Perspectives of Rogers' relative present.
Rogers' relative present is discussed in the context of
traditional evolution and biblical creation. The new term of
energyspirit is created as well as Homo pandimensionalis as evidence of
the increasing pandimensional relative present awareness.
Key Words: Rogers' relative present, evolution, creation, energyspirit, Homo pandimensionalis
Force and energy
Human beings (Physiological aspects)
Human beings (Research)
Man (Physiological aspects)
|Author:||Phillips, John R.|
|Publication:||Name: Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science Publisher: Society of Rogerian Scholars Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health; Health care industry Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2010 Society of Rogerian Scholars ISSN: 1072-4532|
|Issue:||Date: Jan, 2010 Source Volume: 17 Source Issue: 1|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States|
Ardent believers of Rogers' science of unitary human beings
must examine continuously their understanding of her science. This
examination may reveal that some people have little awareness of the
fullness of her science. Too, as understanding of her science occurs,
new understanding comes into view and the process continues ad
infinitum. Certainly, this increasing understanding is related to the
pandimensional relative present awareness. Still, even with continued
understanding, much of Rogers' science remains profound and
Mysteries lie hidden in Rogers' science, that are not apparent through the five senses or by use of intelligence. Will the beauty and truth of Rogers' science come through revelation, bringing with it enduring bliss that gives deeper understanding of the mysteries of her science? We need to realize the mysteries can never be fully understood, since they are changing continuously as they are being revealed. In fact, the mysteries may lie deeper than we can imagine. Are we or can we be mystics of Rogerian science? Initial Thinking About Universe and Human Beings
Let us explore briefly some early thinking about the universe and humankind. We must accept the universe and human beings are pandimensional energy fields. Too, the pandimensional universe and human beings are always changing in innovation and diversity in the relative present, which some people refer to as the infinite now.
Early evidence for a pandimensional universe and human beings is difficult to ascertain. Some people believe such evidence is based on faith, but this is hardly so. Let us look at the creation myth in the King James Version of the Bible, the big bang theory, and traditional evolution theory to see how they lend credence for a pandimensional universe and human beings. These perspectives present the universe as initially void and without form; in fact, there was nothing before the big bang.
The universe came into being through energy, or as Rogers would say, the becoming of the universe. The author of Genesis has God's Spirit (energy) moving upon the face of the waters (Genesis, 1:2, King James Version). The big bang filled the universe with energy in all directions (Big bang theory, n. d.). In essence, this is the beginning of the universe and human beings as pandimensional relative present energy fields.
So, we are dealing with the mysteries of biblical creation, traditional evolution, and Rogers' science. This trinity gives understanding of the changes in the pandimensional universe and human beings and the possible manifestations in the continuing pattern changes in the ever-changing relative present.
The big bang was a supernatural phenomenon (Big bang theory, n. d.) manifesting mysterious characteristics such as fathomless, inexhaustible, relative, and infinite. Where the big bang came from and why it appeared still remain an enigma. Even with today's increasing scientific knowledge it is still a mysterious phenomenon, particularly when the universe and human beings are seen as pandimensional energy fields.
Writers addressing the big bang concentrate primarily on physical energy, with little or no discussion of spirit or the integrality of the two as a unitary phenomenon. According to Rogers, energy has to be unitary since a parts perspective gives an incomplete and even inaccurate view of the changes that took place with the big bang.
Since no one knows the why, how, or when of the big bang, making a Rogerian speculation can be shattering to the fundamentals of scientific knowledge, even religions. What if the big bang was a cataclysm of spirit integral with energy that was not separated into physical and spirit, but made their presence as a unitary whole. Then, we have a new phenomenon known as energyspirit, one word. This energyspirit was the origin of the universe and human beings and all their changes. Immediately people will say this was God's work. Not necessarily so, since some people and religions do not see God as their supreme being, and their beliefs about creation are different. Too, some people believe in more than one god, and atheists believe in no god.
The parallel of traditional evolution and the biblical creation myth is intentional to indicate the two views have some similarities but great differences in details and beliefs. Most likely God's creation was a pandimensional relative present and the writer of Genesis presented a linear view that was the only one known to the writer. Too, the writer's awareness was such that it could capture only a limited amount of the processes of God's creation. Unlike the biblical creation, the big bang did not give spontaneous birth to a completed universe and human beings. The big bang did, however, manifest energyspirit, which was the essence for all changes in the universe and all forms of life. During the big bang, changes were accelerating and the patterning of energyspirit was manifesting a resonancy of unborn frequency waves that ultimately gave birth to human beings.
What about the mystery of the changing universe? How can this mystery surpass what happens when an ovum and a sperm unite to give the miraculous birth of a human being who is energyspirit? Yet, change in the universe and human beings in comparison with the birth of a baby is a mysterium tremendum, one of the most controversial issues in the world, permeating all dimensions of life. When one walks in a field in the country, one is overwhelmed with awe in the vastness and immensity of the sky and all its manifestations. What a beautiful, energyspirit experience of pandimensional relative present awareness. Recent images taken by the Hubble Telescope (Overbye, September 10, 2009) are breathtaking, especially the gas spewing Butterfly Nebula, which is trillions of miles in diameter and nearly ten billion light years from earth. How did such a magnificent nebula come into being with its pattern of beauty, colors, and frequency waves? Might it be possible with accelerating changes in human beings in a different relative present, what was before the big bang will be revealed?
The Changing Universe
Without going into scientific detail, a precis of the changes in the universe will be given. Today, people give little thought to the fact the formation of basic forces, fundamental particles, and basic elements necessary for the formation of matter occurred in the first three seconds after the big bang, all giving shape to a pandimensional relative present universe. All of these creation processes of energyspirit patterning were manifest in the formation of stars and galaxies. Following these changes, all life forms on earth had their beginning such as microscopic cells, mammals, and eventually the emergence of Homo sapiens (Mysteries of deep space timeline, n. d.).
Let us look at the biblical creation of the universe and traditional evolution from a Rogerian perspective. It appears both views of the universe are linear and causal processes, more so with biblical creation. For example in the Bible, God said, "Let there be light: and there was light," "Let there be a firmament" and God made it, and "Let there be lights in the firmament ... and it was so (Genesis, 1:3, 6, 14). These creations convey command performances of cause and effect, which are referred to as original cause. Too, there is the linear sequence of six days of creation. Is this all there is to God's creation of the universe? A lingering feeling remains that the many changes involved in each day's creation were not revealed.
The traditional evolution of the universe also appears to be linear. Actually what seems to be linear is a changing pandimensional relative present. This becomes evident when we look at Rogers' (1992) postulates of openness, energy field, pattern, and pandimensionality. Rogers' postulate of openness was necessary for the big bang to occur. With the big bang the energyspirit began expanding and continues to expand. Normally, expanding is a linear concept that is incongruent with Rogers' nonlinear science. Remember, space did not exist before the big bang, so there can be no expanding into space. Actually the big bang created space and filled it with energyspirit simultaneously (Big bang theory, n. d.). This nuance in the meaning of expand/expanding takes away linearity, especially since expanding means a pandimensional relative present that is infinite without boundaries. On the other hand, the biblical creation of the universe has an end point with a closed boundary. Once the six days of creation were over, the universe was complete.
What about the postulate of energy field? There is no doubt energyspirit is present in both the biblical and traditional views of the universe. In biblical creation, the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters, but it is not clear what role this Spirit (energy) played in creating the universe. It is almost like it is there, but not there, especially since God created everything, as it was to be, a perfect and unchanging universe.
On the other hand, all was energyspirit, everywhere, and relative after the big bang. This energyspirit created everything in a dynamic manner. The continuous patterning of energyspirit created such things as particles, matter, and galaxies (Mysteries of deep space timeline, n. d.). In essence, Rogers' postulate of energy field unified all of these processes of energyspirit as a whole. Whereas, in biblical creation each day's creation seemed like a piece of a puzzle, and after you put together all the puzzle pieces for each day you had a picture of the universe. Even though biblical creation is miraculous, it seems cut-and-dry, lacking motion and dynamism. Could this creation convey instant gratification since God was pleased with his work and rested on the seventh day?
Rogers (1992) says we get to know an energy field through its pattern, which is its distinguishing characteristic. It is through manifestations of field patterning we gain knowledge of pattern. The evolving universe from a traditional perspective gave multiple manifestations of its pattern, such as frequency waves of light, rhythms, and motion. The biblical creation presents the universe at its moment of creation each day. There were pattern manifestations such as light and all the lights in the firmament. Yet, there is no indication of changing universe pattern in its creation. It just appears.
How willing are we to give up ideas about space and time? We must do so to accept Rogers' (1992) postulate of pandimensionality, where there are no attributes of space and time. Essentially the universe is seamless pandimensional relative present energyspirit. Since space and time are not present, the pandimensional universe energy field equals the relative present, an infinite now.
Since God is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent, could we say His created universe is a pandimensional relative present? Certainly one could infer God manifests high frequency waves when His Spirit moved upon the waters and His breath of life created Adam. It seems, however, God's finished work is absolute, confined to space and time. Einstein believed space and time were not separate phenomena, but should be unified into spacetime, one word, and that spacetime is relative.
Rogers' meaning of pandimensional relative present provides wholeness to the process of change in the universe. Rogers (1992) accomplished this through her principles of homeodynamics, which act as a unified whole to describe changes in pattern. The principle of resonancy addresses continuous change from lower to higher frequency wave pattern in the universe. Manifestations of this increase are seen in changes from fundamental particles to basic elements, matter, and eventually the creation of galaxies. This change is not linear, even though Rogers used from lower to higher frequency waves. How can it be linear in a pandimensional relative present universe where there is no space and time and no specific point of change? Pandimensional relative present change is omnipresent.
The principle of helicy shows continuous, innovative, increasing diversity in the changing universe pattern that is unpredictable. Again, innovation was shown in changes of fundamental particles and basic elements that could not predict the increasing frequency wave and diversity of living matter. None of these changes could happen without the continuous mutual process of Rogers' principle of integrality. An infinite number of pandimensional relative presents in change occurred from the big bang to the formation of stars and galaxies.
The book of Genesis does not address a process of change in God's creation of the universe, according to Rogers' principles of homeodynamics. However, at the moment of His creation, energyspirit was innovative, diverse, and low-high frequency waves, manifesting the energyspirit characteristics of God. How could it be otherwise with God who is all-powerful, all-seeing, and present everywhere?
Changing Human Beings
From the foregoing information about the universe, we can look at traditional evolution and biblical creation of human beings. The importance of the ideas of traditional evolution for Rogers is signified by the chapter "Evolutionary Thought" in her book An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing (Rogers, 1970). Rogers transformed ideas about evolution and development to make them congruent with her science. As controversies, including religious ones, intensified and with people's greater emphasis on the physical and biological aspects of evolution and development, Rogers was faced with dilemmas of people misinterpreting and misunderstanding her use of them. Rogers gave a resounding knell to such controversies when she created her theory of accelerating change to escape the muck surrounding their use in her science.
Essentially, the origin of human beings began with the big bang or via the myth of God's creation of the universe. God took the dust of the ground, which had been imbued with His Spirit, to form Adam, and then He breathed through his nostrils the breath of life to create a living soul. It is most significant to note that God created a living soul (Genesis, 2:7), not a physical body that is traditionally seen as being a human being. This act supports humans were created in the image of God. However, it is the human soul or spirit, the pandimensional energy field that is in the image of God, not the physical body. Indeed, the Bible speaks of God as Holy Spirit. No physical God resides either inside or outside of the universe. Adam was, however, the magnum opus of God's creation since he is the ancestor of all humankind, including Eve since she was created from one of his ribs.
God forbade Adam and Eve to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge in the Garden of Eden. God knew the eyes of Adam and Eve would be opened and they would be as gods with knowledge of good and evil if they ate the fruit. They ate the fruit and their eyes were indeed opened. Since God is omniscient and omnipresent, and his Spirit was in Adam and Eve, their opened eyes signify their pandimensionality and relative present awareness. With their disobedience, God was fearful they would also eat of the fruit of the tree of life and "live forever" (Genesis, 3:2)--in other words, be immortal. So God banished them from the Garden of Eden. Fortunately, their pandimensionality and relative present awareness were not taken from them. They remained as characteristics of human beings.
Unfortunately, Adam's mutual process with his environment (the universe) was negated when God gave him the right to subdue the earth and to have dominion over all living things. Too, God mandated that Eve's desires be to her husband, Adam, and he was to rule over her. The theme of men's dominion over women is present throughout the Bible. Even today men's control and domination over women remain in some cultures and religious beliefs where women are subservient to the point of abuse and even killed to fulfill the dictates of men. Subtle and not so subtle forms of domination and control over women are present in democratic countries, including the United States of America. Why should there be a perpetuation of such relative present manifestations? Is this a continuation of Adam's and Eve's knowledge of good and evil when they ate the fruit of the tree of knowledge?
Some people believe God's creation of the universe and human beings occurred around six to eight thousand years ago. The Bible presents a narrow range of diversity in people and their religious beliefs. How can the biblical creation account for today's diversity of people and their cultures, beliefs, languages, and religions, even those people without belief in the God of the Bible? Rogers' science supports the innovative diversity of all people and their beliefs including gays and lesbians.
Contemplating the perspective to use to discuss the traditional evolution of human beings, the elegance of Barrett's power theory came into relative present awareness. Pondering on Barrett's (n. d.) belief people are born with power, a pandimensional intuitive insight came into awareness. The insight is: The universe was born with Barrettian power. Barrett's power theory gives specificity to the ongoing changes of the universe, signifying the primacy of her power theory and its dimensions, which are equally as valid as the action of strong and weak forces of nature.
All living matter has a common ancestor. Each life form is a distinctive energy field with its pattern, and each life form is a manifestation of the universe pattern. All life forms participate knowingly in their changing pattern per Rogers' science and Barrett's power theory. The chimpanzee branch of the tree of life being the closest to the human branch is thought to be human's most recent ancestor (Evolution: Introduction, n. d.). This relation may be immaterial since it is humans in the relative present who are important, not what they were like in earlier relative presents. However, with Barrett's power theory, changing human beings with their freedom to act intentionally can create relative presents to participate in change to manifest their intentions.
Thus, the diligent use of Rogers' science, Barrett's power theory, and knowledge of the nature of energyspirit will reveal new processes and knowledge of human change. Intuitive evidence from ongoing human change indicates there are unborn pattern manifestations that can accelerate the increasing diversity of humankind. Rogerian and Barrettian scholars must be open to these possibilities and seek to reveal them, especially since there is need for different interpretations from those found in the literature. By using different lenses to view change, new perspectives will become manifest to provide fresh interpretations and knowledge. Then, we can understand better how energyspirit of the big bang became magnificent, wondrous, pandimensional human energy fields with relative present awareness? Who knows, we may be the progenitors of emergent human beings by creating novel ways for them to participate knowingly in ongoing change.
Old and New Views of Change
The views of the universe and human beings during the emergence of ideas about traditional evolution were very different from today's views. Rogers (1992) identified some of these older views. The use of causality placed an emphasis on cause and effect with adaptation. Cell theory played a major role in understanding living things. The universe and human beings were seen as closed, entropic systems that were homeostatic. A human being separate from the environment became known by adding all the parts. Too, many human beings lived in a three-dimensional world with little thought of other dimensions, except for a supreme being who caused and controlled the universe and human beings.
Such views are reflected in the definitions and descriptions of traditional evolution. They are present in natural selection where there is struggle, competition, and evasion of predators to survive (Evolution: Introduction, n. d.), which is generally known as the survival of the fittest. The genetic basis of traditional evolution is caused by genes that carry traits from one generation to the next. The mutation aspects describe how genes can change by mutagens and also by errors during replication where adaptation occurs (Evolution: A2 Mutation, n. d.). Literature speaks of traditional evolution as random and by chance. According to the dictionary (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2008), random means determined by accident; chance "happens unpredictably without discernible human intention or observable cause." Too, the dictionary definitions of natural, nature, and selection maintain the older views. Natural includes "determined by nature"; nature includes "inherent character," "controlling force in the universe," "physical constitution or drives," and "genetically controlled qualities." It is interesting that the dictionary gives choice as a synonym for selection--"the opportunity or privilege of choosing freely (freedom of choice)" (Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary, 2008). Barrett's (n. d.) power theory presents a different view of natural selection where humans have awareness of possibilities, make choices, and then act intentionally to create change. Traditional evolution literature makes no mention of spirit or energyspirit in change.
In contrast to the older views, Rogers (1992) presented newer views pertinent in understanding change. These views include humans as unitary pandimensional energy fields who are homeodynamic. A pandimensional relative present energy field has an awareness that transcends the five senses of a three-dimensional universe.
Science has changed drastically since the older views of traditional evolution were presented. In contrast to the static, adaptive, causal view that is dynamic equilibrium in a closed system, Rogers (1992) sees emergent change as homeodynamic in mutual process with the universe where change is innovative growing diversity. Rather than random and chance, the patterning processes of human beings change by mutual process.
The contention is energyspirit involves all processes of change that were manifest beginning with the big bang. The energyspirit manifests awareness that transcends the usual physiological, biological, and chemical processes. Pandimensional relative present awareness is similar to Rogers' (1992) theory of paranormal that transcends the physical body. Too, could this energyspirit awareness help to explain the creation of entities such as genes and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)? This awareness provides for probing energyspirit to understand the mysterious flow of life, where there is all-seeing and experiencing of infinite wholeness.
Changing Relative Present Awareness
Human beings are using Rogers' science and Barrett's power theory to create changes for a different form of human beings. The changes will be primarily through a changing pandimensional relative present awareness in human beings. Each human being has its unique pattern, so there are variations in humans' manifestations of awareness, where awareness may be from less diverse through awareness that seems continuous. Pandimensional relative present awareness is not an absolute, neither for all humans nor for each individual human, since it is always changing.
Rogers (1992) in her Manifestations of Field Patterning in Unitary Human Beings indicates humans with patterns that seem to be continuous frequency waves of innovation and diversity will manifest awareness that is visionary. Those with lower frequency waves will manifest pragmatic awareness, while those in-between will have imaginative awareness. In the King James Version of the Bible, one sees many instances of high frequency wave awareness such as visions and dreams, including those where God made Himself known and some people spoke to Him. In fact, God said He would make himself known in visions and speak in dreams and give multiple visions to be used in the ministry of the prophets (Hosea, 11:10; Numbers, 12:6). It was not unusual for people to report dreams and visions, which were interpreted, by people such as Joseph and Daniel, where Daniel "had understanding in all visions and dreams" (Daniel, 1:17). After interpretation of these visions or dreams, Barrett's power theory was evident in people's choices and acts of intention to create change.
There are two intense manifestations of awareness in the Bible that merit mention. Saul on his way to Damascus had a conversion evidenced by a shining light around him from heaven, and God spoke to him and Saul asked God questions. Since the persons with him saw the light but did not hear the voice of God, differences in relative present awareness are indicated (Acts, 9, 22). Probably the ultimate and most significant occurrence of relative present awareness was when John the Baptist baptized Jesus. Jesus saw "the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him" (Matthew, 3:16). These visions contrast starkly with the relative present awareness of Adam and Eve, which seems to be pragmatic in the attempt to obtain knowledge. Even when you compare the pragmatic awareness with the visionary, there is still incomplete evidence of ongoing increasing frequency wave change in relative present awareness from a Rogerian perspective.
Accelerating Changes in Pandimensional Awareness
Are there changes in human pattern manifestations that indicate the creation of a new human being? Are accelerating, increasing frequency waves of innovation and diversity of human pattern involved in this creation? Is the energyspirit manifesting hidden potentials of human beings for this creation?
Unfortunately, the traditional evolution community had great influence through its primary focus on physical changes in humans. The focus was so intense that humans felt an imprisonment of energyspirit in physicality. At the same time, humans manifested a desire to free themselves from this sense of confinement. Knowingly or unknowingly, Barrett's power theory was used to create changes to free energyspirit. A deepening interest in energyspirit increased relative present awareness, and an understanding emerged that energyspirit acts as a whole. What are some of the innumerable accelerating changes?
Early human beings' creative expressions of energyspirit through art are seen in cave paintings and small sculptures of mother earth. What about the creativity in the discovery of fire, the wheel, and the bow and arrow? Thousands of years later, artists drew upon religious stories to convey through art the sacredness of religious life. The history of art shows a changing diversity of art styles. The ideas about art of one culture were shared with other cultures to create cross-cultural ideas about art, which helped to create art expressions that were more innovative and diverse.
Essentially, the earliest paintings were flat in appearance with transition to depth and perspective to video art with its flowing frequency waves of color, motion, rhythms, and forms we see today. And, abstract art calls for creativity and imagination for its interpretation. What about today's new forms of conceptual art and computer art? Masterpieces of art create an atmosphere that goes beyond their physical characteristics that resonates with the pattern of human beings. No doubt art as energyspirit manifests emotions such as grief, reverence, ecstasy, happiness, and motherly love of Virgin Mary for infant Jesus. Such expressions of art increased pandimensional relative present awareness of human beings.
Language is significant in accelerating changes in human beings' relative present awareness. Grunts were probably the language of early humans, as indicated by young children today who use grunts and babbling before language is learned. When one looks at the multitude of languages, humans must have had creative tongues to create such diverse languages, each with its pattern of frequency waves, rhythms, and meanings. Too, some people speak one language with some difficulty in grammar, while others are fluent in several languages. Even the forms of communication are accelerating such as mathematical formulas, computer language, electronic books, texting, as well as twitter.
Certainly, humans' use of language continues to show increasing changes in relative present awareness. For example, some paralyzed humans use thoughts to move paralyzed limbs or to type via computers. What about Therapeutic Touch (TT) and healing at a distance? Will accelerating changes continue to create different forms of awareness, such as paranormal becoming normal? With such changes, when will human beings have pandimensional relative present awareness of their unborn frequency wave patterning to have greater understanding of the meaning of pandimensional life and energyspirit? Such awareness is needed since a focus on the physical body cannot accelerate the emergence of a new human being. How will this change relate to pandimensional relative present healing and promotion of wellbeing that vary with one's awareness?
Religious leaders are concerned about decreased church attendance and church membership. Are religions suffocating their members with rigid structures and outdated dogmas that stifle humans' relative present awareness, essentially deadening energyspirit manifestations? What about the mega churches with huge memberships? Are they defrauding people in their search for the meaning of energyspirit? Are leaders of these churches pawky Antichrists who are primarily interested in monetary gains?
People can use Rogers' science and Barrett's power theory to explore their energyspirit and create manifestations that give meaning to religious life or life without religion. Some ways to participate are: Meditation, imagery, relaxation, waking dreams, yoga, and music that help people to experience manifestations such as ecstasy, enlightenment, and nirvana as they commune with the universe energyspirit. Is a new energyspirit manifestation emerging that transcends all religions?
Use of such cited practices is creating different perspectives about dying and death. Too, near-death experiences manifest seems continuous frequency wave patterning such as calm, peace, timelessness, and a sense of being infinite with the universe that are not dependent on physicality. In this respect, Jesus, as God's Spirit, assumed a physical human body to show human beings they are integral with universe energyspirit. Humans, too, similar to the ascension of Jesus, can change and live in the infinite universe, where a physical body is not relevant. No resurrection is needed since no death has occurred, just a shedding of the physical body.
All of these changes and innumerable other ones indicate humans are participating in accelerating changes that give increasing pandimensional relative present awareness of Rogers' (1992) patterning manifestations of seems continuous, timelessness, visionary, and beyond waking. Are human beings ready to accelerate these changes to experience the ultimate exultation: Free, free, free at last as physicality becomes cosmic dust? Yes, humans are participating in giving birth to humankind known as Homo pandimensionalis in honor of Martha E. Rogers.
Pandimensional immortal life will continue to give new meaning to infinite relative present awareness. Experiencing the flowing wholeness of universe energyspirit, Homo pandimensionalis can use its freedom and relative present awareness to discover the origin of the big bang and know the how, why, and when of energyspirit.
"Martha E. Rogers is the big bang of Nursing"
Barrett, E. A. M. (n. d.). In Become your own powerhouse. Retrieved on September 23, 2009, from http://www.drelizabethbarrett.com/
Big bang theory. (n. d.). In All about science. Retrieved on September 5, 2009, from http://www.allaboutscience.org/big-bang- theory.htm http://www.allaboutscience.org/bigbang
Evolution: A2 mutation. (n. d.). In Encarta online encyclopedia. Retrieved on September 5, 2009, from http://encarta.msn.com/ encyclopedia_761554675_2/Evolution.html
Evolution: Introduction. (n. d.). In Encarta online encyclopedia. Retrieved on September 5, 2009, from http://encarta.msn.com/ encyclopedia_761554675/Evolution.html
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2008). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Mysteries of deep space timeline. (n. d.). In PBS online. Retrieved on September 11, 2009, from http://www.pbs.org/ deepspace/timeline/tlgraphic.html
Overbye, D. (2009, September 10). After repair, new images from space. The New York Times, pp. A16 & A22.
Rogers, M. E. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.
Rogers, M. E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27-34.
John R. Phillips, RN; PhD
Retired, New York University
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