Natural enemies of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in Coahuila, Mexico.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Army-worms (Control)
Insect pests (Control)
Parasitoids (Management)
Insect pests (Biological control)
Insect pests (Methods)
Authors: Rios-Velasco, Claudio
Gallegos-Morales, Gabriel
Cambero-Campos, Jhonathan
Cerna-Chavez, Ernesto
Del Rincon-Castro, Ma. Cristina
Valenzuela-Garcia, Rita
Pub Date: 09/01/2011
Publication: Name: Florida Entomologist Publisher: Florida Entomological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Florida Entomological Society ISSN: 0015-4040
Issue: Date: Sept, 2011 Source Volume: 94 Source Issue: 3
Topic: Event Code: 200 Management dynamics Computer Subject: Company business management
Geographic: Geographic Scope: Mexico Geographic Code: 1MEX Mexico
Accession Number: 298614282
Full Text: The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is the main insect pest of corn and other crops in Latin America (Hernandez-Mendoza et al. 2008). The larvae cause severe damage in all phenological stages of the plant (Villa-Castorena & Catalan-Valencia 2004). Control has been with synthetic pesticides; however, this method is inefficient and causes chronic poisoning to growers in Mexico due to incorrect use (Tinoco & Halperin 1998). This has led to the search of other options to manage S. frugiperda including use of natural enemies. Twenty two species of natural enemies have been reported in various parts of Mexico (Molina-Ochoa et al. 2004). Our objectives were to identify the natural enemies of the FAW and the level of parasitism in the area of Buenavista, Coahuila, Mexico.

Twelve weekly samplings of FAW larvae were made from Jul to Sep in corn fields infested with FAW at the "El Bajio" Experimental Station of the Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro (25[degrees]23'N, 101[degrees]00'W). On each sampling date, 100 larvae of each of the first 3 instars, were randomly collected and placed in 1-oz. (29.6 mL) plastic cups containing an artificial diet (Southland Products Incorporated) and incubated in a bioclimatic chamber at 25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D h, and 50-60% RH. Parasitoids were recovered, tagged, and preserved in 70% alcohol for further mounting and identification with taxonomic keys (Triplehorn & Johnson 2005). Confirmations of identifications were made by Dr. Alejandro Gonzalez Hernandez (Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico).

Entomopathogenic fungi from dead larvae were cultured in moist chambers and purified in an artificial medium of potato dextrose agar (PDA) complemented with corn liquor for Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuilleiman and V8-Agar for Nomuraea rileyi Farlow (Samson), at a pH of 6.0. The purified entomopathogens N. rileyi and B. bassiana were identified according to their microscopic and macroscopic characteristics (Barnett 1986).

Larvae with symptoms of viral infection were processed by taking samples of occlusion bodies (OBs) and dying the preparations with 0.4% Giemsa stain. Identification was made at the Parasitology Dept., based on the OBs that showed polyhedric characteristics of the nucleopolyhedrovirus group (NPV).

Parasitism (as a percentage) was calculated based on the total number of larvae of S. frugiperda that were positive for parasitoids and entomopathogens divided by the total number of FAW larvae collected.

Altogether, 1200 larvae of S. frugiperda were collected. Parasitoids and parasites such as Hymenoptera (Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Eulophidae) and Diptera (Tachinidae), as well as entomopathogens (Nucleopolyhedrovirus, N. rileyi and B. bassiana) killed 526 larvae (43.83%). Sixty-eight (5.7%) died from unknown causes and the remainder of the larvae (674) reached adulthood (Table 1). Mortality of some parasitoids (132, 11% of the total) occurred before emergence of the adults.

Parasitoids caused 35.25% parasitism of the larvae (Table 1). Armenta et al. (2008) reported a parasitism rate of 32.2% for Sonora, Mexico. Braconidae was the best represented with 261 specimens (21.75% of total parasitism), in which 257 were Chelonus insularis (21.42%), Ch. cautus (0.25%) and Ch. sonorensis (0.08%) (Table 2). Molina-Ochoa et al. (2004) reported similar percent of parasitism in Michoacan Mexico (45.3%).

Ichneumonidae showed low levels of parasitism (1.17%). This information is similar to that reported by Murua et al. (2006). Pristomerus sp. presented a low level of parasitism (0.42%), similar to the 0.24% reported by Rufz-Najera et al. (2007) (Table 2). Chelonus sonorensis showed a parasitism level of 0.75%, contrasting with data from Cruz-Sosa (2007), who found it to be the most abundant species in Oaxaca, Mexico. Euplectrus plathyphenae (Eulophidae) showed 0.42% parasitism. Only 0.92% parasitism by tachinid flies was found in the present study. Mortalities caused by the entomopathogens, NPV, N. rileyi, and B. bassiana were of 2.0, 0.75 and 0.08%, respectively (Table 2).

SUMMARY

Larvae of the first 3 instars of the fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) were collected in corn landraces in Buenavista, Coahuila, Mexico, in 2009. A total of 1,200 larvae of FAW were examined in search for biological control agents. Two species of Hyphomycetes entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuilleimin and Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) (Samson) and 1 nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae) were found. Three species of Braconidae, 2 species of Ichneumonidae, 1 species of Eulophidae, and 1 species of Tachinidae were recovered from FAW larvae.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Dr. Alejandro Gonzalez Hernandez for identification and confirmation of parasitoids.

REFERENCED CITED

ARMENTA-CARDENAS, I., CORTEZ, M. E., COLIN, A. M. M., PEREZ, M. J., AND BAHENA, J. F. 2008. Reporte preliminar de parasitoides asociados a gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith en el sur de Sonora, Mexico, pp. 80-83 En Memorias del XXXI Congreso Nacional de Control Biologico. Soc. Mex. Contr. Biol. Noviembre 17-21, 2008. Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

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MOLINA-OCHOA, J., CARPENTER, J. E., LEZAMA-GUTIERREZ, R., FOSTER J. E., GONZALEZ-RAMIREZ, M., ANGEL-SAHAGUN, C. A., AND FARIAS-LARIOS J. 2004. Natural distribution of hymenopteran parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in Mexico. Florida Entomol. 87: 461-472.

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CLAUDIO RIOS-VELASCO (1), GABRIEL GALLEGOS-MORALES (1), JHONATHAN CAMBERO-CAMPOS (1), ERNESTO CERNA-CHAVEZ (1), MA. CRISTINA DEL RINCON-CASTRO (2) AND RITA VALENZUELA-GARCIA (1)

(1) Department of Parasitology, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, C.P. 25315

E-mail: riveclaus@gmail.com

(2) Departamento de Alimentos, Division de Ciencias de la Vida, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Universidad de Guanajuato, Ex-Hacienda El Copal, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. Irapuato-Silao Km 9
TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE OF PARASITISM OP NATURAL ENEMIES OP SPODOPTERA
FRUGIPERDA LARVAE POUND IN CORN LANDRACES IN BUENAVISTA, COAHUILA,
2009.

Date (Month   Parasitized   Parasitoids   % of parasitism
and day) *      larvae        emerged         by date

08-Jul             6             6               6
15-Jul            33            18              33
22-Jul            29            18              29
29-Jul            56            43              56
05-Aug            51            26              51
12-aug            69            29              69
19-Aug            35            30              35
26-Aug            32            28              32
02-sep            24            19              24
09-sep            31            30              31
16-sep            30            21              30
25-sep            27            23              27

Total            423           291              35.25

                     Entomopathogens

Date (Month                                     Died from
and day) *    NPV   N. rileyi   B. bassiana   unknown causes

08-Jul         1        0            0               0
15-Jul         4        0            0               8
22-Jul         3        0            0              12
29-Jul         0        0            0              13
05-Aug         4        0            0              11
12-aug         2        2            0               5
19-Aug         2        0            0               2
26-Aug         1        1            0               0
02-sep         1        0            1               2
09-sep         0        0            0               0
16-sep         3        5            1              13
25-sep         3        1            0               2

Total         24        9            2              68

NPV = Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

* In each sampling date 100 total larvae were randomly collected.

TABLE 2. NATURAL ENEMIES OP SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA LARVAE POUND IN
CORN LANDRACES IN BUENAVISTA, SALTILLO, COAHUILA, 2009.

                                     Jul                 Aug

Natural enemies                8   15   22   29   5    12   19   26

Hymenoptera

  Braconidae
    Chelonus insularis         0    8    7   39   17   26   19   13
    Chelonus cautus            1    0    0    0    0    0    2    0
    Chelonus sonorensi         1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

  Ichneumonidae
    Campoletis sonorensis      0    0    0    1    0    3    0    0
    Pristomerus sp.            0    1    0    0    0    2    0    0

  Eulophidae
    Euplectrus plathyphenae    0    0    2    0    0    0    1    0

  Diptera
    Tachinidae
    Archytas marmoratus        0    5    6    0    0    0    0    0

Entomopathogens
    Nomuraea rileyi            0    0    0    0    0    2    0    1
    Beauveria bassiana         0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    NPV                        1    4    3    0    4    2    2    1

Total                          3   18   18   40   21   35   24   15

                                      Sep

Natural enemies                2    9    16   25   Total   % Parasitism

Hymenoptera

  Braconidae
    Chelonus insularis         38   29   26   35    257       21.42
    Chelonus cautus             0    0    0    0      3        0.25
    Chelonus sonorensi          0    0    0    0      1        0.08

  Ichneumonidae
    Campoletis sonorensis       5    0    0    0      9        0.75
    Pristomerus sp.             1    0    0    1      5        0.42

  Eulophidae
    Euplectrus plathyphenae     0    2    0    0      5        0.42

  Diptera
    Tachinidae
    Archytas marmoratus         0    0    0    0     11        0.92

Entomopathogens
    Nomuraea rileyi             0    0    5    1      9        0.75
    Beauveria bassiana          1    0    1    0      2        0.16
    NPV                         1    0    3    3     24        2.00

Total                          46   31   35   40    326       27.17
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