SAMJ questions December 2012.
|Publication:||Name: South African Medical Journal Publisher: South African Medical Association Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2012 South African Medical Association ISSN: 0256-9574|
|Issue:||Date: Dec, 2012 Source Volume: 102 Source Issue: 12|
True (A) or false (B):
1. The right to healthcare access is guaranteed by the South African constitution.
2. Research shows that men who have a tertiary education would utilise National Health Insurance (NHI) services to a greater extent than their female counterparts, by a margin of approximately 25%.
3. Dehydration following endurance exercise (e.g. the Comrades Marathon) is best avoided by encouraging participants to drink water steadily throughout the race.
4. Drinking during endurance marathons poses a risk of life-threatening dilutional hyponatraemia and cerebral oedema, especially in female athletes.
5. Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of confirmed meningitis in South Africa.
6. In routine care settings, cryptococcal meningitis has a case fatality ratio of >50%.
7. Fluconazole, used for outpatient treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, is potentially hepatotoxic.
8. Patients positive for cryptococcal disease and who are symptomatic (manifesting fever, headache and confusion) require 2 weeks of in-hospital treatment with amphotericin B.
9. Skin cancer and lymphoma are the most common malignancies in adults who have undergone solid organ transplantation.
10. Post-transplant lymphoma rarely involves the brain.
11. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases mortality in HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB), owing to overlapping drug toxicities.
12. South African national guidelines recommend ART initiation as soon as TB therapy is tolerated (usually between 2 and 4 weeks) in all patients with HIV-associated TB and a CD4 count of <350 cells/[micro]l.
13. TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurs more commonly following early initiation of ART.
14. To avoid hepatotoxicity in patients with HIV-associated TB starting ART, an efavirenz-based regimen is preferable to a nevirapine-based regimen.
15. Commencement of ART is especially critical for patients most at risk of death from AIDS (i.e. those with a CD4 count of <50 cells/[micro]l).
15. The prevalence of postnatal depression is higher than that of antenatal depression.
16. High rates of antenatal depression are reported from countries where women experience socio-economic stress.
17. Nutritional deprivation and poor weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of intra-uterine growth retardation.
18. There has been a dramatic increase in use of methyphenidate (Ritalin, Ritaphen) by students seeking improvement in their academic performance.
19. According to the World Health Organization, up to 80% of African populations use traditional medicines.
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