72 percent of the children in Washington state's child welfare system evidenced severe emotional disturbances indistinguishable from a criterion group of children in the state's most intensive mental health treatment programs. Pilowsky's (1995) review of studies published between 1974 and 1994 found that externalizing disorders in particular may be more prevalent than internalizing disorders in the foster care population, as did Landsverk's (1999) later review of nine additional studies. Most recently, McMillen et al. (2005) found that 61 percent of their sample of older foster care adolescents from Missouri reported having at least one psychiatric disorder during their lifetime (37 percent in the past year), with 62 percent having onset of their earliest disorder before entering the foster care system.
Relatively few sexual risk studies have focused solely on adolescents in foster care. Thus, studies with troubled adolescents from environmental contexts similar to those of adolescents in foster care (for example, in detention, runaway, homeless) have provided much of what is known about the sexual risk of adolescents in foster care. Examination of such research indicates that many troubled adolescents engage in unsafe sexual activities, have sex while using alcohol and other substances, hold negative attitudes about condom use, and use condoms about one-third of the times that they have sex (Gillmore et al., 1994). Studies of runaway and homeless adolescents, as many as 40 percent of whom had previously rived in foster care, have reported high rates of mental health problems and high rates of sexual risk behaviors (Robertson, 1989). These youths often have a heightened awareness of sexual activity, initiate sexual activity earlier, and engage in prostitution, and they are estimated to be six to 12 times more likely to become infected with HIV than are other adolescents (Rotheram-Borus & Koopman, 1991).
In one of the few studies of HIV risk to be specifically conducted among adolescents in foster care, Auslander et al. (2002) examined the relationships among mental health problems, sexual abuse, and HIV risk behaviors and intentions and found that externalizing behaviors, after controlling for demographics and behavioral intentions, were most strongly associated with HIV risk behaviors. Moreover, a significant Race x Gender interaction was identified as a determinant of both current HIV risk behaviors and behavioral intentions, with white female adolescents reporting higher risky behaviors and intentions on average than ethnic minority female and male adolescents. Additional analyses by Elze et al. (2001) indicated a significant relationship between the severity of sexual abuse and HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care, after accounting for the contribution of other childhood trauma and emotional and behavioral problems. The current study furthers understanding of HIV risk among adolescents in foster care by examining the association of substance use and mental health problems with sexual risk behaviors.
STUDY PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESES
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which substance use and specific mental health problems increased the likelihood of the adolescents engaging in HIV sexual risk behaviors and to examine the extent to which these patterns vary according to race, gender, and age. Problem behavior theory (PBT)--a framework that has been used to explain and predict substance use, behavioral problems, and the onset of sexual activity in the general adolescent population (Jessor & Jessor, 1977)--guided the study. PBT is based on the premise that problem behaviors are part of normal adolescent development and play a major role in the transition to adulthood. The theory hypothesizes that many adolescent risk behaviors are interrelated manifestations of a common underlying syndrome of problem behavior. Given that delinquency and substance use generally precede sexual activity (Stiffman, Dore, Earls, & Cunningham, 1992), substance use and mental health problems could be viewed as components of a risk behavior syndrome that may predict sexual involvement and, by extension, sexual risk taking. Because of the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in foster care, and the strong association of mental health problems and substance use among the general adolescent population (Zeitlin, 1999), it was hypothesized that adolescents' use of substances and endorsement of mental health problems would increase their likelihood of engaging in HIV sexual risk behaviors.
Sample Recruitment and Retention
The present study used baseline data collected from a sample of 320 older adolescents who had been placed in foster or other out-of-home care by the child welfare services of a midwestern metropolitan area and had participated in a life-skills program designed to assist with their transition to independent living. Adolescents were eligible for the study if they were 15 to 18 years of age before starting the program and were placed in out-of-home care through child welfare services. Eligibility was assessed by social workers before participation in the study through a brief informal group meeting that assessed adolescent interest in the program and ability to interact appropriately with others in a group setting. Adolescents were excluded from the study if they displayed severe learning problems (that is, unable to read or write) or severe behavior problems (for example, violent behavior). Four adolescents were excluded from the study for severe behavioral problems, as they were seen as being incapable of participating without seriously disrupting the group process. For the present study, 31 cases from the original recruited sample of 351 were excluded because race was designated as "other." This strategy was used to avoid ethnic lumping (Fontes, 1995), leaving a final sample of 320 foster care adolescents ages 15 to 18 years (M = 16.3, SD = 0.84). Over half (53.8 percent, n = 172) were female, and 46.2 percent (n = 148) were male; 66.3 percent (n = 212) self-identified as African American, and 33.7 percent (n = 108) self-identified as white.
Child welfare social workers, group home workers, foster or biological parents, and the adolescents themselves made referrals to the study. The institutional review board at Washington University in St. Louis approved all procedures. Informed consent was obtained from legal guardians, and written assent was provided by adolescents before baseline interviews were completed. Structured baseline interviews were then conducted with the adolescents by trained MSW students before the adolescents participated in the HIV prevention program. Each adolescent was paid five dollars for participating in the baseline interview.
Mental Health Problems. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess mental health problems (Achenbach, 1991). The YSR is designed to assess the emotional and behavioral problems of adolescents (11 to 18 years) in a standardized format and comprises 118 items concerning the psychological functioning of the adolescent over the preceding six-month period. The following eight YSR mental health subscales were computed and clinical-borderline cutoff scores were used to determine the following problems: internalizing problems (Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, Thought Problems, Attention Problems) and externalizing problems (Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior). The subscales correspond to well-established clinical symptoms and demonstrate significant associations with DSM diagnostic categories (Achenbach, 1991;Weinstein, Noam, Grimes, Stone, & Schwab-Stone, 1990).
Substance Use. Selected items from the alcohol and other drug use sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children--Revised Version (DISC-R)--initially developed by Costello, Edelbrock, Dulcan, Kalas, and Klaric (1984)--were used to measure substance use in the six months prior to assessment. For this study, use of the following substances was assessed: alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, barbiturates, other tranquilizers, heroin, cocaine, hallucinogens, and inhalants. Interrater reliability and validity for the DISC-R have been reported to be high in previous research (Shaffer et al., 1996).
HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors. To assess HIV sexual risk behaviors, respondents reported on the frequency of the following sexual behaviors performed without a condom in the past two months: vaginal intercourse; anal intercourse; oral sex; vaginal, anal, or oral sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs; and trading vaginal, anal, or oral sex for money, drugs, or shelter. Individual risk items were coded 1 if a behavior was endorsed and 0 if not.
Descriptive statistics determined the frequencies of substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among the adolescents. Spearman's Rho correlations were calculated to examine multicollinearity among predictor variables. Bivariate relationships between each demographic, substance use, and mental health variable and HIV sexual risk behaviors were examined using logistic regression. Variables significant at the bivariate level (using odds ratios [ORs] and 95 percent confidence intervals [CIs]) were then entered into final multiple logistic regression models to identify which placed foster care adolescents at increased likelihood of engaging in HIV sexual risk behaviors (for example, unprotected vaginal sex).
Frequencies of Substance Use, Mental Health Problems, and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors
The frequencies and percentages of reported substances use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among the adolescents are presented in Table 1. Alcohol (39.4 percent, n = 126) and marijuana (35.6 percent, n = 114) were the substances most frequently used by the adolescents in past six months. Given the low reports of other substance use, only alcohol and marijuana use were included in logistic regression analyses. The most endorsed mental health problem was delinquent behavior, with over one-fifth (21.9 percent, n = 70) of the adolescents meeting borderline-clinical level criteria. Unprotected vaginal sex was the most frequently endorsed HIV sexual risk behavior (17.8 percent, n = 57). Given the low endorsements of several HIV sexual risk behaviors, two sexual risk variables were used for further bivariate and multivariate analyses: (1) engagement in any HIV risk behavior and (2) vaginal sex without a condom.
Bivariate Relationships among Demographics, Substance Use, Mental Health Problems, and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors
Demographics and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors. Bivariate logistic regression analyses (see Table 2) found that white adolescents were over one and a half times more likely (OR = 1.60; CI = 1.00, 2.55) to engage in any HIV risk behavior and almost two times more likely (OR = 1.84; CI = 1.03, 3.30) to engage in unprotected vaginal sex than African American adolescents. Female adolescents were slightly more likely (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.95) than male adolescents to engage in unprotected vaginal sex. No differences in HIV risk behaviors were found on the basis of age.
Substance Use and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors. Bivariate logistic regression analyses determined that adolescents who used alcohol (past six months) were two times more likely (OR = 2.19; CI = 1.39, 3.45) than those who did not use alcohol to engage in any HIV risk behavior and almost four times more likely (OR = 3.89; CI = 2.12, 7.14) to have vaginal sex without a condom (see Table 2). Those who used marijuana were over two and a half times more likely (OR = 2.65; CI = 1.65, 4.24) than their counterparts to engage in any HIV risk behavior and nearly five times more likely (OR = 4.82; CI = 2.61, 8.88) to have vaginal sex without a condom.
Mental Health Problems and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors. Adolescents who met the criteria for delinquent behavior were almost three times more likely (OR = 2.80; CI = 1.60, 4.90) than those who did not to engage in any HIV risk behavior (see Table 2) and over four and a half times more likely (OR = 4.68; CI = 2.52, 8.68) to engage in unprotected vaginal sex. No other mental health problem was found to be associated with engaging in any risk behavior or having unprotected vaginal sex.
Multivariate Logistic Regression Models for Predicting HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Demographic, substance use, and mental health variables significantly associated with HIV risk behaviors at the bivariate level were tested for multicollinearity via Spearman Rho correlational analyses. Coefficients ranged from .014 to .482, indicating mild intercorrelations. Predictors significant at the bivariate level were then entered into multivariate models (see Table 3) to identify which remained most predictive of engaging in (past two month) any HIV risk behavior and vaginal sex without a condom.
Predictors of Engaging in Any HIV Risk Behavior. Marijuana use and delinquent behavior were found to be most predictive of engaging in any HIV risk behavior, with adolescents who smoked marijuana being almost two times more likely (OR = 1.87; CI = 1.08, 3.22) and those who reported delinquent behavior being over two times more likely (OR = 2.21; CI = 1.23, 3.96) than their counterparts to engage in any HIV risk behavior.
Predictors of Engaging in Vaginal Sex without a Condom. Gender, alcohol use, marijuana use, and delinquent behavior remained most predictive of having vaginal sex without a condom. Female adolescents were 50 percent more likely than male adolescents to engage in vaginal sex without a condom. Adolescents who used alcohol (OR = 2.33, CI = 1.12, 4.82) and marijuana (OR = 2.66, CI = 1.28, 5.51) were each over two times more likely than their counterparts to engage in vaginal sex without a condom. Those who met criteria for delinquent behavior were over three times more likely (OR = 3.26, CI = 1.67, 6.37) than those who did not to engage in vaginal sex without a condom.
This study confirmed that many of the foster care adolescents interviewed used substances, reported mental health problems, and engaged in sexual activities without condoms. Among the substances endorsed, alcohol and marijuana were the most commonly used substances by the adolescents. This is consistent with multiple studies that have found strong relationships between childhood maltreatment and substance use among adolescents (for example, Anda et al., 1999; Dube et al., 2003).
Most of the over 500,000 children and adolescents currently placed in the U.S. foster care system were removed from their homes as a result of neglect, caretaker absence, physical abuse, or sexual abuse (Children's Bureau, 2005; Garland, Landsverk, Hough, & Ellis-MacLeod, 1996). The long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of risk for later psychopathology have been documented extensively (for example, Johnson et al., 2002; Johnson, Cohen, Kasen, & Brook, 2002; Kendler et al., 2000; Nelson et al., 2006). In addition, removal from the home and separation from parents, siblings, relatives, and friends can have devastating and long-lasting emotional and psychological effects, which have also been shown to increase risk for substance abuse and mental health problems (for example, Beitchman, Zucker, Hood, daCosta, & Akman, 1991; Beitchman et al., 1992).
Cavaiola and Schiff (1989) described drug use as the first mode of defense to deal with the trauma of abuse. Other researchers have characterized substance use among abused adolescents as a means for these adolescents to self-medicate for abuse-related mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic distress; dissociate themselves from painful emotions; cope with unresolved psychological distress from their abuse experiences; and blur upsetting memories (Briere & Elliott, 1994; Harrison, Fulkerson, & Beebe, 1997). Substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy may generalize to other stressful situations. In clinical settings, abused adolescents report high rates of substance abuse (McClellan, Adams, Douglas, McCurry, & Storck, 1995), and substance-abusing adolescents report high rates of childhood abuse (Cavaiola & Schiff, 1988). Compared with their nonabused peers, abused adolescents in both clinical and community settings report more illicit drug use (for example, Cohen, Berliner, & Mannarino, 2000); more alcohol use (Brown, Kessel, Lourie, Ford, & Lipsitt, 1997); more polydrug use, including alcohol and marijuana (Kilpatrick, Acierno, Saunders, Resnick, & Best, 2000); earlier initiation of substance use (Garnefski & Diekstra, 1997); more frequent attempts to self-medicate painful emotions; and more diagnosed substance use disorders (Singer, Petchers, & Hussey, 1989). These associations continue into adulthood, with significantly greater substance abuse found not only among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Briere, 1988), but also among survivors of other forms of adverse childhood experiences (for example, Felitti et al., 1998). Moreover, high rates of comorbid mental health problems and substance abuse have been documented in survivors of both physical and sexual forms of interpersonal violence (Kilpatrick, Saunders, & Smith, 2001).
Likewise, findings from this study indicated that the mental health problems reported among the sample are consistent with those found in previous studies of foster care adolescents (for example, Auslander et al., 2002; Landsverk, 1999; Pilowsky, 1995; Trupin et al., 1993), with externalizing problems being more prevalent than internalizing disorders. Delinquent and aggressive behaviors are collectively referred to as externalizing behavior problems or conduct disorders and are associated with lack of impulse control (Achenbach, 1991). Delinquent behaviors were found to be present in 21.9 percent of the sample, and aggressive behaviors were present in 10.7 percent. Risk-taking behaviors, whether they are related to sex or substances, often co-occur and are more common among adolescents with behavior problems such as delinquent and aggressive behaviors (Jessor, 1998).
Findings from the present study indicate that marijuana use and delinquent behaviors were most predictive of both engaging in any HIV risk behavior and vaginal sex without a condom. In addition, gender and alcohol use predicted engaging in vaginal sex without a condom. It is interesting that delinquent behavior was the only mental health problem that uniquely predicted HIV risk behaviors, thus suggesting that engaging in HIV risk behaviors is not necessarily related to all mental health problems but is perhaps part of an externalizing syndrome among adolescents in foster care, among which, substance use is a component.
Child maltreatment traumatizes children through different mechanisms (that is, traumatic sexualization, betrayal, stigmatization, and powerlessness) that lead to cognitive distortions, impaired decision making and problem solving, and sexual preoccupation and revictimization. When left untreated, delinquent behaviors and substance use become common maladaptive methods of coping, along with sexual risk taking. Although this study included cross-sectional data, the results suggest a possible time order whereby maltreatment leads to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use, which in turn increase the likelihood of engaging sexual risk behaviors.
Another important finding is the higher risk of female adolescents engaging in unprotected vaginal sex compared with their male counterparts. One explanation for this finding is that girls experience higher rates of child sexual abuse than boys and that the subsequent use of alcohol and marijuana to cope with the trauma, coupled with untreated mental health problems, makes them more at risk than boys. Moreover, the powerlessness associated with sexual abuse leads to a greater likelihood of sexual revictimization and sexual risk taking. Future research with female adolescents should adapt evidence-based, trauma-focused cognitive--behavioral therapy for sexually abused girls in foster care as a potential strategy to reduce mental health problems, and the subsequent risk-taking behaviors, such as substance use and unsafe sex.
This study is not without limitations. Because it used a cross-sectional design, causal sequences could not be tested among substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors. However, this design was sufficient for identifying the likelihood of engaging in specific HIV sexual risk behaviors given specific substance use and mental health problems. Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders were not measured in this study, which limits the comparability of findings with those of other studies that used diagnostic measures. All data were collected through face-to-face self-report interviews, and participant responses may have been biased by social desirability. Many studies of older youths in the foster care system, however, have been conducted with case records or administrative data only, so this limitation is also a comparative strength of this study. In addition, self-report questionnaires may be problematic for youths who have poor literacy skills. To reduce social desirability bias among lower literacy participants, future research may benefit from using computer-assisted self-administered interviews with an audio component for sensitive questions about sexual behaviors and alcohol and drug use. A last limitation of the study is that the sample was not random but, rather, a convenience sample of adolescents in foster care. Although the sample in the present study appears representative of the national foster care population (for example, overrepresentation of African Americans, high rates of substance abuse and mental health problems), it may not be representative of all adolescents in foster care.
HIV prevention interventions should move beyond the current educational standards by assessing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents in foster care and targeting interventions to those with such problems. Additional aspects of the adolescents' lives that may affect their motivation and ability to act on information or change behavior must be incorporated into prevention methods. The social context of sexual risk behaviors, issues of social marginalization, ethnic and cultural factors, sexual orientation issues, and the cognitive and emotional aspects of adolescence should not be ignored.
Brief motivational interventions would likely be feasible and effective for adolescents in foster care. Ample evidence from randomized clinical trials supports the effectiveness of brief interventions to reduce substance use across a variety of populations, including primary care, medical, child welfare, substance abuse, and mental health settings (for example, Neighbors, Larimer, Lostutter, & Woods, 2006; Toumbourou et al., 2007). Brief alcohol interventions have reduced drinking among young adults about to enter intensive substance abuse treatment (Werch, Carlson, Pappas, Edgemon, & DiClemente, 2000), binge- and heavy-drinking college students (Carey, Carey, Maisto, & Henson, 2006; Marlatt et al., 1998), and homeless adolescents (Baer, Garrett, Beadnell, Wells, & Peterson, 2007; Peterson, Baer, Wells, Ginzler, & Garrett, 2006).
Brief motivational interviewing integrates the relationship-building principles of humanistic therapy with more active cognitive-behavioral strategies targeted to the client's stage of readiness to change (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992). It is a client-centered method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). Motivational interviewing strategies have been shown to reduce alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use among adolescents and young adults (McCambridge & Strang, 2004) and augment the effectiveness of skills-based HIV risk reduction interventions (Belcher et al., 1998; Carey et al., 2006). Masterman and Kelly (2003) argued that motivational interviewing within a harm-reduction framework is well suited for adolescents and young adults who may be less likely to be interested in changing their behaviors, especially those who have already initiated some risk behaviors, because these approaches do not require a lifetime commitment to change and are based on harm-reduction principles (Baer, Ginzler, & Peterson, 2003; Monti, Barnett, Colby, & O'Leary, 2001). They also mesh well with developmental issues, such as autonomy, individuation, and reactivity to being told what to do. Brief, harm-reduction interventions therefore present relatively few logistical and psychological barriers for at-risk individuals who may be ambivalent about risk reduction (Rutledge, Roffman, Picciano, Kalichman, & Berghuis, 2002; Stern, Merideth, Gholson, Gore, & D'Amico, 2007).
Subsequently, brief motivational interviewing interventions for delinquent adolescents in foster care with impulse control or resistance issues should incorporate the following rationale and basic principles: The interviewer expresses empathy; discrepancies between current and desired behavior and self-image are developed; ambivalence is presented as a natural and normal part of behavior change; alternative behaviors and options are identified; argumentation is avoided; interviewer rolls with client resistance; stage of readiness to change behavior is acknowledged and respected; self-efficacy, responsibility, and optimism are facilitated; personalized feedback and behavior plans are developed; and behavioral skills training is provided. The approach should emphasizes personal choice and responsibility; view client resistance as normative; build on client strengths and capacities; and be tailored to the client's individual culture, beliefs, motivations, and behaviors. The preventive information given, motivational techniques used, and behavioral skills training provided (or not) should vary by stage of readiness to change. As it is likely that mental health problems, and associated functional impairment, will impede the learning of prevention information and adoption of safer behavioral practices, future research should examine the influence of mental health problems, particularly delinquent behavior, on substance use and HIV intervention outcomes.
Given the disproportionate HIV risk among female foster care adolescents, interventions should be developed that target their special prevention needs. Findings of studies that have examined the differential effects of HIV risk-reduction programs on male and female college students (O'Leary, Jemmott, Goodhart, & Gebelt, 1996) suggest that low-intensity risk-reduction programs do not reach female college students. Given this, interventions for female adolescents in foster care will likely require adequate intensity to address their perceived invulnerability to HIV and motivation regarding behavior change. Group interventions led by peers of the adolescents should be particularly effective, as they may combat the greater societal norms related to sex roles and behaviors. In addition, female adolescents in foster care will require individualized skills training and practice that are not appropriate for group settings (for example, male and female condom training). A small number of studies have reported success in reducing female HIV risk by using more intensive, individualized interventions (for example, DiClemente & Wingwood, 1995).
Approximately 20,000 adolescents age 16 and older exit the foster care system annually. Studies of these older adolescents have shown that they are more likely than those in the general population to drop out of high school, be unemployed, and be dependent on public assistance. Many find themselves homeless, without health care, in prison, or parents at an early age (for example, Courtney, Piliavin, Grogan-Kaylor, & Nesmith, 2001). Substance abuse has also been shown to be a significant barrier in the development of independent riving skills needed to successfully transition from foster care to self-sufficiency. Because of these dire outcomes, all of which are associated with increased HIV risk, it is imperative that research identify risk and protective factors for substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors and develop effective prevention efforts that target these factors among adolescents in foster care.
Original manuscript received July 1, 2008
Final revision received June 27, 2010
Accepted July 26, 2010
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Anda, R. F., Croft, J. B., Felittie,V. J., Nordenberg, D., Giles, W. H.,Williamson, D. F., et al. (1999). Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. JAMA, 282, 1652-1658.
Auslander, W. F., McMillen, J. C., Elze, D., Thompson, R., Jonson-Reid, M., & Stiffman, A. (2002). Mental health problems and sexual abuse among adolescents in foster care: Relationship to HIV risk behaviors and intentions. AIDS & Behavior, 6, 351-359.
Baer, J. S., Garrett, S. B., Beadnell, B., Wells, E. A., & Peterson, P. L. (2007). Brief motivational intervention with homeless adolescents: Evaluating effects on substance use and service utilization. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21, 582-586.
Baer, J. S., Ginzler, J. A., & Peterson, P. L. (2003). DSM-IV alcohol and substance abuse and dependence in homeless youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64, 5-14.
Becker, M. G., & Barth, R. P. (2000). Power through choices: The development of sexuality curriculum for youths in out-of-home care. Child Welfare, 79, 269-282.
Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., daCosta, G. A., & Akman, D. (1991). A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15, 537-556.
Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., daCosta, G. A., Akman, D., & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belcher, L., Kahchman, S. C., Topping, M., Smith, S., Emshoff, J., Norris, F., & Nurss, J. A. (1998).
Randomized trial of a brief HIV risk reduction counseling intervention for women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 856-861.
Briere, J. N. (1988). The long-term clinical correlates of childhood sexual victimization. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528, 327-334. Briere, J. N., & Elliott, D. M. (1994). Immediate and long-term impacts of child sexual abuse. Future of Children, 4(2), 54-69.
Brown, L. K., Kessel, S. M., Lourie, K. J., Ford, H. H., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1997). Influence of sexual abuse on HIV-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 316-322.
Carey, K. B., Carey, M. P., Maisto, S. A., &Henson, J. (2006). Brief motivational interventions for heavy college drinkers: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 74, 943-954.
Cavaiola, A. A., & Schiff, M. (1988). Behavioral sequelae of physical and/or sexual abuse in adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 181-188.
Cavaiola, A. A., & Schiff, M. (1989). Self-esteem in abused chemically dependent adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 327-334.
Children's Bureau. (2005). The AFCARS (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System) report. Washington, DC: Author
Cohen, J., Berliner, L., & Mannarino, A. P. (2000). Treating traumatized children: A research review and synthesis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1, 29-46.
Costello, E. J., Edelbrock, C. S., Dulcan, M. K., Kalas, R., & Klaric, S. H. (1984). Report on the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule of Children (DISC). Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.
Courtney, M. E., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Nesmith, A. (2001). Foster youth transitions to adulthood: A longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Child Welfare, 80, 985-717.
DiClemente, R. J., & Wingwood, G. M. (1995). A randomized controlled trial of an HIV sexual risk-reduction intervention for young African American women. JAMA, 274, 1271-1276.
Dube, S. R., Felittie,V. J., Dong, M., Chapman, D. P., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics, 111, 564-572.
Elze, D. E., Auslander, W., McMillen, C., Edmond, T, & Thompson, R. (2001). Untangling the impact of sexual abuse on HIV risk behaviors among youths in foster care. AIDS Education and Prevention, 13, 377-389.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-258.
Fontes, L. A. (1995). Sexual abuse in nine North American countries: Treatment and prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Garland, A. F., Landsverk, J. L., Hough, R. L., & Ellis-MacLeod, E. (1996). Type of maltreatment as a predictor of mental health service use for children in foster care. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 675-688.
Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R. F. W. (1997). Child sexual abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: Gender differences. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 323-329.
Gillmore, M. R., Morrison, D. M., Richey, C. A., Balassone, M. L., Gutierrez, L., & Farris, M. (1994). Effects of a skill-based intervention to encourage condom use among high risk heterosexually active adolescents. AIDS Education and Prevention, 9(Suppl. A), 22-43.
Harrison, P. A., Fulkerson, J. A., & Beebe, T. J. (1997). Multiple substance use among adolescent physical and sexual abuse victims. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 529-539.
Jessor, R. (1998). New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic Press.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Gould, M. S., Kasen, S., Brown, J., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Childhood adversities, interpersonal difficulties, and risk for suicide attempts during late adolescence and early adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 741-749.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Childhood adversities associated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence or early adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 394-400.
Kendler, K. S., Bulik, C. M., Silberg, J., Hettema, J. M., Myers, J., & Prescott, C. A. (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: An epidemiological and cotwin control analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 953-959.
Kilpatrick, D. G., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 19-30.
Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Smith, D. W. (2001). Research in brief: Prevalence and consequences of child victimization: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
Kohlenberg, E., Nordlund, D., Lowin, A., & Treichler, B. (2002). Alcohol and substance use among adolescents in foster care in Washington state: Results from the 1998-1999 Adolescent Foster Care Survey. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
Landsverk, J. (Ed.). (1999). Foster care and pathways to mental health services. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Marlatt, G. A., Baer, J., Kivlahan, D., Dimeff, L., Larimer, M., Quigly, L., Somers, J., & Williams, E. (1998). Screening and brief intervention for high-risk college student drinkers: Results from a two-year follow-up assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 604-615.
Masterman, P. W., & Kelly, A. B. (2003). Reaching adolescents who drink harmfully: Fitting intervention to developmental reality. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, 247-255.
McCambridge, J., & Strang, J. (2004). The efficacy of single-session motivational interviewing in reducing drug consumption and perceptions of drug-related risk and harm among young people: Results from a multi-site cluster randomized trial. Addiction, 99, 39-52.
McClellan, J., Adams, J., Douglas, D., McCurry, C., & Storck, M. (1995). Clinical characteristics related to severity of sexual abuse: A study of seriously mentally ill youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1245-1254.
McMillen, J. C., Zima, B. T., Scott, L. D., Auslander, W. F., Munson, M. R., Ollie, M. T., & Spitznagel, E. L. (2005). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older youths in the foster care system. Journal of the American Academe of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 88-95.
Mech, E., Ludy-Dobson, C., & Hulseman, F. (1994). Life skills knowledge: A survey of foster adolescents in three placement settings. Children and Youth Services Review, 16, 181-200.
Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Monti, P. M., Barnett, N. P., Colby, S. M., & O'Leary, T. A. (2001). Motivational enhancement of alcohol-involved youth. In P. M. Monti, S. M. Colby, & T. A. O'Leary (Eds.), Youth alcohol and substance abuse (pp. 145-182). New York: Guilford Press.
Neighbors, C., Larimer, M. E., Lostutter, T. W., & Woods, B. A. (2006). Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention. International Journal of Drug Policy, 17, 304-309.
Nelson, E. C., Heath, A. C., Lynskey, M. T., Bucholz, K. K., Madden, P. A., Statham, D. J., & Martin, N. G. (2006). Childhood sexual abuse and risks for licit and illicit drug-related outcomes: A twin study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1473-1483.
O'Leary, A., Jemmott, L. S., Goodhart, F., & Gebelt, J. (1996). Effects of an institutional AIDS prevention intervention: Moderation by gender. AIDS Education and Prevention, 8, 516-528.
Peterson, P. L., Baer, J. S., Wells, E. A. Ginzler, J. A., & Garrett, S. B. (2006). Short-term effects of a brief motivational intervention to reduce alcohol and drug risk among homeless adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 254-264.
Pilowsky, D. (1995). Psychopathology among children placed in foster family care. Psychiatric Services, 46, 906-910.
Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to the addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.
Robertson, M. J. (1989). Alcohol use and abuse among homeless adolescents in Hollywood. Contemporary Drug Problems, 16, 415-452.
Rotheram-Borus, M. J., & Koopman, C. (1991). Sexual risk behaviors, AIDS knowledge, and beliefs about AIDS among runaways. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 208-210.
Rutledge, S. E., Roffman, R. A., Picciano, J. F., Kalichman, S. C., & Berghuis, J. P. (2002). HIV prevention and attrition: Challenges and opportunities. AIDS and Behavior, 6, 69-82.
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Dulcan, M., Davies, M., Piacentini, J., Schwab-Stone, M., et al. (1996). The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): Description, acceptability, prevalence, rates, and performance in the MECA study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 865-877.
Singer, M. I., Petchers, M. K., & Hussey, D. (1989). The relationship between sexual abuse and substance abuse among psychiatrically hospitalized patients. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 319-325.
Stern, S. A., Merideth, L. S., Gholson, J., Gore, P., & D'Amico, J. (2007). Project CHAT: A brief motivational substance use intervention for teens in primary care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32, 153-165.
Stiffman, A. R., Dore, P., Earls, F., & Cunningham, R. (1992). The influence of mental health problems on AIDS-related risk behaviors in young adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 180, 314-320.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2005). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health Report: Substance use and need for treatment among youths who have been in foster care. Rockville, MD: Author.
Taussig, H. N., Clyman, R. B., & Landsverk, J. (2001). Children who return home from foster care: A 6-year prospective study of behavioral health outcomes in adolescence. Pediatrics, 108, 1-7. doi: 10.1542/ peds.108.1.e10
Thompson, R. G., & Auslander, W. F. (2007). Risk factors for alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents in foster care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32, 61-69.
Toumbourou, J. W., Stockwell, T., Neighbors, C., Marlatt, G. A., Sturge, J., & Rehm, J. (2007). Interventions to reduce harm associated with adolescent substance use. Lancet, 369, 1391-1401.
Trupin, E. W., Tarico, V. S., Benson, P. L., Jemelka, R., & McClellan, J. (1993). Children on child protective service caseloads: Prevalence and nature of serious emotional disturbance. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 345-355.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The AFCARS report: Interim FY 2003 estimates as of June 2006 (10). Washington, DC: Author.
Weinstein, S. R., Noam, G. G., Grimes, K., Stone, K., & Schwab-Stone, M. (1990). Convergence of DSM-III diagnoses and self-reported symptoms in child and adolescent inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 627-634.
Werch, C. E., Carlson, J. M., Pappas, D. M., Edgemon, P., & DiClemente, C. C. (2000). Effects of a brief alcohol preventive intervention for youth attending school sports physical examinations. Substance Use & Misuse, 35, 421-432.
Zeitlin, H. (1999). Psychiatric comorbidity with substance misuse in children and teenagers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55, 225-234.
Ronald G. Thompson Jr., PhD, LCSW, is assistant professor, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Suite 241, New York, NY 10032; e-mail: rgt2101@ columbia.edu. Wendy F. Auslander, PhD, LCSW, is Barbara A. Bailey Professor of Social Work, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis.
Table 1: Frequencies of Adolescent Substance Use, Mental Health Problems, and HIV Risk Behaviors (N = 320) Variable n % Substance use Alcohol 126 39.4 Marijuana 114 35.6 Amphetamines 13 4.1 Barbiturates 7 2.2 Tranquilizers 5 1.6 Heroin 2 0.6 Cocaine 6 1.9 Hallucinogens 16 5.0 Inhalants 5 1.6 Mental health/behavioral problems Withdrawn (1) 31 9.7 Somatic complaints (1) 34 10.7 Anxious/depressed (1) 29 9.1 Social problems (1) 25 7.8 Thought problems (1) 44 13.8 Attention problems (1) 46 14.5 Delinquent behavior (E) 70 21.9 Aggressive behavior (E) 34 10.7 HIV sexual risk behaviors Vaginal sex without condom 57 17.8 Receive anal sex without condom 4 1.3 Oral to female without barrier 3 0.9 Oral to male without condom 15 4.7 Trade sex without condom 0 0.0 Sex on alcohol/drugs without condom 18 5.6 Notes: I = internalizing behavior; E = externalizing behavior. Table 2: Bivariate Effects of Demographics, Substance Use, and Mental Health Problems for HIV Risk Behaviors Any HIV Risk Behavior (N = 320) Variable OR 95% CI Demographics Race (African American = 0, 1.60 * 1.00, 2.55 white = 1) Gender (female = 0, male = 1) 0.83 0.53, 1.29 Age ([less than or equal to] 16 = 0.92 0.59, 1.44 [less than or equal to] 17 = 1) Substance use Alcohol 2.19 ** 1.39, 3.45 Marijuana 2.65 *** 1.65, 4.24 Mental health/behavioral problems Withdrawn 1.37 0.65, 2.88 Somatic complaints 1.10 0.54, 2.23 Anxious/depressed 1.63 0.75, 3.53 Social problems 0.85 0.37, 1.93 Thought problems 1.70 0.89, 3.23 Attention problems 1.53 0.81, 2.87 Delinquent behavior 2.80 *** 1.60, 4.90 Aggressive behavior 1.46 0.71, 2.99 Vaginal Sex without Condom (n = 316) Variable OR 95% CI Demographics Race (African American = 0, 1.84 * 1.03, 3.30 white = 1) Gender (female = 0, male = 1) 0.52 * 0.29, 0.95 Age ([less than or equal to] 16 = 1.03 0.58, 1.85 [less than or equal to] 17 = 1) Substance use Alcohol 3.89 *** 2.12,7-14 Marijuana 4.82 *** 2.61, 8.88 Mental health/behavioral problems Withdrawn 1.10 0.43, 2.82 Somatic complaints 0.76 0.28, 2.06 Anxious/depressed 0.94 0.34, 2.57 Social problems 0.60 0.17, 2.07 Thought problems 0.69 0.28, 1.71 Attention problems 0.97 0.42, 2.20 Delinquent behavior 4.68 *** 2.52, 8.68 Aggressive behavior 2.12 0.95, 4.73 Note: OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval, * p < .05. ** p < . 01. *** p < .001. Table 3: Multivariate Effects of Demographics, Substance Use, and Mental Health Problems Significant at Bivariate Level for HIV Risk Behaviors Any HIV Risk Behavior (N = 320) Variable OR 95% CI Race (African American = 0, white = 1) 1.31 0.80, 2.1 5 Gender (female = 0, male = 1) -- -- Alcohol 1.49 0.88,2-53 Marijuana 1.87 * 1.08, 3.22 Delinquent behavior 2.21 ** 1.23, 3.96 Vaginal Sex without Condom (n = 376) Variable OR 95% CI Race (African American = 0, white = 1) 1.21 0.62, 2.36 Gender (female = 0, male = 1) 0.50 * 0.26, 0.98 Alcohol 2.33 * 1.12, 4.82 Marijuana 2.66 ** 1.28, 5.51 Delinquent behavior 3.26 *** 1.67, 6.37 Notes: OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval. Dashes indicate not included in multivariate model, not significant at bivariate level.
|Gale Copyright:||Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.|