Perceived characteristics of sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine and masculine.
Abstract: Nathalie Koivula, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
Article Type: Statistical Data Included
Subject: Stereotype (Psychology) (Research)
Sex differences (Research)
Sports (Psychological aspects)
Femininity (Research)
Masculinity (Research)
Author: Koivula, Nathalie
Pub Date: 12/01/2001
Publication: Name: Journal of Sport Behavior Publisher: University of South Alabama Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Psychology and mental health; Sports and fitness Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2001 University of South Alabama ISSN: 0162-7341
Issue: Date: Dec, 2001 Source Volume: 24 Source Issue: 4
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 80565123
Full Text: The labeling of different activities as feminine and masculine is largely a social construction based on stereotyped expectations regarding gender and perceived gender differences. Sports have generally been labeled as masculine, although some sports are considered to be feminine. Suggestions based on theoretical considerations have been made about the features that may underlie the categorization of sports as feminine or masculine. The goal of this study was to examine what men and women perceive to be characteristic of different sports and of the participants of these sports. The purpose was also to examine whether these perceptions could be related to beliefs about gender appropriateness regarding sport participation. The results revealed that sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine, and masculine, were perceived as different on several features, such as aesthetics and femininity danger and risk, speed, and masculinity These perceptions are in accordance with stereotyped expectations of femininity a nd masculinity and could explain the perceptions of some sports as feminine or masculine.

Certain tasks and activities have traditionally been assigned to men and others to women, that is, they have been considered to be masculine or feminine activities. These categorizations are to a large extent social constructions based on our expectations regarding gender, and on our beliefs that gender categories are natural, unambiguous, bipolar, static, and individual. They are also grounded in our perceptions of differences between these gender categories. These assumptions about gender and gender categories are in turn based on socially constructed, historically specific, and cultural representations of the social interactions that occur among gendered individuals through their relations to each other. These concepts and constructs are thereby sometimes subject to change (e.g., Acker, 1990, 1999; Lorber, 1994).

Sport has traditionally been regarded as primarily a male territory (e.g., Birrell, 1983; Birrell & Theberge, 1994; Lenskyj, 1990; Matteo, 1986; Messner, 1988, 1990a, 1990b;Pedersen & Kono, 1990; Snyder & Spreitzer, 1983). It has been suggested that sport is a representation of the sociocultural system in which it occurs and that sports reflect, as well as reproduce, the attitudes, beliefs, rituals, and values of the societies in which they are developed. It is therefore argued that sport has been, and continues to be, a site for the construction, reconstruction, strengthening, and naturalization of perceived gender differences, and, further, that it serves to reaffirm the gender dichotomization and the gender order in which the gender categories are differently valued (Birrell & Cole, 1990; Guttman, 1978, 1986; Hargreaves, 1986; Kane & Snyder, 1989; Messner, 1988).

Sports become stereotyped as gender-neutral, feminine, or masculine based on conceptions regarding gender, gender differences, and beliefs about the appropriateness of participation due to gender (Colley, Nash, O'Donnell, & Restorick, 1987; Csizma, Wittig & Schurr, 1988; Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986; Metheny, 1965; Ostrow, Jones, & Spiker, 1981; Salminen, 1990). Metheny (1965) and Postow (1980) have tried to determine the features that underlie the categorizations of a sport as either feminine or masculine. Sports labeled as feminine seem to be those sports that are considered as appropriate for women to participate in, that is, sports that allow women participants to remain true to the stereotyped expectations of femininity (such as being graceful and nonaggressive) and that provide for beauty and aesthetic pleasure. The component of beauty as an element of the sport seems to be an important aspect of the perceived femininity of a sport. This is probably because it is an important aspect in the general concep t of femininity. The female body continues to be identified as an object by masculinist culture. Females are also socialized to use their bodies to please others, value themselves based on their passive ornamental qualities through the masculine eyes of others, and to compare their appearance with that of the dominant feminine ideal. Sports that seek to provide beauty and visual pleasure are thereby not only acceptable for females but well in line with stereotyped expectations of femininity (Duncan, 1994; Metheny, 1965; Young, 1995).

At least four different features or sets of features have been suggested to serve as reasons for a sport to be characterized as masculine. One set of features that is conductive to the perception of a sport as masculine is characterizable by the required behavior of the sport participant according to the rules of the game. This cluster of features, as argued by Metheny (1965), include 1) attempts to physically overpower the opponent/s by body contact, 2) direct use of bodily force to heavy object, 3) projection of body into or through space over distances, and 4) face-to-face competition in situations in which body contact may happen. These characteristics are perhaps believed to be especially appropriate expressions of masculine attributes such as aggressiveness, effectiveness, and power. But, as Postow (1980) has argued, although a sport that possesses these features very likely would be labeled as masculine because of the connotation of the features to traditional masculine attributes, there are probably other grounds as well that might lead to the categorization of a sport as masculine.

A second cluster of features includes the attitudes that are believed to be essential for playing well and excelling in the sport, and with which the sport is played, such as aggressiveness, competitive spirit, discipline, and stamina, and devotion to a team (Postow, 1980). Of course, many or perhaps all sports could be seen as masculine according this list of qualities. However, a sport in which aggressiveness is not only approved but even regarded as an essential part of the sport and considered as part of an athlete's sporting skills (such as ice hockey and football), is qualified as especially masculine (Postow, 1980; Weinstein, Smith, & Wiesenthal, 1995; Young & Smith, 1988).

A sport may also be considered to be masculine if it functions in society to reinforce a sense of identity and solidarity with men as separate from women. According to Postow (1980), football is one example of a sport that traditionally has served this function in the U.S. society, largely because football has been designated as an activity appropriate for males and inappropriate for females. Many modern sports have evolved to foster the socialization of males in line with "the particular ideal of masculine gender identity embodied in the masculine attitudinal mode" (Postow, 1980, p. 53). Sports that include aggressiveness and competitiveness fit this model. Athleticism is often strongly linked to and interpreted as muscularity, physical strength, and power, and therefore often equated with masculinity (Dyer, 1982). Postow (1980) also points out that a sport tends to be regarded as masculine when the definition of athletic excellence for that sport includes capacities such as absolute strength and speed, capa cities for which men have a statistical advantage over women. Because of the physiological differences between men and women, the "objective" statistical measures of absolute speed and strength work to "prove the natural" athletic abilities of males (Messner, 1988). Much of the world of sport is thereby labeled as masculine on the basis of biology.

However, the features that have been identified as the constituents of the categorizarelated to the perceived characteristics of that sport. It could also show whether those expectations and perceptions include the features identified by Metheny (1965) and Postow (1980). Furthermore, because sport has a strong masculine connotation, it is possible that men and women have different perceptions of sports. Findings have revealed that men gender-type sports to a greater extent than do women (Colley, Nash, O'Donnell, & Restorick, 1987; Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986). This could indicate that men and women have somewhat different beliefs about the characteristics and requirements of sports and the participants of these sports. It could also indicate that these perceptions are of different significance for men and women when they categorize a sport as either feminine or masculine. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine men and women's perceptions of characteristics of sports that are categorized as gender-neutra l, feminine, and masculine.

Methods

Participants

An initial sample of 3O psychology students participated in a preliminary study in order to provide for questionnaire items (see Procedure and Variables). These students did not take part in the subsequent study, in which a total of 403 students participated. The 403 (179 men and 224 women) participants were students at Stockholm University, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University College of Physical Education and Sports, and Boson Sport College. The mean age was 25.9 years (SD=5.7) for the entire sample. The mean age for men was 24.9 (SD=4.0), and for women 26.7 (SD=6.6). The psychology students participated as part of their course requirements. The other participating students participated without any compensation.

Procedure and Variables

The initial sample of 3O students were asked to list their characteristics and requirements of one sport with which they had had firsthand experience. They were also asked to list the characteristics of one sport with which they had not had any experience. The respondents provided a total of 117 descriptors. A questionnaire was subsequently constructed with these 117 different descriptors relating to characteristics and requirements of a sport and the participants of that sport.

In the subsequent main study, all of the 403 participants first answered a short questionnaire regarding their gender, age and physical exercise habits. They then completed the questionnaire regarding perceived characteristics of a sport. In the questionnaire, the respondent was asked to rate to what degree the descriptor is characteristic of the sport or those practicing the sport using a seven-point scale from 1 ("Not at all characteristic of the sport/sport participant") to 7 ("Very much characteristic of the sport/sport participant"). For each participant, the sport to be rated was randomly selected out of 41 different sports, 19 of which have been rated gender-neutral, 7 of which have been rated feminine, and 15 of which have been rated masculine. The 41 sports were gender-labeled according the categorizations made in a previous study on gender-labeling of sports that was based on a Swedish sample (see Koivula, 1995).

Results

After using a Scree-Test, the Criterion of Substantive Importance, and the requirement of at least three variables for each factor, a principal component analysis performed on the sport characteristics questionnaire with a total of 117 items in the sample of 403 participants, revealed 12 clearly distinct sets of items with a total of 97 items (20 of the items did not load sufficiently ([less than].30) on the 12 factors that emerged).

The twelve extracted factor-based scales (see Table 1) were labeled (1) Aesthetics and Femininity, which consisted of items such as "graceful" and "feminine"; (2) Danger/Risk and Violence, which included items such as "violent" and "risky"; (3) Team Spirit, comprised of items such as "cooperation" and "teamwork"; (4) Fair Play and Morals, which included items such as "honesty"; (5) Speed, which consisted of items such as "fast" and "rapidity"; (6) Advanced Skills and Precision, which contained items such as "skillful" and "accuracy"; (7) Commercialism, which included items such as "money" and "advertising"; (8) Strength and Endurance, comprised of items such as "aerobic capacity" and "endurance"; (9) Equipment, which contained items such as "equipment"; (10) Masculinity, which included items such as "masculine" and "manly" and negatively loading "gender equity"; (11) Excitement and Challenge, which consisted of items such as "exciting"; and (12) Cognitive Efficiency, comprised of items such as "intelligence" and "use of strategies". The internal consistency was calculated for each scale and ranged between [varies]=0.63 (scale 5) and [varies]=0.93 (scale 1) for the 12 extracted scales.

The ratings of characteristics were made on 41 different sports, shown in Table 2. The sports were considered as either gender-neutral, feminine, or masculine, based on the categorizations made in a previous study on gender-labeling of sports (Koivula, 1995). These categorizations of sports were used in the statistical analyses of the present study.

Twelve univariate 2 by 3 (Gender: female-male by Sportcategory: neutral- feminine-masculine) ANOVAs were used to detect significant differences between the female and male ratings of the gender-neutral, feminine, and masculine sportcategories for the 12 factor-based scales. To control for Type 1 errors when performing multiple tests, the Bonferroni method was used to determine the significance level alpha: [varies]/c = 0.05/36 = 0.0014. As will be seen below, the degrees of freedom pertaining to the number of persons varies somewhat in the analyses. This is due to the fact that between one (1) and eight (8) of the respondents omitted one or several items on one or more factors. Consequently, these were excluded from the particular analysis in question.

The two-way ANOVA with ratings on the first variable, Aesthetics and femininity, as the dependent variable, showed a significant effect of sportcategory (F2, 394=195.2, p[less than].0001). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) detected significant differences among all three categories. The mean ratings were highest for sports labeled feminine and lowest for sports labeled masculine, as can be seen in Table 3.

The corresponding two-way ANOVA performed on the second scale, Danger/Risk and Violence, revealed a significant effect of sportcategory (F2,391 = 109.6,p[less than].0001). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) showed that masculine sports had significantly higher scores than gender-neutral and feminine sports.

The two-way ANOVA performed on the third scale, Team Spirit, disclosed a significant effect of sportcategory (F2,391 = 11.56, p[less than].000 1). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) showed that masculine sports had significantly higher scores than gender-neutral and feminine sports. A corresponding two-way ANOVA with scores on the fourth scale, Fair Play and Morals as the dependent variable, revealed a significant effect of sportcategory (F2,392=15.0l, p[less than].OOOl). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) showed that gender-neutral sports had significantly higher scores than feminine and masculine sports.

The two-way ANOVA executed on the fifth scale, Speed, disclosed a significant effect of sportcategory (F2,393=11.34, p[less than].0001). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) revealed that masculine sports had significantly higher scores than gender-neutral sports.

A significant effect of sportcategoly was also revealed for the sixth scale, Advanced Skills and Precision (F2,3B9=28.45, p[less than].OOOl). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) detected differences among all three groups. The mean ratings were highest for the sports labeled feminine and were lowest for masculine sports, as can be seen in Table 3.

The ANOVA performed on the seventh scale, Commercialism, revealed no significant effects of gender, sportcategory, or interaction between gender and sportcategory. But, for the eighth scale, Strength and Endurance, the effect of gender approached statistical significance (F) ,393 = 8.50, p=0038), which indicates that women tended to give higher ratings to these qualities than men did, as can be seen in Table 3.

On the ninth scale, Equipment, the two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of sportcategory (F2,393=6.97, p[less than].OO12). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) indicated that neutral sports had received significantly higher scores than, did feminine sports.

A significant effect of sportcategory was also disclosed by the ANOVA for the tenth scale, Masculinity (F2,396=134.26, p[less than].0001). Post hoc tests (Scheffe) showed that the masculine sports received significantly higher scores on this variable than both gender-neutral and feminine sports did.

The two-way ANOVA performed on the eleventh scale, Excitement and Challenge, disclosed that gender and sportcategory in interaction had a significant effect on ratings (F2,394=7.48, p[less than].0007). Men and women differed in their ratings on sports that were categorized as feminine. As can be seen in Table 3, men rated feminine sports as less exciting and challenging than gender-neutral and masculine sports, whereas women rated feminine sports higher than gender-neutral and masculine sports on this scale.

On the twelfth scale, Cognitive Efficiency, the effect of sportcategory only approached significance (F2,394=4.81, p=.0086). The effect of gender, as well as the interaction effect, were also not significant. As displayed in Table 3, men tended to give lower ratings to feminine sports.

Discussion

The principal component analysis performed on the sport characteristics questionnaire resulted in twelve factor-based scales, shown in Table 1. It is interesting to observe that attributes such as "aesthetical," "beauty," "graceful," and "sexy" loaded on the same factor as "feminine" and "womanly," whereas the characteristics "masculine" and "manly" loaded on a separate factor. Appearance and attractiveness in sport seem to be strongly related to what is perceived as femininity in sport. These notions are obviously seen as elements of the same concept.

This finding supports the proposition put forward by Metheny (1965) regarding perceived femininity of a sport. As can be seen in Table 2, all sports labeled as feminine, except aerobics, scored high on scale one (1) Aesthetics and Femininity. But, for what reasons does a sport become rated as a feminine sport when it is not perceived as particularly characterizable by the one feature that has been suggested to be distinctive of feminine sports? An examination of the sport of aerobics reveals something that is connected to the stereotyped expectations of femininity, namely the perceived purpose of the sport. Aerobics is a fitness sport that is often participated in for motives having to do with appearance (Frederick & Ryan, 1993). And empirical findings have shown that motives for participation in a sport that are related to appearance and weight management are stronger for females than for males (Cash, Novy, & Grant, 1994; Frederick & Ryan, 1993; Clough, Shepherd, & Maughan, 1989; Gill & Overdorf, 1994; Gill et al., 1996; Koivula, 1999; Markland & Hardy, 1993; Silberstein, Striegel-Moore, Timko, & Rodin, 1988). This is closely related to the theoretical considerations of the female body as a sexual object that is valued for its static attractiveness and ornamental values.

The features that have instead been suggested to prompt perception of a sport as masculine are more diverse, consisting of characteristics of rules of the sport, features of the attitudinal mode, the identification of men as a group that is distinct from women, and the requirements that participants possess physical capacities related to speed and strength. A sport can be seen as masculine even though it does not consist of all the separate features of this definition. Nevertheless, the more of these features a sport has, the more masculine it is probably perceived. As Table 2 demonstrates, the sports which were considered as the most masculine in earlier studies (Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986)- for example football, ice hockey and rugby - seem to be perceived as characterized by 1) danger, risk, and violence; 2) team spirit; 3) speed; 4) strength and endurance; and 5) masculinity.

Boxing, motor sports, and weight lifting, are also sports considered to be highly masculine. These sports differ from those mentioned above in that they are not, for obvious reasons, characterized by team spirit. Weight lifting is notable because although it has a relatively high score on strength and endurance, it only reaches a score that is higher than 5 on only one scale, namely scale ten, Masculinity. This is one of the sports in which the definition of athletic excellence is defined on the basis of a quality for which men have a statistical advantage over women. Although no other specific characteristics, other than perceived lack of both aesthetic pleasure and femininity, justify the assigning of a masculinity label to the sport, men's advantage over women in physical strength seem to be enough to place the sport in the "masculine" category. However, in weight lifting body size is considered as an important factor and weight lifters compete in different body weight classes. If the different classes wer e based not on body mass but on lean body mass, women could probably compete successfully with men. An interesting question is whether a change from body mass to lean body mass as the basis for division into different classes would change the perceived masculinity of the sport.

Motor sports are dominated by male competitors and the spectators are predominantly male. These sports are considered masculine, as shown by earlier findings (Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986) and in the present study the mean score on the masculinity scale was high. As can be seen in Table 2, the perceptions of motor sports are dominated by the characteristics challenge, danger, risk, and equipment, as well as by masculinity, speed, and lack of aesthetics and femininity. This suggests that two additional features could be added to the list of proposed features that might serve as a basis for the classifying of a sport as masculine: 1) the use of a vehicle that has a masculine connotation, such as a car or a motorbike; and 2) perceived high risk and danger. Perhaps the perception of high risk and danger for sports such as mountaineering and surfing, are the reasons for many, and especially gender-typed men, to categorize these sports as masculine (Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986).

The performed ANOVAs on the 12 factor-based scales revealed that the ratings of the three sportcategories differed on the basis of several characteristics. The ANOVAs did not, however, reveal any statistically significant gender differences. Only on scale eight, Strength and Endurance, did the difference between men and women approach significance, indicating a tendency for women to generally give higher ratings for strength and endurance to all sportcategories, also evident in Table 3. The interaction of gender and sportcategory that was found for scale eleven, Excitement and Challenge, was also interesting. The mean ratings displayed in Table 3, show that men and women differed especially in their perceptions of sports labeled as feminine. Women perceived feminine sports as more exciting and challenging than masculine sports, and the male respondents showed the opposite pattern. This could explain the finding that women in general are more interested in watching women's sports, and especially feminine sport s, whereas men are more interested in watching men's sports (Cooper-Chen, 1994; Fasting & Tangen, 1983; Guttman, 1986).

The reason for this difference in men's and women's perceptions of sports could be a result of several factors, such as greater familiarity with gender-appropriate sports, identification with the participants, and the presentation of oneself as a gendered individual distinct from the other gender. The latter could be related to findings in a study about gender differences in the consumption of television wrestling programs. It was suggested that for most girls, the opposing of the World Wrestling Federation's (WWF) programs served to reinforce their gender identity and to present them as distinctly different from boys (Lemish, 1998). So, through showing interest in gender-appropriate sports and less interest in gender-inappropriate sports, females and males can present themselves as gendered individuals who belong to separate gender categories.

The respondents were in the present study asked to rate their perceptions of the characteristics and requirements of a sport and its participants. It was not investigated whether the respondents were thinking of a female or a male athlete when they did their ratings. The answer to that question might have provided further information about how participants of certain sports are perceived. Furthermore, as has been shown in several studies regarding media coverage of female and male athletes, sports in which women participate are gender-marked to a much higher degree than sports in which men participate (Duncan, Messner, Williams, & Jensen, 1994; Halbert & Latimer, 1994). A possible direction for future research on the issue would be to ask respondents to rate not only a sport in general, such as soccer, but also to rate gender-marked sports, such as men's soccer and women's soccer, to see if the perceived characteristics of a sport varies with the gender of the participant.

Because it has been shown that there are differences in the categorizations of sports as feminine and masculine due to gender-typing (Koivula, 1995), some of the variance in the perceived features of different sports might reflect variations in how strongly the individual has adopted stereotypical beliefs related to gender. It is possible that gender-typed individuals who are more prone to categorize sports on the basis of gender also perceive different characteristics of sports and/or relate the perceived characteristics more strongly to other traditional expectations regarding femininity and masculinity.

The sample in the present study consisted of students from different disciplines, including physical education students. The sample was selected to ensure that the respondents had a variety of experiences of different sports. It is possible that an individual's experience with sports could influence the ratings. The samples in the present study were not sufficiently large enough to allow analyses pertaining to the experience of sports. It is nevertheless an issue well worth investigating in future studies.

In conclusion, the findings of the present study have shown that sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine, and masculine, are generally perceived as different. However, there are variations within the sportcategories that indicate that additional features should be incorporated into the list of features or clusters of features that Metheny (1965) and Postow (1980) have suggested to serve as the bases for the gender-typing of sports. Such features include those that relate to the purpose of the sport (such as shaping the body) and to the perceived risk of the sport, and the use of vehicles associated with masculine values.

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Table 1.

Number of items, eigenvalues, proportion of original variance,
cumulative proportion of original variance, means and standard
deviation (SD) for the twelve obtained factors.

                                              Cumulative

Factor    No. of items  Eigenvalue  % of variance  % of variance

  1           15          16.82         14.4           14.4
  2           18          14.67         12.5           26.9
  3            9           7.34          6.3           33.2
  4            3           5.46          4.7           37.9
  5            9           5.01          4.3           42.2
  6           16           4.20          3.6           45.8
  7            5           3.12          2.7           48.5
  8            7           2.51          2.1           50.6
  9            3           2.31          2.0           52.6
 10            4           2.17          1.9           54.5
 11            3           1.75          1.5           56.0
 12            5           1.55          1.3           57.3

          Cumulative

Factor    Mean (SD)

  1       2.98(1.3)
  2       2.95(1.3)
  3       3.41(1.6)
  4       3.65(1.4)
  5       4.81(1.2)
  6       4.80(1.1)
  7       3.13(1.2)
  8       4.80(1.3)
  9       3.07(1.6)
 10       3.96(l.7)
 11       3.50(1.3)
 12       3.63(1.3)
Table 2

Mean scores on the 12 scales for the 41 sports.

                                          Scale

Sport                     1     2         3         4         5

Gender-neutral

Archery                 2.6   1.9       2.4       3.8       2.6
Badminton               2.7   2.1       3.1       3.9       5.8
Basketball              3.4   3.1       5.9       4.6       5.9
Bowling                 1.7   1.3       3.5       3.4       2.0
Canoeing                2.5   2.1       3.7       4.6       4.3
Cross-C. skiin          3.2   2.3       2.9       3.8       4.5
Cycling                 2.0   2.7       2.4       3.3       4.3
Downhill skiing         3.1   2.8       3.3       2.8       5.0
Fencing                 3.8   2.8       2.5       4.9       6.0
Golf                    2.7   1.8       2.5       5.1       2.2
Marathon                2.6   3.0       1.8       4.0       3.8
Orienteering            2.3   1.9       2.7       4.5       4.8
Riflery                 2.5   1.8       2.1       4.6       3.2
Sailing                 2.9   2.0       4.7       4.0       3.8
Skating                 3.9   2.4       2.8       3.8       4.8
Swimming                3.5   2.2       2.4       4.0       5.2
Table Tennis            2.9   2.3       3.4       3.8       5.8
Tennis                  2.9   2.3       2.8       4.4       5.4
Volleyball              2.8   2.2       6.0       4.2       5.5

                                          Scale

Sport                 6         7         8         9        10

Gender-neutral

Archery             5.8       2.3       3.2       4.7       2.8
Badminton           4.7       2.2       4.8       2.5       2.6
Basketball          5.3       4.4       5.0       2.4       3.8
Bowling             4.1       2.0       1.5       2.3       2.8
Canoeing            4.3       2.8       5.5       3.8       2.8
Cross-C. skiin      4.4       2.8       6.5       3.3       2.9
Cycling             3.3       3.4       5.7       4.5       4.1
Downhill skiing     4.9       4.5       4.9       3.5       3.0
Fencing             5.8       2.1       4.0       4.0       3.3
Golf                5.8       4.6       3.2       4.7       2.4
Marathon            3.8       2.5       6.5       1.9       4.3
Orienteering        4.3       2,5       5.8       2.3       2.0
Riflery             6.0       2.1       3.0       4.0       3.6
Sailing             4.3       4.3       3.2       5.3       3.2
Skating             5.0       2.5       5.3       2.4       3.5
Swimming            5.0       2.8       5.6       2.2       2.5
Table Tennis        5.1       2.8       4.3       3.4       4.1
Tennis              5.5       5.0       5.1       3.5       3.4
Volleyball          5.2       2.8       4.4       2.2       2.6

                           Scale

Sport                11        12

Gender-neutral

Archery             3.6       3.3
Badminton           2.8       3.9
Basketball          4.3       4.9
Bowling             2.1       1.5
Canoeing            3.3       3.0
Cross-C. skiin      3.2       3.7
Cycling             3.4       3.3
Downhill skiing     5.6       3.2
Fencing             4.3       4.6
Golf                3.6       4.4
Marathon            3.4       3.3
Orienteering        3.2       5.3
Riflery             3.6       4.0
Sailing             4.0       4.6
Skating             2.9       3.2
Swimming            3.3       3.0
Table Tennis        3.6       4.0
Tennis              3.2       3.8
Volleyball          3.6       4.4

Feminine

                                          Scale

Sport                     1     2         3         4         5

Aerobics                3.8   1.7       2.1       3.1       5.2
Ballet                  5.9   2.6       2.6       3.5       4.8
Dance                   5.1   1.9       3.7       2.5       4.7
Figure Skating          5.7   3.2       2.6       3.1       4.9
Gymnastics              4.6   3.0       2.7       2.7       4.8
Riding                  4.2   3.0       3.8       4.0       4.8
Synchronized Swim.      5.5   1.9       4.5       3.9       4.4

                                          Scale

Sport                 6         7         8         9        10

Aerobics            4.4       3.6       5.6       2.5       2.4
Ballet              6.2       2.2       4.9       2.3       3.0
Dance               5.5       2.8       5.2       1.5       2.9
Figure Skating      6.2       3.1       5.0       2.0       2.9
Gymnastics          5.9       2.1       4.7       4.4       2.8
Riding              5.2       4.3       3.8       4.5       2.9
Synchronized Swim.  5.9       2.0       4.2       1.8       2.3

                           Scale

Sport                11        12

Aerobics            2.9       2.6
Ballet              3.6       3.4
Dance               3.7       3.0
Figure Skating      3.9       4.1
Gymnastics          3.1       3.4
Riding              4.0       3.9
Synchronized Swim.  3.9       3.8

Masculine

                                          Scale

Sport                     1     2         3         4         5

Bandy                   2.4   2.8       6.1       4.7       5.7
Baseball                2.3   2.8       4.5       3.4       4.8
Boxing                  2.0   5.9       2.1       3.0       6.0
Crew                    2.7   2.4       4.4       4.3       4.0
Combat Sports           3.1   3.4       2.1       4.0       5.8
Football                1.6   5.4       5.4       2.5       5.6
Handball                2.3   3.7       6.1       3.8       6.0
Ice-hockey              2.1   5.0       5.7       3.2       5.8
Motor Sports            1.7   4.5       2.6       2.9       5.3
Nautilus                1.8   3.4       1.6       1.9       3.8
Pole Vaulting           3.0   2.5       1.7       3.5       4.4
Rugby                   2.1   5.0       5.4       3.4       5.3
Soccer                  3.0   3.5       5.9       3.9       5.0
Weight Lifting          1.9   3.5       2.2       2.4       4.1
Wrestling               2.6   4.3       2.7       4.1       5.3

                                          Scale

Sport                 6         7         8         9        10

Bandy               4.8       3.3       5.3       3.1       5.3
Baseball            4.3       3.6       3.5       2.7       5.1
Boxing              4.1       3.0       5.7       1.6       6.0
Crew                4.3       2.3       5.8       4.1       4.2
Combat Sports       5.5       2.2       4.3       1.9       4.1
Football            3.9       4.7       5.2       2.8       6.3
Handball            4.7       2.9       5.6       1.6       3.6
Ice-hockey          4.6       5.2       5.7       4.0       6.7
Motor Sports        5.0       4.2       3.7       4.7       6.5
Nautilus            2.6       3.3       4.5       4.4       5.7
Pole Vaulting       5.4       2.1       2.8       4.7       3.6
Rugby               3.9       3.1       5.1       2.1       6.2
Soccer              4.5       4.9       5.4       1.9       4.9
Weight Lifting      4.3       2.2       4.5       4.6       6.2
Wrestling           4.7       2.6       5.4       1.6       5.9

                           Scale

Sport                11        12

Bandy               3.0       4.4
Baseball            3.4       3.9
Boxing              2.8       2.7
Crew                3,1       3.3
Combat Sports       3.6       3.3
Football            3.8       4.1
Handball            3.8       4.8
Ice-hockey          4.8       3.8
Motor Sports        4.2       3.8
Nautilus            2.7       1.8
Pole Vaulting       3.9       2.6
Rugby               3.8       3.6
Soccer              3.3       4.3
Weight Lifting      3.0       2.7
Wrestling           3.4       3.9

Note. The highest mean score on each scale is printed in bold
Table 3

Mean Scores and Standard Deviations on the 12 Scales for
Gender-Neutral, Feminine, and Masculine Sports, by Female (F)
and Male (M) Raters.

                                Neutral Sports

Scale (a)               F               M          Tot.

Aesthetics,        2.84 (0.95)     2.85 (0.84)  2.84 (0.90)
Femininity (*)
Danger/Risk        2.24 (0.74)     2.32 (0.65)  2.27 (0.70)
Violence (*)
Team Spirit (*)    3.18 (1.43)     3.15 (1.29)  3.16 (1.37)
Fair Play,         3.98 (1.45)     4.17 (1.29)  4.06 (1.38)
Morals (*)
Speed (*)          4.67 (1.33)     4.32 (1.50)  4.52 (1.41)
Adv. Skills,       4.85 (0.94)     4.84 (1.09)  4.85 (1.01)
Precision (*)
Commercialism      3.14 (1.24)     3.04 (1.20)  3.10 (1.22)
Strength,          4.88 (1.40)     4.50 (1.49)  4.72 (1.45)
Endurance (*)
Equipment (*)      3.22 (1.70)     3.51 (1.50)  3.35 (1.62)
Masculinity (*)    3.08 (1.53)     3.27 (1.30)  3.16 (1.43)
Excitement,        3.44 (1.42)     3.49 (1.18)  3.47 (1.32)
Challenge (*)
Cognitive          3.81 (1.16)     3.80 (1.37)  3.81 (1.25)
Efficiency

                                Feminine Sports

Scale (a)                F               M          Tot.

Aesthetics,         5.14 (0.97)     4.77 (1.05)  5.02 (1.01)
Femininity (*)
Danger/Risk         2.59 (1.03)     2.15 (0.61)  2.44 (0.93)
Violence (*)
Team Spirit (*)     3.33 (1.27)     2.62 (1.18)  3.10 (1.28)
Fair Play,          3.42 (1.32)     2.80 (1.11)  3.20 (1.28)
Morals (*)
Speed (*)           4.94 (0.86)     4.52 (0.76)  4.79 (0.85)
Adv. Skills,        5.80 (0.84)     5.31 (0.97)  5.64 (0.91)
Precision (*)
Commercialism       2.97 (0.96)     2.59 (1.07)  2.83 (1.01)
Strength,           5.07 (0.99)     4.34 (1.11)  4.82 (1.08)
Endurance (*)
Equipment (*)       2.64 (1.47)     2.44 (1.25)  2.57 (1.39)
Masculinity (*)     2.87 (0.79)     2.58 (0.67)  2.77 (0.76)
Excitement,         4.02 (1.34)     2.74 (1.07)  3.57 (1.39)
Challenge (*)
Cognitive           3.73 (1.05)     2.78 (1.31)  3.41 (1.22)
Efficiency

                                Masculine Sports

Scale (a)                F                M          Tot.

Aesthetics,         2.21 (0.83)      2.44 (0.76)  2.33 (0.80)
Femininity (*)
Danger/Risk         3.91 (1.35)      3.75 (1.18)  3.83 (1.27)
Violence (*)
Team Spirit (*)     4.02 (1.94)      3.75 (1.80)  3.89 (1.87)
Fair Play,          3.33 (1.49)      3.47 (1.40)  3.39 (1.45)
Morals (*)
Speed (*)           5.14 (1.12)      5.08 (0.96)  5.10 (1.04)
Adv. Skills,        4.38 (1.01)      4.47 (0.99)  4.42 (1.00)
Precision (*)
Commercialism       3.42 (1.23)      3.10 (1.30)  3.26 (1.27)
Strength,           4.93 (0.90)      4.79 (1.23)  4.85 (1.11)
Endurance (*)
Equipment (*)       2.91 (1.47)      3.07 (1.54)  2.98 (1.50)
Masculinity (*)     5.27 (1.55)      5.36 (1.37)  5.31 (1.46)
Excitement,         3.41 (1.29)      3.61 (1.30)  3.51 (1.30)
Challenge (*)
Cognitive           3.54 (1.20)      3.50 (1.35)  3.52 (1.27)
Efficiency

Note. (a)The highest total score for each scale is printed in hold

(*)p[less than].05
Gale Copyright: Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.