Medicinal plants used for dermatological disorders: a study of Uttarakhand State in India.
Abstract: Worldwide, from the historical past, skin diseases have serious impacts on the quality of human life. Although attempts have been made to cure skin related disorders by applying modern medicines, skin diseases are still mainly cured by traditional healers in rural areas using plant species. In this context the specific objectives of this study were to identify and document the uses of plant species for curing skin diseases, to understand the skin related disorders and their treatment by traditional herbal healers. Sixty six herbal healers living across 13 districts of Uttarakhand state in India were interviewed using a structured questionnaire survey. One hundred and thirty three plant species were documented for use in curing 19 types of skin diseases such as, frost bite, pimples, itching, eczema, leprosy, bruises, carbuncles, small pox, scabies and wounds. Most of the species were used to cure a limited number of skin diseases, whereas a few species were used to cure over 5 types of skin diseases. Ageretum cornyzoides was used in curing 9 types of skin diseases including burns, septic wounds, scabies, swelling, boils, sores, cuts and wounds. Azadirachta indica, Vitex negundo, Woodfordia fruticosa, Allium cepa and Cuscuta reflexa were other important species used to cure 4-5 types of skin diseases. Since the modern system of medicine is unable to afford treatments for all types of skin diseases, the effective treatment of skin diseases using medicinal plants, as evident from the present study, will help to improve the quality of human life.

Keywords: skin diseases, medicinal plants, herbal healers, Uttarakhand
Article Type: Report
Subject: Medicinal plants (Health aspects)
Medicinal plants (Usage)
Skin diseases (Care and treatment)
Author: Kala, Chandra Prakash
Pub Date: 09/22/2011
Publication: Name: Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism Publisher: National Herbalists Association of Australia Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 National Herbalists Association of Australia ISSN: 1033-8330
Issue: Date: Fall, 2011 Source Volume: 23 Source Issue: 3
Product: Product Code: 0139913 Medicinal Plants NAICS Code: 1119 Other Crop Farming SIC Code: 2833 Medicinals and botanicals
Organization: Organization: World Health Organization
Geographic: Geographic Scope: India Geographic Code: 9INDI India
Accession Number: 271323810
Full Text: Introduction

Since the human skin is directly exposed to the outer environment, it is the most sensitive body part to changes in the environment and hence most susceptible to diseases based on environmental health. Being a barrier and defensive layer between pathogens including external damages and internal environment of human body the skin not only functions as the protection but also contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat, cold, pressure, vibration and tissue injury (Madison, 2003, Proksch 2008). The skin regulates heat, acts as a storage center for lipids and water and is a water resistant barrier preventing loss of essential nutrients from the body (Connor 2003, Madison 2003, Proksch 2008). Therefore any abnormality in skin and its function may have a large impact on human health due to increasing susceptibility of internal body organs to the external environment.

Historically skin diseases have had serious impacts on the quality of human life across the world. Some 3000 varieties of skin diseases, including many rare ones, are known to medical science (Anon 2005). Despite this fact skin diseases generally have been given low priority by health authorities. Although many people do not see these diseases as a major problem, skin diseases impose a severe impact on wellbeing. Many skin diseases have a long history and in many cases are restricted to geographical areas and the local culture. Besides a number of environmental factors, heredity plays an important role in transmission of some skin diseases from one generation to another (Thappa 2009). Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in some developed countries, even though it is largely preventable.

Although little attention is being paid to skin diseases in comparison to other fatal diseases, skin diseases are among the most common diseases seen in the primary health care setting in tropical areas, causing unnecessary suffering and even death. At any given time one out of every three people in the United States suffers from a skin disease (Thorpe 2004, Anon 2005). The World Health Organisation showed that skin diseases were associated with mortality rates of 20 000 in Sub Saharan Africa in 2001 (Mathers 2006). Although mortality rates are comparatively lower than other diseases, skin diseases are common and enhance morbidity through disfigurement, disability or symptoms such as intractable itch, reducing the quality of life (Hay 1994). In America skin diseases are placed in the top 15 groups of medical conditions for which the health care costs have grown since 1987 (Thorpe 2004).

In the present era of global climate change with the explosion of human population and increasing interactions among people of different countries, the risk of spreading skin related diseases is quite high. Learning the causes and practices used in curing skin diseases can help people to make better choices and reduce the risk of developing disabling and potential deadly diseases. This study was conducted in the Uttarakhand state of India with a view to understanding the use of plant species for curing various skin diseases.

Methods

Study area

The Indian state of Uttarakhand is well known for its rich biodiversity and cultural mosaic of diverse nature. The state is comprised of 13 districts and is bounded on the northwest by Himachal Pradesh, on the north by Tibet (China), on the east by Nepal, and on the south by Uttar Pradesh. The state possesses a wide altitudinal range from 210 m to 7,817 m over the total area of 53,485 [km.sup.2]. Uttarakhand covers about 12.18% of the total Indian Himalaya, 40% of its total area falls under different forest types, some of the major vegetation types classified along the altitudinal gradient are tropical, sub tropical, temperate, sub alpine and alpine (Kala 2010).

The total human population of the state is close to 8 480 000 of which 78% live in rural areas. Due to the geographical diversity and inaccessibility, a well known feature of the mountainous region, Uttarakhand has remained isolated from the rest of the agricultural plains of northern India and has thus preserved some of the old practices, traditions and ethnic norms for various resource use patterns. The sociocultural fabric in this region is characterised by diverse ethnic groups which have developed their own cultures based on available natural resources, giving rise to a cultural diversity. The rich plant diversity, geographical isolation and long period of people dependency on plants for curing diseases are some of the important factors for selection of Uttarakhand to carry out the present study.

Survey methods

Secondary sources

The extensive literature survey (including CSIR 1989, Paliwal 1990, Negi 1991, Jain 1991, Kala 2002, 2006, 2010, Gaur 1999, Maikhuri 2000, Badoni 2001, Phondani 2010) was carried out for the compilation of medicinal plants used in curing different types of skin diseases by various ethnic communities of Uttarakhand. The data was compiled on plant parts used in therapy and on the number of skin diseases cured by a plant species.

Fieldwork

Although the majority of information was collected from secondary sources, field surveys were also undertaken for gathering data on the availability and uses of medicinal plant species across various localities in the study area from tropical to alpine zones. The survey focused on collecting information using a semistructured questionnaire on types of ailments being cured by the traditional use of medicinal plants and plant parts used.

The information on skin diseases and their treatments was gathered from 60 traditional herbal healers. The healers were selected randomly for interviewing from a list of 200 traditional healers who were identified during community workshops. Five workshops were organised in different districts of Uttarakhand and various groups of indigenous people including herbal healers were invited to interact and help in documentation of their knowledge on medicinal plants for curing diseases. The data was cross checked by interviewing more than three healers on the specific uses of a plant species. In order to verify the identity of medicinal plant species field visits were undertaken with herbal healers.

Results

A large number of medicinal plants growing in various habitats and elevations were used by local people of Uttarakhand for curing dermatological problems. The present study resulted in the documentation of 132 plant species of which herbaceous plants were highest (n=77) followed by trees (26), shrubs (25) and 2 each in under shrub and woody climbers (Table 1). Species were used for curing 19 different types of skin diseases including frost bite, goiter, pimples, itching, eczema, leprosy, sores, bruises, carbuncles, burns, small pox, scabies, boils, gout, removal of lice, blisters, swelling, septic wounds, cuts and wounds (Table 2). Most of the species were used for curing a limited number of skin diseases, whereas a few species were used for curing over 5 types of skin diseases. Ageretum cornyzoides was used in curing 9 types of skin diseases including burns, septic wounds, scabies, swelling, boils, sores and cuts and wounds. Azadirachta indica, Vitex negundo, Woodfordia fruticosa, Allium cepa, Cuscuta reflexa, Shorea robusta and Skimmia laureola were other important species in their uses for curing 4-5 types of skin related diseases.

There were variations in the species used for curing particular skin diseases by the local people and traditional herbal healers. A total of 65 plant species were used for curing cuts and wounds, the highest number of species used for curing one particular type of skin related problem. Contrary to this Solanum nigrum was the only species used by healers and documented during the present investigation for treatment of goiter. Similarly for treatment of frost bite Juglans regia and Solanum tuberosum were the only herbs used. A total of 22 plant species were used in treatment of sores, 21 for boils, 17 for swelling, 15 each for leprosy and scabies, 13 for septic wounds, 12 for eczema, 11 for burns, 8 for small pox and 7 for itching.

The plant species used for skin diseases is dependent on their availability in nature. Of 132 medicinal plant species the following 22 are considered rare and endangered; Aconitum atrox, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Fritillaria roylei, Thalictrum foliolosum, Berberis aristata, Artemisia maritime, Delphinium cashmerianum, Gloriosa superb, Saussurea obvallata, Betula utilis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Swertia chiraita, Rheum austral, Rheum webbianum, Podophylum hexandrum, Hippophea salicifolia, Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia stracheyi, Arnebia benthamii, Rhododendron arboretum, Aegle marmelos, Lyonia ovalifolia and Waldhemia glabra.

Although the specific uses of species for skin ailments were disclosed by the interviewees, the specific dermatological use of 14 plant species was not disclosed, only that the species was used for certain types of skin diseases. These species were Arisaema jacquemontii, Artemisia japonica, Astragalus candolleanus, Berberis jaeschkeana, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis, Corydalis govaniana, Jasminum humile, Raphanus sativus, Saussurea costus, Thymus linearis, Annona squamosa, Pupulia lappacea and Drosera peltata.

Discussion

Traditionally the knowledge of treating skin diseases in India was restricted to a few specialised herbal healers and generally passed from one generation to another by word of mouth. Written documents were limited in which only a few dermatological problems were described. It is reported that the knowledge of allergic diseases harmful to the skin did not exist at that time (Thappa 2009). In 1991 the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India had about 2000 dermatologists for a population of 843 million. Although the situation has now changed and the number of dermatologists has increased, these dermatologists are concentrated in the cities and large towns (Thappa 2002). It is estimated that one in 20 people in India has some kind of skin disease (Kumar 1996). Seventy five percent of India's population lives in rural areas, with such a large population mainly treated by traditional healers with the help of bioresources available in the village and surrounding forest areas.

Furthermore the modern system of medicine is unable to afford treatments for all types of skin diseases. There are reports claiming shortage of basic skills in the management of skin diseases hence the failure rate of treatment is quite high (Figueroa 1998, Hiletework 1998). However the treatment of skin diseases using medicinal plants in Uttarakhand is quite common and effective. The local people of adjacent areas of Uttarakhand such as Himachal Pradesh, use 18 species of medicinal plants for treating 6 types of skin disease, of these the highest number was used for the treatment of boils, followed by healing of cuts and wounds (Lal 2008).

The environmental degradation and pollutants are also responsible for causing skin diseases. Many people have developed sensitivities to different pollen grains causing skin allergies. The local people of Uttarakhand perceive that the pollen grains of chir pine are the source of a skin allergy (Kala 2010). Skin diseases are often infectious and transmissible. The intensity of disease may vary with the environmental and climatic conditions. Fungal infections commonly affect skin during the rainy season. Such infection causes irritation and discomfort. The use of Azadiracta indica for removing such fungus from the skin is considered quite effective.

Although the healers did disclose the specific uses of most of the plant species used, it was noticed that for some specific treatments healers would not disclose their procedures. This may be one of the ways of a traditional patent system, which not only helps the healers in protecting their intellectual knowledge but also protect the species from overexploitation.

Many medicinal plant species have become rare and endangered partly due to overharvesting from nature in the recent past. There is now a ban on collection of many such plant species from the wild, however many of these species are essential for making particular types of herbal formulations for skin diseases. The herbal healers admit that they face difficulty in making those specific formulations due to less availability and bans on collection of some rare and endangered species (Kala 2000, 2005). The low availability of such plant species has affected the traditional system of plant use for treating specific skin diseases.

Since the modern system of medicine is unable to afford treatments for all types of skin diseases, the effective treatment of skin diseases by using medicinal plants, as evident from the Uttarakhand state of India, will help to improve the quality of human life. Therefore attempts need to be made to strengthen the alternative system of medicine in view of its wide acceptability, effectiveness and centuries of practical experimentation, especially in developing countries.

References

Anon. 2005. The burden of skin diseases. Cleveland Ohio: The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Badoni AK, Badoni K, 2001. Ethnobotanical heritage. In Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society (Eds Kandari OP, Gusain OP). Strinagar Garhwal India: TransMedia.

Connor S. 2003. The Book of Skin. London: Cornell Uni Press. CSIRO. 1989. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. New Delhi: Publications & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Figueroa JI, Fuller LC, Abraha A, Hay RJ. 1998. Dermatology in Southwestern Ethiopia: Rationale for a Community Approach. Int J Dermatol 37;752-8.

Gaur RD. 1999. Flora of the District Garhwal Northwest Himalaya (with ethnobotanical notes). Srinagar Garhwal, India: TransMedia.

Hay RJ, Estrada R, Alarcon H, Chavez G, Lopez LF, Paredes S, Andersson N. 1994. Wastage of family income on skin disease in Mexico. British Med J 309;848.

Hiletework M. 1998. Skin diseases seen in Kazanchis health center. Ethiopian Med J 36;245-54.

Jain SK. 1991. Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotnay. New Delhi: Deep Publications.

Kala CP. 2000. Status and conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants in the Indian trans-Himalaya. Conservation Biol 93;371-9.

Kala CP. 2002. Medicinal Plants of Indian Trans-Himalaya. Dehradun India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.

Kala CP. 2005. Indigenous uses, population density, and conservation of threatened medicinal plants in protected areas of the Indian Himalayas. Conservation Biol 19;368-78.

Kala CP. 2006. Preserving Ayurvedic herbal formulations by Vaidyas: The traditional healers of the Uttaranchal Himalaya region in India. HerbalGram 70;42-50.

Kala CP. 2010. Medicinal Plants of Uttarakhand: Diversity Livelihood and Conservation. Delhi: Biotech Books.

Kumar N, Kumar A. 1996. Skin diseases management with reference to Ranbir Prakash. Bull Indian Institute History of Med Hyderabad 26;81-6.

Lal B. Singh KN. 2008. Indigenous herbal remedies used to cure skin disorders by natives of Lahaul Spiti in Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Trad Knowledge 7;237-41.

Madison KC. 2003. Barrier function of the skin: 'la raison d'etre' of the epidermis. J Investigative Dermatol 121;231-41.

Maikhuri RK, Nautiyal S, Rao KS, Semwal RL. 2000. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants and wild edibles among three tribal sub-communities of the Central Himalayas, India. Indig Knowledge & Develop Monitor 8;7-13.

Negi KS, Gaur RD. 1991. Little known endemic wild Allium species in the Uttar Pradesh hills. Mountain Res & Development 11;162-4.

Paliwal GS, Badoni AK. 1990. Ethnobotany of the hill tribes of Uttarkashi; medicinal plants. J Economic & Taxonomic Botany 14;421-42.

Phondani PC, Maikhuri RK, Kala CP. 2010. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among traditional herbal healers in Alaknanda catchment of Uttarakhand, India. African J Trad, Comp & Alt Med 7;195-206.

Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen JM. 2008.The skin: an indispensable barrier. Exper Dermatol 17;1063-72.

Thappa DM. 2002. History of dermatology, venereology and leprology in India. J Postgrad Med 48;160-5.

Thappa DM, Kumari R. 2009. Emergence of dermatology in India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol & Leprol 75;86-92.

Thorpe KE, Florence CS, Joski P. 2004. Which medical conditions account for the rise in health spending? Health Affairs 22;437-45.

Chandra Prakash Kala

Ecosystem & Environment Management, Indian Institute of Forest Management Nehru Nagar, PB No 357, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh India 462 003

Email: cpkala@yahoo.co.uk
Table 1: Medicinal plants and plants parts used for
treatment of dermatological problems

No    Species                      Habit     Plant part used

1     Achillea millefolium         Herb      Whole plant
2     Aconitum atrox               Herb      Tuber
3     Acorus calamus               Herb      Root
4     Aegle marmelos               Tree      Leaf, Fruit, Root
5     Aesculus indica              Tree      Fruit, Bark, Root
6     Ageretum cornyzoides         Herb      Root, Leaf
7     Ajuga bracteosa              Herb      Root, Leaf, WP
8     Albizia lebbeck              Tree      Seed, Bark, Root
9     Allium cepa                  Herb      Bulb
10    Allium sativum               Herb      Bulb
11    Annona squamosa              Herb      Bark
12    Anogeissus latifolia         Tree      Bark
13    Argemone maxicana            Herb      Leaf Seed Root WP
14    Arisaema flavum              Herb      Bulb
15    Arisaema jacquemontii        Herb      Bulb
16    Arnebia benthamii            Herb      Root
17    Artemisia absinthium         Herb      Leaf
18    Artemisia japonica           Herb      Leaf
19    Artemisia maritima           Herb      Whole plant
20    Astragalus candolleanus      Shrub     Root
21    Astragalus himalayanus       Shrub     Seed
22    Azadiracta indica            Tree      Leaf, Bark, Seed, bud
23    Bambusa arundinacea          Grass     Stem, Leaf
24    Bauhinia variegata           Tree      Bark, Flower, Leaf
25    Berberis aristata            Shrub     Root, Bark
26    Berberis jaeschkeana         Shrub     Root, Fruit
27    Bergenia ligulata            Herb      Root, Leaf
28    Berginia stracheyi           Herb      Root
29    Betula utilis                Tree      Bark, Root
30    Biebersteinia odora          Herb      Whole plant
31    Botrychium lunaria           Herb      Whole plant
32    Butea monosperma             Tree      Flower, Bark, Seed
33    Cannabis sativa              Herb      Leaf, Seed
34    Carissa carandus             Shrub     Leaf, Seed, Root
35    Cassiope fastigiata          Shrub     Whole plant
36    Celtis australis             Tree      Bark
37    Centauria iberica            Herb      Leaf
38    Centella asiatica            Herb      Fruit, Leaf, Root
39    Chenopodium album            Herb      Seed, Leaf
40    Cinnamomum tamala            Shrub     Bark, Leaf
41    Clematis barbellata          Woody     Leaf
42    Coculus hirsutus             Climber   Leaf
43    Codonopsis ovata             Herb      Root
44    Convolvulus arvensis         Herb      Root, Whole plant
45    Corydalis govaniana          Herb      Root, Whole plant
46    Corydalis meifolia           Herb      Whole plant
47    Cuscuta capitata             Climber   Whole plant
48    Cuscuta reflexa              Climber   Whole plant
49    Cyananthus integer           Herb      Whole plant
50    Cyananthus lobatus           Herb      Root, Flower, Leaf
51    Cyanodon dactylon            Herb      Root, Leaf
52    Dactylorhiza hatgirea        Herb      Tuber
53    Delphinium brunonianum       Herb      Root
54    Delphinium cashmerianum      Herb      Whole plant
55    Drosera peltata              Herb      Whole plant, Leaf
56    Euphorbia hirta              Herb      Whole plant
57    Euphorbia hispida            Herb      Whole plant
58    Euphorbia royleana           Shrub     Latex
59    Ficus bengalensis            Tree      Latex
60    Ficus racemosa               Tree      Bark, Fruit, latex
61    Ficus religiosa              Tree      Leaf, Bark, Fruit
62    Fritillaria roylei           Herb      Bulb
63    Fumaria indica               Herb      Leaf
64    Galium elegans               Herb      Shoot
65    Gaultheria nummularioides    Shrub     Leaf
66    Geranium himalayense         Herb      Root
67    Geranium nepalense           Herb      Root
68    Gloriosa superba             Herb      Root, Rhizome, Leaf
69    Hippophae salicifolia        Shrub     Bark, Fruit
70    Jasminum humile              Shrub     Bark, Root
71    Juglans regia                Tree      Bark, Leaf, Fruit
72    Jurinea dolomiaea            Herb      Root
73    Lantana camera               Shrub     Fruit, Leaf
74    Lyonia ovalifolia            Tree      Stem, Leaf, WP
75    Malvastrum coromendalianum   U Shrub   Leaf
76    Melia azedarach              Tree      Fruit, Leaf
77    Mentha longifolia            Herb      Whole plant
78    Morus alva                   Shrub     Fruit, Bark
79    Nardostachys jatamansi       Herb      Rhizome
80    Neolitsea pallens            Tree      Fruit
81    Ocimum sanctum               Herb      Leaf, Seed, WP
82    Ophioglossum vulgatum        Herb      Rhizome
83    Oxalis corniculata           Herb      Leaf, Whole plant
84    Phoebe lanceolata            Tree      Berries
85    Picea smithiana              Tree      Resin
86    Pinus roxburghii             Tree      Resin
87    Plantago major               Herb      Whole plant, Seed
88    Podophyllaum hexandrum       Herb      Rhizome, Fruit
89    Polygonum amplexicaule       Herb      Root
90    Polygonum nepalense          Herb      Whole plant
91    Potentilla atrosanguinea     Herb      Leaf
92    Principia utilis             Shrub     Seed, Fruit
93    Punica granatum              Shrub     Root, Stem, Fruit
94    Pupalia lappacea             Shrub     Fruit
95    Quercus leucho-trichophora   Tree      Seed
96    Ranunculus arvensis          Herb      Leaf
97    Raphanus sativus             Herb      Leaf, Seed
98    Rheum australe               Herb      Root
99    Rheum webbianum              Herb      Root
100   Rhododendron arboretum       Tree      Leaf
101   Rhododendron campanulatum    Shrub     Root, Leaf
102   Ricinus communis             Shrub     Seed, Leaf
103   Rumex hastatus               Herb      Leaf
104   Rumex nepalensis             Herb      Leaf
105   Saussurea costus             Herb      Root
106   Saussurea obvallata          Herb      Root
107   Senecio laetus               Herb      Leaf
108   Shorea robusta               Tree      Seed, Fruit
109   Siegesbeckia orientalis      Herb      Whole plant
110   Skimmia laureola             Shrub     Leaf
111   Solanum nigrum               Herb      Fruit, Leaf, Seed
112   Solanum tuberosum            Herb      Tuber
113   Stellaria media              Herb      Whole plant
114   Swertia chiraiyta            Herb      Root, Whole plant
115   Syzygium cuminii             Tree      Bark, Fruit, Seed
116   Taraxacum officinale         Herb      WP, Leaf, Root
117   Taxus buccuta                Shrub     Leaf, Fruit, twig
118   Tectona grandis              Tree      Wood
119   Terminalia chebula           Tree      Fruit, Seed
120   Thalictrum foliolosum        Herb      Root
121   Thymus linearis              Herb      Whole plant
122   Toona ciliata                Tree      Bark, Fruit, Leaf
123   Tylophora indica             Shrub     Leaf, Stem, WP
124   Urtica dioica                Herb      Root, Leaf, WP
125   Verbascum thapsus            Herb      Whole plant, Leaf
126   Viola bioflora               Herb      Flower, Leaf
127   Vitex negundo                Shrub     Stem, Flower, Leaf
128   Waldhemia glabra             Herb      Root, Leaf,
129   Woodfordia fruticosa         Shrub     Flower
130   Zanthoxylum armatum          Shrub     Fruit, Stem, Bark
131   Ziziphus mauritiana          Shrub     Fruit
132   Ziziphus officinale          Shrub     Rhizome

Table 2: Dermatological problems and plant species used
to cure these skin problems by local people of Uttarakhand

Dermatological      No of      Species
problems           species

Goiter                1        Solanum nigrum

Frost bite            2        Juglans regia, Solanum
                               tuberosum

Lice                  3        Acorus calamus, Ageretum
                               cornyzoides, Cuscuta
                               reflexa

Bruises               3        Codonopsis ovata,
                               Geranium himalayense,
                               Saussurea obvallata

Gout                  3        Gloriosa superb, Melia
                               azedarach, Verbascum
                               thapsus

Pimples               4        Butea monosperma, Punica
                               granatum, Syzygium
                               cuminii, Celtis australis

Carbuncle             6        Albezia lebbeck,
                               Anogeissus latifolia,
                               Cyanodon dactylon, Ficus
                               religiosa, Shorea
                               robusta, Woodfordia
                               fruticosa

Blisters              7        Allium cepa, Ficus
                               bengalensis, Ficus
                               recemosa, Ficus
                               religiosa, Syzygium
                               cuminii, Taraxacum off,
                               Vitex negundo

Itching               7        Allium cepa, Carissa
                               carandus, Cassiope
                               fastigiata, Cuscuta
                               reflexa, Lantana camera,
                               Vitex negundo,
                               Zanthoxylum armatum

Small pox             8        Azadirachta indica, Ficus
                               racemosa, Ficus
                               religiosa, Nardostachys
                               jatamasi, Shorea robusta,
                               Skimmia laureola,
                               Woodfordia fruticosa,
                               Zanthoxylum armatum

Burns                 11       Ageretum cornyzoides,
                               Ajuga bracteosa, Bergenia
                               ligulata, Euphorbia
                               royleana, Fritillaria
                               roylei, Plantago major,
                               Principia utilis, Ricinus
                               communis, Shorea robusta,
                               Waldhemia glabra,
                               Woodfordia fruticosa

Eczema                12       Allium sativum, Arisaema
                               flavum, Centauria
                               iberica, Centella
                               asiatica, Euphorbia
                               hirta, Ranunculus
                               arvensis, Tectona
                               grandis, Terminalis
                               chebula, Thalictrum
                               foliolosum, Vitex
                               negundo, Zanthoxylum
                               armatum

Septic wounds         13       Ageretum cornyzoides,
                               Arnebia benthamii,
                               Artemisia maritima,
                               Azadirachta indica,
                               Cuscuta capitata,
                               Gaultheria
                               nummularioides, Jurinea
                               dolomiaea, Melia
                               azedarach, Mentha
                               longifolia, Skimmia
                               laureola, Toona ciliata,
                               Urtica dioica, Viola
                               biflora

Leprosy               15       Aconitum atrox, Ageretum
                               cornyzoides, Argemone
                               maxicana, Astragalus
                               himalayanus, Azadiracta
                               indica, Bauhinia
                               variegata, Centella
                               asiatica, Corydalis
                               meifolia, Ficus racemosa,
                               Stellaria media, Swertia
                               chiraiyta, Pinus
                               roxburghii, Ocimum
                               sanctum, Gloriosa superb,
                               Vitex negundo

Scabies               15       Ageretum cornyzoides,
                               Argemone maxicana,
                               Azadirachta indica,
                               Euphorbia hirta, Ficus
                               bengalensis, Ficus
                               racemosa, Ficus
                               religiosa, Gloriosa
                               superba, Quercus
                               leucho-trichophora,
                               Skimmia laureola, Swertia
                               chiraita, Vitex negundo,
                               Ziziphus officinale,
                               Neolitsea pallens,
                               Clematis barbellata

Swelling              17       Achillea millefolium,
                               Aconitum atrox, Ageretum
                               cornyzoides, Albezia
                               lebbeck, Codonopsis
                               ovata, Cuscuta reflexa,
                               Delphinium cashmerianum,
                               Pinus roxberghii,
                               Polygonum nepalense,
                               Rheum australe, Ricinus
                               communis, Rumex
                               nepalensis, Solanum
                               nigrum, Taxus baccata,
                               Urtica dioica, Vitex
                               negundo, Cocculus
                               hirsutus

Boils                 21       Ageretum cornyzoides,
                               Ajuga bracteosa, Albezia
                               lebbeck, Argemone
                               maxicana, Azadirachta
                               indica, Berberis
                               aristata, Euphorbia
                               hirta, Allium cepa, Butea
                               monosperma, Lyonia
                               ovalifolia, Mentha
                               longifolia, Pinus
                               roxberghii, Rheum
                               webbianum, Rhododendron
                               campanulatum, Ricinus
                               communis, Siegesbeckia
                               orientalis, Skimmia
                               laureola, Solanum nigrum,
                               Thalictrum foliolosum,
                               Urtica dioica, Vitex
                               negundo

Sores                 22       Ageretum cornyzoides,
                               Cannabis sativa, Carissa
                               carandus, Cinnamomum
                               tamala, Cyanodon
                               dactylon, Ficus
                               bengalensis, Ficus
                               religiosa, Galium
                               elegans, Gloriosa
                               superba, Juglans regia,
                               Morus alva, Ricinus
                               communis, Senecio laetus,
                               Shorea robusta,
                               Siegesbeckia orientalis,
                               Solanum nigrum,
                               Terminalia chebula, Vitex
                               negundo, Woodfordia
                               fruticosa, Ziziphus
                               mauritiana, Picea
                               smithiana, Phoebe
                               lanceolata

Cuts and wounds       65       Aconitum atrox, Acorus
                               calamus, Aegle marmelos,
                               Aesculus indica, Ageretum
                               cornyzoides, Allium cepa,
                               Allium sativum,
                               Botrychium lunaria,
                               Cynanthus integer,
                               Arnebia benthamii,
                               Artemisia absinthium,
                               Artemisia maritima,
                               Azadirachta indica,
                               Bambusa arundinacea,
                               Bergenia ligulata,
                               Bergenia stracheyi,
                               Betula utilis,
                               Biebersteinia odora,
                               Butea monosperma,
                               Cannabis sativa, Carissa
                               carandus, Centella
                               asiatica, Cuscuta
                               capitata, Cuscuta
                               reflexa, Cyananthus
                               lobatus, Dactylorhiza
                               hatagirea, Delphinium
                               brunonianum, Delphinium
                               cashmerianum, Euphorbia
                               hirta, Euphorbia hispida,
                               Euphorbia royleana,
                               Geranium nepalense,
                               Hippophea salicifolia,
                               Lyonia ovalifolia, Melia
                               azedarach, Mentha
                               longifolia, Ocimum
                               sanctum, Ophioglossum
                               vulgatum, Oxalis
                               corniculata, Plantago
                               major, Podophyllum
                               hexandrum, Polygonum
                               amplexicaule, Potentilla
                               atrosanguinea, Principia
                               utilis, Ranunculus
                               arvensis, Rheum australe,
                               Rheum webbianum,
                               Rhododendron arboreum,
                               Ricinus communis,
                               Saussurea obvallata,
                               Shorea robusta,
                               Siegesbeckia orientalis,
                               Stellaria media,
                               Taraxacum officinale,
                               Tylophora indica, Urtica
                               dioica, Vitex negundo,
                               Woodfordia fruticosa,
                               Ziziphus mauritiana,
                               Picea smithiana, Phoebe
                               lanceolata, Coculus
                               hirsutus, Fumaria indica,
                               Rumex hastatus,
                               Malvastrum
                               coromendalianum
Gale Copyright: Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.