Species and distribution of Penaeoid shrimps in Thailand.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Shrimps (Distribution)
Shrimps (Identification and classification)
Authors: Tangkrock-Olan, Nongnud
Senanan, Wansuk
Panutrakul, Suwanna
Barnette, Praparsiri
Pub Date: 12/01/2007
Publication: Name: Journal of Shellfish Research Publisher: National Shellfisheries Association, Inc. Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences; Zoology and wildlife conservation Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2007 National Shellfisheries Association, Inc. ISSN: 0730-8000
Issue: Date: Dec, 2007 Source Volume: 26 Source Issue: 4
Topic: Event Code: 690 Goods & services distribution Advertising Code: 59 Channels of Distribution Computer Subject: Company distribution practices
Product: Product Code: 0913080 Shrimp NAICS Code: 114112 Shellfish Fishing SIC Code: 0913 Shellfish
Geographic: Geographic Scope: Thailand Geographic Code: 9THAI Thailand
Accession Number: 195918083
Full Text: ABSTRACT Species and distribution of Penaeoid shrimps in Thailand were studied in specimens of shrimp collected from fish markets and fishing ports of 23 provinces along the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coast. Identification of species was based on the morphological characters of rostrum, carapace, branchiae, antennule, antenna, third maxilliped, pereiopods, pleopods, abdomen, telson, petasma, thelycum, and the colored pattern of the whole body based on keys and diagnoses available from the current literature. A total of 50 species from 13 genera and 3 families of Penaeoidea were identified in coastal provinces of the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. Additional research is needed to more clearly define the distribution of shrimp species in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coasts.

KEY WORDS: species, distribution, Penaeoid, shrimps, Thailand

INTRODUCTION

Penaeiod shrimp includes many of the commercially important marine species of the tropics and subtropics, as well as many of the species that constitute a major link in the food chain of the oceans (Perez Farfante & Kensley 1997). These shrimps are found naturally in shallow, inshore, tropical, and subtropical waters, and many have been cultured in ponds (Holthius 1980).

The species assemblage of the Superfamily Penaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815 is vast and diverse. As many as 5 families (Aristeidae, Benthesicymidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, and Solenoceridae), 56 genera and some 500 described species are recognized from different parts of the world (Holthius 1980, Perez Farfante & Kensley 1997). In Thailand, penaeoid shrimps include three families: Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, and Solenoceridae (Leelapiyanart 1989). They are all exclusively found in marine and brackish waters. Some species such as Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis are large in size and have great economic value in fisheries and aquaculture. Other species, such as Parapenaeopsis spp., Metapenaeopsis spp., Megokris spp., and Trachysalambria spp. are small in size, but they are of regional or local fishery importance. These small shrimp species have been collected and exported as dried shrimp to many parts of the world (Fischer & Bianchi 1984). In addition, many other small penaeoid shrimps are also of ecological importance in the marine ecosystem.

In spite of their commercial importance and their biological interests, the taxonomical works of these shrimps have been sporadically known and recorded in Thailand. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to identify the species of penaeiod shrimps and their distribution along the coasts of the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea in specimens of shrimp collected from fish markets and fishing ports of 23 provinces.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Samples Used in This Study

Specimens of shrimps (n = 2281) used in this study were collected from fish markets and fishing ports of 23 provinces along the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coasts in 1988 to 2005 (Fig. 1). Out of the 2,281 specimens, 777 were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and 1,504 were collected from the Andaman Sea. Most of the specimens reported here were collected in 1988 (n = 1567), the remaining were collected in 1989 (n = 98), 1990 (n = 127), 1998 (n = 45), 1999 (n = 53), 2000 (n = 67), 2001 (n = 38), 2002 (n = 42) 2003 (n = 74), 2004 (n = 114), and 2005 (n : 56). The shrimp came from trawlers that operated in water shallower than 100 m. Color photographs of lateral views of the whole shrimps were taken immediately at the time of collection. The specimens were then fixed and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol.

Species Classification

Species identification was based on the morphological characters of rostrum, carapace, branchiae, antennule, antenna, third maxilliped, pereiopods, pleopods, abdomen, telson, petasma, thelycum, and the colored pattern of the whole body. The taxonomy study was based on current information compiled by the Integrated Taxonomy Integrated System (ITIS 2007), in addition to Penaeid keys for South East Asia and Australia reported in previous works of Kubo (1949), Dall (1957), Hall (1962), Racek & Dall (1965), Miquel (1982), Grey et al. (1983), Motoh & Buri (1984) Yu & Chan (1986), Holthuis (1980), and Perez Farfante & Kensley (1997). The species names are reported as a taxon with the name of author and date (Table 1). Four subgenera of Penaeus (Motoh & Buri 1984, Leelapiyanart 1989) were raised to generic level, namely Marsupenaeus, Melicertus, Penaeus, anal Fenneropenaeus (Perez Farfante & Kensley 1997). Illustrations for each species are shown in color photographs of lateral views of the whole animals.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 50 species from 13 genera and 3 families (Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, and Solenoceridae) of the superfamily Penaeoidea were identified in this study and are listed on Table 1. There were 44 species from 11 genera of Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815, two species from 1 genus of Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898; and four species from 1 genus of Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (Table 1).

The distribution of each species found along the coasts of Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea are shown in Table 1. Most Penaeoid species were found in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coast. However, 6 species: Melicertus canaliculatus, Metapenaeus anchistus, Parapenaeopsis uncta, P. venusta, Metapenaeopsis hiralura, and Megokris granulosus were found only in the Andaman Sea, whereas 8 other species: Melicertus longistylus, Metapenaeus intermedius, Parapenaeopsis coromandelica, Metapenaeopsis mogiensis, M. lamellata, Megokris pescadoreensis, Sicyonia ommanneyi, and Solenocera choprai were found only in the Gulf of Thailand. The number of specimens collected for species identification from each region is included in Table 1.

Penaeoid shrimps are generally quite abundant in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate shallow waters, and most of them, particularly Penaeus species, are of commercial importance. The Thai Penaeoidea consists of Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, and Solenoceridae but no representative of the family Aristeidae and Benthesicymidae. According to Holthuis (1980) the family Aristeidae contains three genera of eight commercially important species, five of which occur in the Indo-West Pacific region, deeper than 200 m. However, most of the specimens of shrimps in this study were obtained from trawlers that operated in waters shallower than 100 m. Benthesicymidae was also reported to be a deepwater family (Perez Farfante & Kinsley 1997) and it might be one of the reasons for the absence of the Aristeidae at this time. There is no record of shrimps in the families Aristeidae and Benthesicymidae in Thailand (Lumubol 1974, Chaitiamvong 1980).

In the present study, 11 genera from Penaeidae family were found in Thailand waters: Marsupenaeus, Melicertus, Penaeus, Fenneropenaeus, Metapenaeus, Parapenaeus, Parapenaeopsis, Metapenaeopsis, Atypopenaeus, Megokris, and Trachysalambria (Table 1). Pictures of selected species are shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4. The family Penaeidae is the largest of the three families under the superfamily Penaeoidea and contains the greatest number of commercially important species. The Penaeoidea comprises 26 genera and more than 100 species (Perez Farfante & Kensley 1997).

A single genus Sicyonia was identified in shrimp from Thailand (Table 1). At present this family comprises only a single genus Sicyonia not only in Thailand but in the world. The family Sicyoniidae is morphologically peculiar in having the following features: (1) prosartema absent, (2) exopods absent from second and third maxillipeds, (3) pleopods with one ramus only, and (4) pleurobranchiae absent from fourth to sixth thoracic somites.

A single genus Solenocera was identified in the present study (Table 1). This might be attributed to their deep water habitats, whereas the specimen of shrimps collected this time came from trawlers that operated in water shallower than 100 m. The family Solenoceridae comprises 9 genera and more than 70 species (Perez Farfante & Kensley 1997). Of these, 17 species of 5 genera are of interest to fishery, and 4 genera: Hadropenaeus, Haliporoides, Hymenopenaeus, and Solenocera are found in the Indo-West Pacific region (Holthuis 1980). Most species of shrimps in the family Solenoceridae were found in deep waters except some species of genus Solenocera that live in shallow waters (Motoh & Buri 1984).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

It should be noted that the species taxonomy in this study was based on the new taxonomy of Perez Farfante & Kensley (1997) who raised the status of five subgenera (Farfantepenaeus, Fenneropenaeus, Litopenaeus, Marsupenaus, and Melicertus) of Penaeus to full genera (see also ITIS 2007). However, phylogenic relationships among species of Peneaus inferred from sequences of 16s rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes suggested that raising the status of the subgenera to that of genera was perhaps premature (Lavery et al. 2004). The findings of Lavery et al. (2004) raised two relevant issues: (1) phylogenic relationships among species of Peneaus inferred from 16S rRNA and COI sequences were incongruent and (2) the combined data set provided strong support for monophyletic status of species within subgenera Farfantepenaeus, Litopenaeus, and Fenneropenaeus but not for species within subgenera Penaeus s.s., Marsupenaeus, and Melicertus. Using mtDNA COI gene, Baldwin et ai. (1998) also failed to support these subdivisions at the subgeneric level. Research is needed to resolve these classification uncertainties by using other molecular markers such as microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from nuclear DNA.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

In summary, detailed information is presented here on the species of shrimp and their distribution along the Gulf of Thailand and Adaman Sea coast using samples collected in 1988 to 2005. Additional research is needed to more clearly determine the distribution and abundance of shrimp species in the Gulf of Thailand and Adaman Sea coasts, particularly in light of the preliminary information obtained about the presence of Litopenaeus vannamei in the wild in Thailand waters (Senanan et al. 2007).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Nongnud Tangkrock-Olan would like to express her thanks to Professor Phaibul Naiyanetr, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, her post-graduate-advisor for his kind help on books and materials used for this study. We thank Dr. Acacia Alcivar-Warren from Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA USA for critically reading the manuscript, and Burapha University for assistance to cover cost of printing color figures for this publication.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

LITERATURE CITED

Baldwin, J. D., A. L. Bass, B. W. Bowen & W. H. Clark, Jr. 1998. Molecular phylogeny anal biogeography of the marine shrimp Penaeus. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 10:399-407.

Chaitiamvong, S. 1980. The biology of Penaeid shrimp of Thailand. Report of the workshops on the biology and resources of Penaeid shrimp in the South China Sea Area Part I (Simpson, A.C.), South China Sea Fisheries Programme, Manila, pp. 93-122.

Dall, W. 1957. A Revision of the Australian species of Penaeinae (Crustacea Decapoda: Penaeidae). Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res 8: 136-230.

Fischer, W. & G. Bianchi. 1984. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean, (Fishing Area 51). Prepared and printed with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Volume 1-6: pag. var.

Grey, D. L., W. Dall & A. Baker. 1983. A Guide to the Australian Penaeid prawns. Northern Territory Government Printing Office, Darwin, Australia, pp. 1-139.

Hall, D. N. F. 1962. Observation on the taxonomy and biology of some Indo-West Pacific Penaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda). Fish. Publ. Colonial Off London 17:1-226.

Holthuis, L. B. 1980. Shrimps and prawns of the world. An annotated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO fisheries synopsis No. 125, vol. 1. Food and agricultural organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy xvii +271.

ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Integration System. 2007. . February 12, 2007.

Kubo, I. 1949. Studies on the Penaeids of Japanese and its adjacent waters. J. Tokyo Coll. Fish. 36:1-467.

Lavery, S., T. Y. Chan, Y. K. Taro & K. H. Chu. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the shrimp genus Penaeus s.l. derived from mitochondrial DNA. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 31: 39-49.

Leelapiyanart, N. 1989. Taxonomy of Penaeoid shrimps in Thailand. M.Sc. Thesis, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. 456 pp.

Lumubol, P. 1974. Taxonomic study on the Penaeid shrimps in the Gulf of Thailand. M.Sc. Thesis, Kasetsart University, Thailand. 121 pp.

Miquel, J. C. 1982. Le genre Metapenaeus (Crustacea, Penaeidae): Taxonomie, biologie et peches, modiales. Zool. Verh. 195:1-137.

Motoh, H. & P. Buri. 1984. Studies on the Penaeoid prawns of the Philippines. Res. Crust. 13:1-120.

Perez Farfante, I. & B. Kensley. 1997. Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps and prawns of the world: keys and diagnoses for the families and genera. Memoirs du Museum nationale d'Histoire naturelle, tome 175. Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. Paris, France. 233 pp.

Racek, A. A. & W. Dall. 1965. Littoral Penaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Northern Australia, New Guinea and Adjacent Waters. Verh. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. 3:1-116.

Senanan, S., N. Tangkrock-olan, S. Panutrakul, P. Barnette, C. Wongwiwatanawute, N. Niphonkit & D. J. Anderson. 2007. The presence of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in the wild in Thailand. J. Shellfish Res. (This issue).

Yu, H. P. & T. Y. Chan. 1986. The illustrated penaeoid prawns of Taiwan. The Republic of China, Taipei. pp. 1-82.

NONGNUD TANGKROCK-OLAN, * WANSUK SENANAN, SUWANNA PANUTRAKUL AND PRAPARSIRI BARNETTE

Department of Aquatic Science, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand

* Corresponding author: E-mail: nongnud@buu.ac.th.
TABLE 1.
List of species and distribution of penaeoid shrimps in 23 provinces
of Thailand. (a) The number of specimens identified for each province
are also included.

                                                 Gulf of Thailand

Family, Genus, and Species                  Trat   Chanthaburi   Rayong

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896         3          1          1
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943                2
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844            3          2          4
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798               2          3          5
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888              3          2          2
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837        1
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900          1
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888               2
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,                               7
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                  24          3         10
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965         7
    M. elegans de Man, 1907
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837        6          3          5
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896              14          3
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905                            1          1
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905              8          7         12
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905                         1
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900                         1
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905               3          5          3
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879              15          2          8
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                            2          2
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962                                        3
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860          2
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931                                8
    M. sedili Hall 1961                                            1
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860           1                     5
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                 12         1
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962                  1
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888

                                                Gulf of Thailand

                                            Chon   Chachoeng-   Samut
Family, Genus, and Species                  Buri      sao       Prakar

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                  1
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896         1
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844            6                    5
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798               3         2          4
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888              3         7          5
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837                             1
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888               5
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,        20        15          7
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949                            12         10
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965                               1
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                   6         8          5
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. elegans de Man, 1907
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837        9         1          7
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                         5
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888                   15
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905             21         5          5
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905                        1
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900              2
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905                                 1
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905              28
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879              34
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                 2
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902               8
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844              11
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860          5
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931          2
    M. sedili Hall 1961
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860           1
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                 44
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962                   2
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888

                                                  Gulf of Thailand

                                            Samut     Samut     Petcha-

Family, Genus, and Species                  Sakon   Songkhram    buri

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                             3          2
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844             2         1
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798                5         2          3
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888               1         3          5
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837         4         1
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888                4
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,         14         7          4
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949                    6         3
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965           1
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                   14        14          6
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. elegans de Man, 1907                   1
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837         2         4          5
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                                     5
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888                               2
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905               3         4
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900               5
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905                4         3
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879                          4
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931                                2
    M. sedili Hall 1961
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945                    1
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888

                                                 Gulf of Thailand

                                            Prachub-              Surat
Family, Genus, and Species                  kirikun    Chumphon   Thani

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                               1
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896                                2
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844              1          3         3
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798                 3          1         2
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888                6         14         6
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837                    12
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900                       2
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878                                2
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,           4         16         4
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                     2         24         2
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. elegans de Man, 1907
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837          1          3         1
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                            2         7
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888                      7          5         3
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905                                     5
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900                           1         1
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862                                      4
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905                24          1         2
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879                30         28
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                   5          2         2
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860            1
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931            6
    M. sedili Hall 1961
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860            10
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                   32         12         1
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,                     2
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945                       1
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962                              3
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888

                                              Gulf of Thailand

                                            Nakhon-Si-    Paththa-
Family, Genus, and Species                   Thammat        lung

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                     4
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844               2            1
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798                  2            5
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888                 5            5
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837           1            1
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900                          2
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888                               7
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878                                   5
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,            4            5
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949                      4            3
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                      6            5
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. elegans de Man, 1907
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837           5
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                  2           17
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905                 7
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905                 1
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900                              1
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905                  5
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879                  1
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                    6
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931             1
    M. sedili Hall 1961
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860              1
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                     2
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811                  1
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,           2
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945                    3
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888

                                                  Gulf of Thailand

Family, Genus, and Species                Songkhla   Pattani  Narathiwat

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                               2
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844              5          7          13
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798                 1          2          12
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888                5          6          7
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900            1          7
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888                           11
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,                     12
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949                     3          2
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                     1          3          2
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. elegans de Man, 1907                               7
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837                     3
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                           10
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905                3         10
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905                          11
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878                  1          3
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905                34          3
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879                27         17
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                  18
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962                               1
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902                           11
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844                            6
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860            4
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931            7          7
    M. sedili Hall 1961
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906                     3
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860             5          8
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                   34          5
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811                 3         19
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962                    2          5
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945                   4
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962                   1
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888                    7

                                                  Andaman Sea

Family, Genus, and Species                  Ranong   Phangnga   Phuket

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                                       3
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811            2                   2
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896          5         1         4
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844             1         5         8
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798                3         2         6
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888               4        11         5
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837                             1
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920                           1         2
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888                2        11         4
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878                    2
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,          2         4         5
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965                               1
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                    4        22        21
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965                    2
    M. elegans de Man, 1907                   1
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837         1         6         1
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                4         1         2
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905                                      3
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888                                         2
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905               3         5         5
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905               8         1
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900               4         1         1
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905                     2
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878                 7        25         8
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862               11
    P. venusta de Man, 1907                   1
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905               16        27        16
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879                1                   9
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                                      1
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962                   1                   1
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911                  2
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860                               2
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879               5                   28
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931
    M. sedili Hall 1961                       3                   2
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                   6         9         2
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811                                    5
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,         1         6         17
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962                                      1
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888                                       2

                                                 Andaman Sea

Family, Genus, and Species                  Krabi   Trang   Satun

Family Penaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 (44 species from 11 genera)
  Genus Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
    M. japonicus Bate, 1888                   1       2       1
  Genus Melicertus Rafinesque-Schmaltz,
    1814
    M. canaliculatus Olivier, 1811            1       1
    M. latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896          3               1
    M. longistylus Kubo, 1943
  Genus Penaeus Fabricius, 1798
    P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1844            10              10
    P. monodon Fabricius, 1798                6      11      12
  Genus Fenneropenaeus Perez-Farfante,
    1969
    F. merguiensis de Man, 1888              11       3       7
    F. indicus H. Milne Edwards, 1837         1       1
  Genus Metapenaeus Wood-Mason, 1891
    M. intermedius Kishinouye, 1900
    M. anchistus de Man, 1920                         4
    M. lysianassa de Man, 1888                        1       3
    M. dobsoni Miers, 1878                    3               1
    M. brevicornts H. Milne Edwards,          3       4      17
      1837
    M. tenuipes Kubo, 1949                            5
    M. suluenris Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. ensis de Haan, 1844                   17      10      22
    M. conjunctus Racek & Dall, 1965
    M. elegans de Man, 1907
    M. affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837         1       4      18
    M. moyebi Kishinouye, 1896                7       6       2
  Genus Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
    P. longipes Alcock, 1905
  Genus Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
    P. tenella Bate, 1888
    P. hungerfordi Alcock, 1905               6       5      15
    P. maxillipedo Alcock, 1905                       4
    P. cornuta Kishinouye, 1900               1       1       6
    P. uncta Alcock, 1905                     1       1
    P. hardwickii Miers, 1878                 3              12
    P. coromandelica Alcock, 1905
    P. sculptilis Heller, 1862                                6
    P. venusta de Man, 1907
  Genus Metapenaeopsis Bouvier, 1905
    M. stridulans Alcock, 1905                3      13      16
    M. palmensis Haswell, 1879                        6
    M. barbata de Haan, 1844                          2
    M. toloensis Hall, 1962                           3
    M. mogiensis Rathbun, 1902
    M. hiralura de Man, 1911
    M. lamellata de Haan, 1844
  Genus Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
    A. stenodactylus Stimpson, 1860
  Genus Megokris Perez-Farfante &
    Kensley, 1997
    M. granulosus Haswell, 1879                      12
    M. pescadoreensis Schmitt, 1931
    M. sedili Hall 1961                               4
  Genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad,
    1934
    T. aspera Alcock, 1906                            2
    T. curvirostris Stimpson, 1860                    2
    T. malaiana Balss, 1933                           5       5
Family Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898 (2 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Sicyonia H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
    S. lancifera Olivier, 1811
    S. ommanneyi Hall, 1962
Family Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891 (4 species from 1 genus)
  Genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849
    S. crassicornis H. Milne Edwards,        11      10
      1837
    S. choprai Nataraj, 1945
    S. bedokensis Hall, 1962
    S. pectinata Bate, 1888

(a) Following current nomenclature, as listed in Integrated Taxonomy
Information System (http://www.it is.gov).
Gale Copyright: Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.