Narrative accounts of Research for Teaching the Processes of Science.
Sciences education (Psychological aspects)
Thought and thinking (Educational aspects)
|Author:||Clopton, Joe R.|
|Publication:||Name: The American Biology Teacher Publisher: National Association of Biology Teachers Audience: Academic; Professional Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences; Education Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 National Association of Biology Teachers ISSN: 0002-7685|
|Issue:||Date: Jan, 2011 Source Volume: 73 Source Issue: 1|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research; 200 Management dynamics Computer Subject: Company business management|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States|
To enhance learning about the processes of scientific thinking, this paper suggests that students read and write summaries of narrative accounts of research. Background is provided on the nature of narrative, learning from narrative versus expository texts, surface and deep approaches to studying, and the advantages of writing over testing for assessment. A list of narrative sources is provided.
Key Words: Narrative; scientific thinking; writing; testing; constructivism; objectivism.
"Stories bind. They are connective tissues. They are basic to who we are."
Terry Tempest Williams
Our minds seek order. Through a chaos of input we incessantly sort, grasping for important details and discarding the irrelevant. Always in search of connections that give meaning, we structure the pieces into plausible scenarios, store our understanding in memory, and then move on.
Often, the accounts we distill from our experiences are stories. Commonly concerning interactions with other people, these show cause-and-effect relations and provide explanations. But stories--narratives--are not the only way we organize and communicate. In science, information is structured not around human protagonists but rather within frameworks inherent to the phenomena themselves, Indeed, textbooks, by necessity, are written largely in an expository style, using narrative only sparingly. The term expository refers to a style that describes and/or explains; the goal is to present factual information about structure, function, or events.
In my introductory biology course, I require students to read several narrative accounts of research and write a summary of each. My goal has been to enhance learning about the processes of scientific thinking and investigation. Here, toward a further understanding of this approach, I examine the use of narrative in the teaching of science and discuss writing as a method of assessment. For both narrative and writing I will consider both the probable advantages and also the uncertainties.
* The Nature of Narrative
Although no single definition is fully adequate, a story (or an account written in a narrative style) clearly has a higher level of organization than, say, a paragraph that merely describes an object. Minimally, there is a sequence of actions or events that unfold through time and are causally related. Definitions commonly include a human protagonist in some predicament, efforts to resolve it, and the outcome (Robinson & Hawpe, 1986). Here, the word story will refer only to nonfiction.
When creating a story we strive to condense, shape, and convert an experience into a form that shows how and why things happened (Robinson & Hawpe, 1986; Wilson, 2001). Because needed information is often missing, especially about the thoughts of others, we make inferences to fill in gaps. In the best cases a story is true to reality; representation is faithful, causal relations are plausible, and any conjecture remains reasonable.
Although narrative, like science, seeks cause-and-effect relations that explain phenomena, the methods and standards are very different. Stories are tested by scrutiny; the key to acceptance is plausibility. Despite efforts to be true to reality, there is an interpretation unique to the teller. So there may be more than one persuasive account, and acceptance may then be based on the personal needs of listeners. By contrast, in science conclusions must be supported by evidence and are subject to verification by others; judgment is withheld until data are available to support conclusions. Alternative ideas are sorted by further research, and those not supported are discarded.
Science seeks truths that widely apply and are not distorted by atypical events. But for a story the sample size is 1; indeed, storytellers love the anecdotes that science abhors. Further, because narrative is rooted in human predicaments, it arouses emotions, and these can influence interpretation. And while science selects only those problems accessible to its methods, narrative tackles whatever comes along.
The stories we construct to explain daily events are fraught with uncertainty. But right or wrong, they allow us to move on. If the standards of science were routinely imposed on everyday affairs, our lives might grind to a halt.
Quite naturally, scientists may distrust stories. Indeed, suggesting that narrative be incorporated into science education might seem like a giant step backwards; an expository style unfettered by human frailties would appear to be more appropriate. However, science is a human activity When introducing its methods to students, it seems reasonable to include all the dimensions of ourselves. The narrative genre is well suited for this, for its specialty is human predicaments; a scientist doing research is immersed in a problem and attempting to find a solution.
* Understanding the Processes of Science
Educational standards emphasize that students need to learn not only basic scientific facts and theories but also the methods and processes of scientific investigation. Indeed, proficiency in the latter has been mandated in the National Science Education Standards for grades K-12 (National Research Council, 1996); it is equally important for undergraduates (Gottfried et al., 1993; Handelsman et al., 2004). The national standards especially recommend greater emphasis on active inquiry; students must conduct investigations first hand.
But for inquires into famous biological discoveries or ongoing research, students must use publications or the Web (National Research Council, 1996: pp. 31, 33). One recommendation is to have students read and report on such an account (pp. 201-204). Often these are written at least partly in a narrative style.
* Research Stories
Table 1 presents a sample of books and articles that consist of, or at least contain, accounts of biologists doing research. Some have a narrative structure throughout; others are partly expository. Reviews are provided to help with evaluation. Importantly, I hope the selections fulfill E. O. Wilson's (2001) prescription that "the central task of science writing for a broad audience is ... to make science human and enjoyable without betraying nature."
Permission to photocopy and payment to publishers can be arranged easily through the Copyright Clearance Center (http://www.copyright.com). Charges commonly are 5 to 15 cents per page per student.
* Genres & Learning
The suggestion here, that having students read narrative accounts of research may enhance their learning about the processes of science, has not been experimentally tested. Indeed, studies comparing student performance after reading narrative or expository texts are few. And the results of these have been mixed: sometimes narrative was better, sometimes expository writing, and sometimes neither. Clearly, there is considerable complexity. See, for example, Wolfe and Mienko (2007); learning was measured in undergraduates who had read a narrative or expository account of the human circulatory system.
* Writing as a Method of Assessment
In my introductory biology course, I use many of the sources listed in Table 1. I have students write a summary of each assigned article or book excerpt and then, in a separate section, give opinions and personal relevance. Of course, reading these papers consumes time; for ways to reduce the workload, see Madigan (1987) and Moore (1994b).
Writing has been widely advocated as a powerful way to stimulate thinking and, thereby, enhance learning (Moore, 1994a; MacKenzie & Gardner, 2006). It forces engagement with new material and helps establish connections with prior knowledge. It generates problems that require reflection; the solutions must then be expressed in meaningful sentences. These are then the basis for additional thought; they can be examined for flaws, revised, reorganized, combined with additional research, or discarded. Thinking, therefore, acquires a clear and solid reality, evolving far beyond the embryonic rudiments floating loosely in the mind. Depth of understanding is increased, and long-term retention may be enhanced. It is only a minor stretch to say that thinking without paper or screen is analogous to sculpting without metal or clay.
Experimental evidence supporting claims that writing tasks enhance learning has been accumulating. However, the writing-learning relationship is not simple; research has produced a mixture of positive and negative results, and many issues remain unresolved (Klein, 1999). For more on the processes in both writing and reading, see Nelson (2001).
* Assessment That Fosters Learning with Depth
Students, like all people, are strategic. The method used to assess their performance strongly influences how they study (Entwistle & Entwistle, 1991). This has been shown in comparisons of testing and writing. In a study of 206 education students, Scouller (1998) found that surface approaches were more likely when preparing for a multiple-choice exam, which was perceived as requiring lower levels of intellectual processing. Deep approaches were more likely for doing a take-home essay; higher intellectual skills were expected.
When using a surface approach, students aim to recognize and reproduce information. Facts and ideas are memorized, accepted passively, and not necessarily understood; reflection is minimal. Indeed, testing encourages memorizing, distorting attempts at meaningful understanding; in excess it is contrary to educational recommendations (Entwistle & Entwistle, 1991; National Research Council, 1996: p. 52; Tynjala, 2001). But with a deep approach the effort to understand is greater. Facts and ideas are connected to organizing principles and to previous knowledge; thinking is more critical (Entwistle & Entwistle, 1991).
A deep approach is consistent with constructivism, a group of theories that have emerged from cognitive and educational research. A central theme is that the human mind actively constructs knowledge and meaning. New knowledge is constructed from both new input and preexisting learning. Understanding is arrived at by the learner rather than being imposed directly by external sources (Biggs, 1996).
In an older view, objectivism, a person acquires new knowledge by receiving and storing that transmitted by others (Biggs, 1996; Nelson, 2001). A student who accurately reproduces facts and ideas is viewed as having learned; the higher a test score, the greater the learning. Objectivism still dominates college science education in practice (Walczyk & Ramsey, 2003). But in the education literature, constructivism has risen to dominance (Biggs, 1996). There has been "a major paradigm shift" (Fisher & Kibby, 1996). Testing is consistent with objectivism, whereas writing is highly constructive.
* Fewer Topics, Greater Depth
When students read an account of research, considerable time is spent on a single topic, perhaps sacrificing broader coverage. But this is consistent with recent suggestions. National standards (National Research Council, 1996: p. 113) recommend more emphasis on just a few fundamental concepts. Recommendations for college biology courses are in agreement: "the traditional survey course with its concern about 'coverage' is probably outmoded" (Gottfried et al., 1993). Bruce Alberts (2005) suggests that "we stop our current, counterproductive attempts to teach broad survey college courses ... there is simply no time to pursue any one aspect of the field in enough depth to make the science come alive."
* Opinions & Possibilities
Despite the uncertainties, the suggestions given here are consistent with current thinking. Narrative accounts of research, minimally, appear to be a way of planting seeds--memories that foster interest and then can be nurtured with information from other sources.
The few published opinions concur. Moore (1994a) discusses the importance of having students read outside the textbook, and Carter and Mayer (1988) describe "a great body of literature that ... delineates the scientific process far better than do most textbooks." Stoddart and McKinley (2006) note that psychology students are more motivated to read stories than textbooks, and student ratings of such courses are higher. "Richer, more elaborate neural networks" may result from combining stories with textbook information. And Martin and Brouwer (1991) state that "the narrative mode is essential to a science education that values the belief that students must have a personal engagement with the ideas they are to learn." Stories allow the passions, doubts, and struggles of scientists to be experienced vicariously; they work not by the brute force of logic, but by the gentleness of empathy Teaching imbued with this wholeness portrays science authentically in all its richness.
Although data on the use of narrative are still scarce and unknowns abound, teaching is partly an art and always will be. So in the interim, it seems, we should still proceed with the planting of seeds.
This paper was motivated by the enthusiasm of hundreds of students who have shared extraordinary depth of thought in their wonderful writing.
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JOE R. CLOPTON is an instructor in the Life Sciences Department, Santa Rosa Junior College, 1501 Mendocino Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401; voice mail: 707-527-4999, ext. 5082
Table 1. A sample of literature with narrative accounts of biologists engaged in research. Book or Article Content Evolution The Reluctant Mr. Darwin: An Describes Darwin's life and some of Intimate Portrait of Charles his work after the Beagle voyage. Darwin and the Making of His Illuminates his unpublished 1844 Theory of Evolution manuscript, barnacle studies, by David Quammen interactions with Wallace, and the W.W. Norton, 2006 writing of The Origin of Species. (For more on Darwin and Wallace, see Quammen's The Song of the Dodo, winner of a Burroughs medal.) The Beak of the Finch: A Story An account of the Galapagos finch of Evolution in Our Time work led by Peter and Rosemary by Jonathan Weiner Grant. Measurements over many years Alfred A. Knopf, 1994 have revealed changes by natural selection. Into the Jungle: Great The nine chapters concern Darwin's Adventures in the Search for voyage and early work; Wallace's Evolution work and communication with Darwin; by Sean B. Carroll Bates (mimicry); Dubois (Java Man); Pearson Education, 2009 Andrews (dinosaurs); Alvarez (K-T boundary); Latimer (coelacanth); Allison (sickle-cell); Ruud and DeVries (icefish). T. rex and the Crater of Doom Begins with a vivid description of by Walter Alvarez the extraterrestrial impact 65 Princeton University Press, million years ago and describes the 1997 research that led to the acceptance of the impact theory of dinosaur extinction. Digging Dinosaurs An account of the search for baby by John R. Horner and James dinosaur fossils in Montana. Gives Gorman insights into how paleontologists Workman Publishing, 1988 locate likely sites, find fossils, and interpret their results. Ecology & Natural History The View from Bald Hill: The authors describe their work at Thirty Years in on Arizona the Research Ranch in Arizona, a Grassland control area for comparison with by Carl E. Bock and Jane H. adjacent grazed ranches. Considers Bock fire, drought, grazing, herps, University of California birds, and predation on grasshoppers Press, 2000 and rodents. The Hidden Forest: The Luoma visits the Andrews Biography of on Ecosystem Experimental Forest in Oregon and by Jon R. Luoma describes research on the old growth Henry Holt, 1999 ecosystem that is changing the science of forestry. Conclusion focuses on the value of large- scale, long-term studies. Elephant Memories: Thirteen Moss describes her early work on Years in the Life of on Kenya's Amboseli population, in Elephant Family which all of the several hundred by Cynthia Moss members are known and named. William Morrow, 1988 Includes population dynamics, birth, death, social relationships, mating, migration, and relations with humans; many scenes involving the individuals she knows best are included. The Tapir's Morning Bath: Royte describes Barro Colorado Mysteries of the Tropical Rain Island, capturing both the Forest and the Scientists Who complexity of the tropics and the Are Trying to Solve Them diverse personalities of the by Elizabeth Royte researchers. Details work on Houghton Mifflin, 2001 behavior and hormones in monkeys, tent making in fruitbats, population biology of spiny rats, Lepidopteran ears and bat evasion, leafcutter ant impact on trees, flowers and their visitors, and arthropods on epiphytes. Eye of the Albatross: Visions Conveying his love of seabirds and of Hope and Survival the sea, Safina visits researchers by Carl Safina studying the Laysan Albatross on one Henry Holt, 2002 of the Hawaiian Islands. One female is satellite tracked on feeding trips that sometimes cover thousands of miles. Naturalist In accounts that show his values and by Edward O. Wilson approaches to problems, Wilson Island Press, 1994 describes his travels in search of ants, work on their taxonomy, biogeography and chemical communication, Florida Keys experiment with Simberloff, work Animal Behavior with MacArthur and Holldobler, synthesis of sociobiology, insights into biophilia, and efforts to preserve biodiversity. Crickets and Katydids, Dethier recounts collecting Concerts and Solos orthopterans for study of their by Vincent G. Dethier songs at a field lab in New Harvard University Press, 1992 Hampshire. Conveys the knowledge, curiosity, keen senses, persistence, and luck needed to find the 41 species. The focus on one behavior, group, and region teaches much about nature's richness and complexity; includes keys. In the Shadow of Man In his introduction, S. J. Gould by Jane Goodall describes Goodall's work as "one of Houghton Mifflin, Revised the Western world's great scientific Edition, 1988 achievements." Goodall reveals her persistence through the frustration dur-ing her early work, and her eventually success in observing all aspects of their lives, giving us a valuable basis to better understand ourselves. In a Patch of Fireweed Injecting his great curiosity and by Bernd Heinrich wonder, Heinrich reveals each step Harvard University Press, 1984 of his thinking as he struggles with scientific problems: thermoregulation in moths and bees, aggregation by whirligigs, leaf manipulation by caterpillars, and behavior of dung beetles, antlions, and wasps. Golden Shadows, Flying Hooves Schaller describes his study of the by George B. Schaller lions of the Serengeti, immersion Alfred A. Knopf, 1973 into their lives, and methods of patient observation. He contrasts this with the rushing tourists, noting that many people are unaware of the joy of contemplation. Curious Naturalists This Nobelist describes his studies by Niko Tinbergen on caterpillar camouflage and on the Basic Books, 1958 behavior of digger wasps, Arctic birds, falcons, and gulls. The wasp work, especially, illustrates field experimentation. Climate Change "Butterfly lessons" Kolbert describes how global warming by Elizabeth Kolbert is causing earlier reproduction and The New Yorker range shifts. Visits with Jan. 9, 2006, pp. 32-39 researchers studying distributions of butterflies, critical photoperiods in mosquitoes, and past plant migrations. Material from this and other articles is in Kolbert's Field Notes from a Catastrophe. Microbes & Disease In Cold Pursuit: Medical Details epidemiological and Intelligence Investigates the experimental studies on colds, Common Cold including higher incidences during by J. Barnard Gilmore inclement weather, causation by Stoddart Publishing, 1998 viruses but not chilling, infections with no symptoms, transmission by aerosols versus contact with contaminated surfaces, and various unresolved issues. "Marshall's hunch" Barry Marshall and Robin Warren won by Terence Monmaney the 2005 Nobel for finding that The New Yorker most peptic ulcers are caused by H. Sept. 20, 1993, pp. 64-72 pylori and are cur able with antibiotics. Describes the initial skepticism, Marshall's swallowing of a culture, and other research. The Discovery of the Germ: Describes the research of Pasteur, Twenty Years That Transformed Lister, Koch, and others that the Way We Think About Disease transformed the germ theory of by John Waller disease from a disputed speculation Columbia University Press, into a central tenet of medicine, 2002 overturning the previous paradigm (that illness, for example, involved "a buildup of peccant humours" and could be treated by bleeding). Diseases (Nonmicrobial) "The Edmonton protocol" A method for transplanting insulin- by Jerome Groopman producing islet cells into diabetics The New Yorker was developed in 1999 at the Feb. 10, 2003, pp. 48-57 University of Alberta, Edmonton. But because of a shortage of donors, hope for most diabetics still lies in stem cell research. A Change of Heart How the Describes the study, begun in 1948, Framingham Heart Study Helped which led to a preventative Unravel the Mysteries of approach for cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular Disease changing the practice of medicine. by Daniel Levy and Susan Brink Describes the design of the study Alfred A. Knopf, 2005 and the discoveries that increased blood pressure and blood cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were risk factors. Drugs "Alexander Fleming and Details Fleming's discovery of antibiotics" In: Medicine's 10 penicillin and its antibacterial Greatest Discoveries properties; continues through the by Meyer Friedman and Gerald extensive studies of Florey, Chain, Friedland Heatley, and colleagues that led to Yale University Press, 1998 large scale production for medical use. Other chapters concern anatomy, blood circulation, bacteria, vaccination, anesthesia, X rays, tissue culture, cholesterol, and DNA. Animal Physiology To Know a Fly Dethier recounts, in an often by Vincent G. Dethier humorous way, his research on Holden-Day, 1962 hunger, thirst, and sensation in flies; provides numerous lessons on designing physiological experiments. Female Fertility and the Body Frisch discusses her work on the Fat Connection relationship between body fat and by Rose E. Frisch human reproduction. Percent body fat University of Chicago Press, predicts onset of menstrual cycles; 2002 exercise lowers the risk of breast and reproductive-system cancers. Describes the roles of estrogen and leptin. "Rethinking the brain" Fascinated with birdsong, Fernando by Michael Specter Nottebohm discovered neurogenesis in The New Yorker adult canary brains, overturning a July 23, 2001, pp. 42-53 basic dogma of neuroscience. This was subsequently found in rodents Classical Genetics and primates by Elizabeth Gould. Research is now aimed at medical applications. Gregor Mendel: Planting the Summarizes Mendel's life and work Seeds of Genetics and captures the embryonic state of by Simon Mawer cellular biology in his time. Harry N. Abrams, 2006 Previous research had revealed (companion to an exhibit) dominance and recessiveness but fell short of his quantitative approach. Summarizes experiments year by year and explains what Mendel did and did not know and discover, clarifying recent textbook accounts. "Inside the cell: chromosomes Part IV of this book describes and genes" research on heredity after Mendel: In: Blueprints-Solving the Weismann and Boveri (chromosomes), Mystery of Evolution Morgan, Sturtevant, and Muller by Maitland A. Edey and (Drosophilo), and also the merging Donald C. Johanson of genetics and evolution into the Little, Brown, 1989 modern synthesis. "Lord of the flies" Describes the career of Seymour by Jonathan Weiner Benzes; known for simple but The New Yorker pioneering experiments in Drosophilu April 5, 1999, pp. 44-51 behavioral genetics. He and his students found genes for clocks, mating, learning, memory, brain degeneration, and longevity. Relevance to humans is noted. Molecular Genetics "Inside the chromosome: DNA Part V of this book includes and RNA" Miescher (separation of nuclei from In: Blueprints-Solving the cells and chemical analysis of DNA), Mystery of Evolution Beadle and Tatum (Neurosporo), by Maitland A. Edey and Griffith and Avery (bacterial Donald C. Johanson transformation), Watson, Crick, Little, Brown, 1989 Franklin et al. (DNA), Crick et al. (genetic code), Meselson, Stahl, and Kornberg (DNA). "Rosalind Elsie Franklin" Describes Franklin's life and In: Nobel Prize Women in research on coal, DNA, and RNA Science: Their Lives, viruses. Details DNA work with Struggles, and Momentous Gosling, the roles of Wilkins, Discoveries Watson, and Crick, their different by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne personalities, and the inter actions National Academy Press, 1998 among them. Other chapters cover Elion (drugs), Levi-Montalcini (nerve growth factor), Nusslein- Volhard (development), McClintock (genetics), and Yalow (radioimmunoassay). Francis Crick: Discoverer of Details the work on DNA with Watson, the Genetic Code including fascinating anecdotes. by Matt Ridley Also covers genetic code research HarperCollins, 2006 and studies on the brain and consciousness. DNA: The Secret of Life An overview of half a century of by James D. Watson with Andrew molecular genetics. Watson discusses Berry his early work, including that on Alfred A. Knopf, 2003 DNA. Other topics include RNA, gene regulation, recombinant DNA technology, products and related patent and profit issues, insertion of genes into plants, agricultural applications, Human Genome Project, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and many applications. Genetic Engineering Glowing Genes: A Revolution in Describes work on green fluorescent Biotechnology protein (GFP) and aequorin--first by Marc Zimmer isolated from jellyfish. Describes Prometheus Books, 2005 the sequencing, cloning, and expression of the GFP gene in E. coli and C. elegens, use of GFP in cellular research, GFP color mutants, and applications. A Broad Collection Doing Biology The 17 chapters concern Kettlewell by Joel B. Hagen, Douglas and natural selection; Whittaker's Allchin, and Fred Singer five-kingdom system; Margulis and HarperCollins, 1996 endosymbiosis; Stevens and sex chromosomes; Morgan's mutants; Avery and bacterial transformation; Krebs and respiration; Mitchell and chemiosmosis; Cannon and homeostasis; Selye and stress; Eijkman and beriberi; science and acupuncture; Burnet and antibodies; Tinbergen and sticklebacks; Hardy, Weinberg, Haldane and population genetics; Simpson and biogeography; and Carson and Silent Spring. Book or Article Reviews & Recognition a Evolution The Reluctant Mr. Darwin: An Am Sci 94: 564 Intimate Portrait of Charles NYTBR 8/27/06, p. 7 Darwin and the Making of His Science 314: 1086 Theory of Evolution by David Quammen W.W. Norton, 2006 The Beak of the Finch: A Story BioSci 45: 222 of Evolution in Our Time Nature 371: 27 by Jonathan Weiner New Sci 8/13/94, p. 39 Alfred A. Knopf, 1994 NYTBR 5/22/94, p. 7 Morrison list Pulitzer Prize Into the Jungle: Great ABT 71: 375. Adventures in the Search for Evolution by Sean B. Carroll Pearson Education, 2009 T. rex and the Crater of Doom Nature 387: 33 by Walter Alvarez New Sci 8/16/97, p. 40 Princeton University Press, 1997 Digging Dinosaurs Am Sci 77: 381 by John R. Horner and James Nature 338: 552 Gorman NYTBR 12/25/88, p. 11 Workman Publishing, 1988 Morrison list Ecology & Natural History The View from Bald Hill: Thirty Years in on Arizona Grassland by Carl E. Bock and Jane H. Bock University of California Press, 2000 The Hidden Forest: The Am Sci 88: 78 Biography of on Ecosystem Audubon 7/99, p. 124 by Jon R. Luoma Not Hist 7/99, p. 60 Henry Holt, 1999 Elephant Memories: Thirteen Am Sci 77: 190 Years in the Life of on Not Hist 3/88, p. 80 Elephant Family by Cynthia Moss William Morrow, 1988 Nature 334: 480 NYTBR 3/27/88, p. 10 The Tapir's Morning Bath: Am Sci 90: 79 Mysteries of the Tropical Rain New Sci 11/3/0 1, p. 54 Forest and the Scientists Who NYTBR 10/7/01, p. 15 Are Trying to Solve Them by Elizabeth Royte Houghton Mifflin, 2001 Science 294: 1289 Eye of the Albatross: Visions Am Sci 90:378 of Hope and Survival Not Hist 5/02, p. 90 by Carl Safina NYRB 10/10/04, p. 4 Henry Holt, 2002 NYTBR 9/8/02, p. 18 Burroughs Medal NAC Award Naturalist Am Sci 84: 74 by Edward O. Wilson BioSci 45: 792 Island Press, 1994 Not Hist 12/94, p. 80 Nature 372: 291 New Sci 2/4/95, p. 42 NYTBR 10/16/94, p. 15 Science 266: 1261 Animal Behavior Crickets and Katydids, Ecology 75: 860 Concerts and Solos New Sci 11/21/92, p.41 by Vincent G. Dethier Q Rev Biol 68: 598 Harvard University Press, 1992 Smithsonian 12/92, p. 147 Burroughs Medal In the Shadow of Man NYTBR 12/3/72, p. 6 by Jane Goodall SciAm 12/71, p. 106 Houghton Mifflin, Revised Morrison list Edition, 1988 In a Patch of Fireweed BioSci 35: 510 by Bernd Heinrich NYTBR 4/84, p. 16 Harvard University Press, 1984 Heinrich won a Burroughs Medal for Mind of the Raven Golden Shadows, Flying Hooves NYTBR 11/11173, p. 10 by George B. Schaller Alfred A. Knopf, 1973 Curious Naturalists by Niko Tinbergen Basic Books, 1958 Climate Change "Butterfly lessons" Reprinted in BASW2007 by Elizabeth Kolbert Kolbert won an NAC The New Yorker Award for "The climate of Jan. 9, 2006, pp. 32-39 man" articles Microbes & Disease In Cold Pursuit: Medical Intelligence Investigates the Common Cold by J. Barnard Gilmore Stoddart Publishing, 1998 "Marshall's hunch" by Terence Monmaney The New Yorker Sept. 20, 1993, pp. 64-72 The Discovery of the Germ: Twenty Years That Transformed the Way We Think About Disease by John Waller Columbia University Press, 2002 Diseases (Nonmicrobial) "The Edmonton protocol" by Jerome Groopman The New Yorker Feb. 10, 2003, pp. 48-57 A Change of Heart How the Nature 435: 428 Framingham Heart Study Helped Science 309: 1679 Unravel the Mysteries of Cardiovascular Disease by Daniel Levy and Susan Brink Alfred A. Knopf, 2005 Drugs "Alexander Fleming and HistSci 37: 113 antibiotics" In: Medicine's 10 New Sci 5/1/99, p. 54 Greatest Discoveries by Meyer Friedman and Gerald Friedland Yale University Press, 1998 Animal Physiology To Know a Fly by Vincent G. Dethier Holden-Day, 1962 Female Fertility and the Body New Sci 7/20/02, p. 52 Fat Connection Science 299: 827 by Rose E. Frisch University of Chicago Press, 2002 "Rethinking the brain" Reprinted in BASW2002 by Michael Specter The New Yorker July 23, 2001, pp. 42-53 Classical Genetics Gregor Mendel: Planting the Nature 444: 148 (exhibit) Seeds of Genetics Science 314: 1685 by Simon Mawer (exhibit) Harry N. Abrams, 2006 (companion to an exhibit) "Inside the cell: chromosomes NYTBR 4/9/89, p. 34 and genes" Q Rev Biol 66: 328 In: Blueprints-Solving the Mystery of Evolution by Maitland A. Edey and Donald C. 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