Response of Catolaccus hunteri (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to colored sticky traps in the laboratory.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Entomology (Research)
Hymenoptera (Observations)
Pests (Biological control)
Pests (Research)
Author: Schuster, David J.
Pub Date: 06/01/2012
Publication: Name: Florida Entomologist Publisher: Florida Entomological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2012 Florida Entomological Society ISSN: 0015-4040
Issue: Date: June, 2012 Source Volume: 95 Source Issue: 2
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 299988835
Full Text: Catolaccus hunteri Crawford (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is the most abundant parasitoid attacking the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, in Florida (Riley & Schuster 1992). The parasitioid was also recovered from weevil infested fruit collected in several states in Mexico and other countries in Mesoamerica (Aguilar & Servin 2000; Mariscal et al. 1998). While natural enemies generally are regarded as contributing little for the control of the pepper weevil (Elmore & Campbell 1954), augmentative releases of C. hunteri on the alternative host plant American black nightshade during the off-season and on pepper at the initiation of flowering have resulted in reduced or delayed damage by weevil larvae (Schuster 2007). The pepper weevil is a serious economic pest of cultivated Capsicum spp. peppers in the southern United States (Elmore et al. 1934; Goff and Wilson 1937; Riley & King 1994), Mexico (Laborde & Pozo 1984), Central America (Andrews et al. 1986), and the Caribbean (Abreu & Cruz 1985). The pest was found in field trials to respond to yellow sticky traps (Riley & Schuster 1994). Pheromone baited, yellow sticky traps (Trece Inc. Adair, Oklahoma) are used to monitor migration of pepper weevil adults into pepper fields and to time the applications of insecticides targeting weevil adults (Natwick & Trumble 2007). It is not known whether C. hunteri also responds to yellow sticky traps and whether the traps might be useful for monitoring the activity of the parasitoid. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the response of C. hunteri in the laboratory to sticky traps of selected colors.

The C. hunteri adults used in the experiment were obtained from a laboratory colony maintained on a factitious host, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), on garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.) (Vasquez et al. 2005). Experiments were conducted in a room maintained about 27 [degrees]C, about 60% RH and 14:10 h L:D.

Yellow, white, red, blue, gray and green plastic sheets were cut into 10.2 cm squares that were coated on one side with Tanglefoot[R] Tangle-Trap[TM] Insect Trap Coating Brushable (The Tanglefoot Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan). The Tangle-Trap was heated to 87 [degrees]C and, when it turned from translucent to clear, was spread into a thin layer on each square with a 1.3 cm paint brush. Single squares of each color were ran domly placed horizontally in a circular pattern on the bottoms of 12, 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm screen cages. About 200 female C. hunteri adults of unknown age were released in the middle of the ring of plastic squares in each cage and the numbers trapped were determined 24 h later. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and, when an F value was significant at P < 0.05, means were compared using the Least Significant Difference (SAS Institute 2008).

On average, only about 25% of the C. hunteri adults released into the cages were trapped on the colored, plastic squares coated with adhesive (Table 1). Of those captured, about 3 times more were trapped on yellow, red or white squares than were trapped on green, blue or gray squares. The yellow sticky traps used for monitoring the presence/abundance of pepper weevil adults in the field may also be useful in detecting the presence of adult C. hunteri females.

Summary

Catolaccus hunteri Crawford is the most abundant parasitoid attacking the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, in Florida. More female C. hunteri adults were captured on yellow, red or white plastic sticky traps in the laboratory than were captured on green, blue or gray sticky traps. Yellow sticky traps used for monitoring the presence/abundance of pepper weevil adults in the field may also be useful in detecting the presence of adult C. hunteri females.

References Cited

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Aguilar, R., and Servin, R. 2000. First record of Catolaccus hunteri, a parasitoid of Anthonomus eugenii, in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Southwest. Entomol. 25: 151-152.

Andrews, K., Rueda, A., Gandini, G., Evans, S., Arango, A., and Avedillo, M. 1986. A supervised control program for the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, in Honduras, Central America. Trop. Pest. Manag. 32: 1-4.

Elmore, J. C., Davis, A. C., and Campbell, R. E. 1934. The pepper weevil. USDA. Tech. Bull. 447. 27 p.

Elmore, J. C., and Campbell, R. E. 1954. Control of the pepper weevil. J. Econ. Entomol. 47: 1141-1143.

Goff, C. C., and Wilson, J. W. 1937. The pepper weevil. University of Florida, Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 310: 3-11.

Laborde, J. A., and Pozo, A. 1984. Presente y pasado del chile en Mexico. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas. Publicacion Especial No. 85. Mexico. 80 pp.

Mariscal, E., Leyva, J. L., and Bujanos, R. 1998. Parasitoides del picudo del chile, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), en Nayarit, Mexico. Ve dalia 5: 39-46.

Natwick, E. T., and Trumble, J. T. 2007. Pepper Weevil, In UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Peppers, Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, www.ipm.ucda vis.edu/PMG/r604301011.html.

Riley, D. G., and King, E. G. 1994. Biology and management of pepper weevil Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a review. Trends Agri. Sci. 2: 109-121.

Riley, D. G., and Schuster, D. J. 1992. The occurrence of Catolaccus hunteri, a parasitoid of Anthonomus eugenii, in insecticide treated bell pepper. Southwest. Entomol. 17: 71-72.

Riley, D. G., and Schuster, D. J. 1994. Pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult response to colored sticky traps in pepper fields. Southwest. Ento mol. 19: 93-107.

SAS Institute. 2008. SAS/STAT, version 9.2. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.

Schuster, D. J. 2007. Suppression of Anthonomus eugenii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pepper fruit infestation with releases of Catolaccus hunteri (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Biocontrol Sci. and Technol. 17: 345-351.

Vasquez, E., Dean, D., Schuster. D., and Van Etten, P. 2005. A laboratory method for rearing Catolaccus hunteri (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Entomol. 88: 191-194.

David J. Schuster (1) University of Florida, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, 14625 CR 672, Wimauma, FL 33598

(1) Retired
Table 1. The numbers of female Catolaccus hunteri
adults trapped in the laboratory on colored
plastic squares coated with Tangle-Trap[TM].

Color            No. trapped (1)

Yellow           13.8 a
Red              13.5 a
White            11.8 a
Green            4.5 b
Blue             3.3 bc
Gray             1.8 c
LSD (P = 0.05)   2.4
[F.sub.555]      43.62
5,55
P-value          <0.0001

(1) Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at P = 0.05.
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