J Zoo Wildl Med.: Pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).
Article Type: Reprint
Subject: Tramadol (Dosage and administration)
Pharmacokinetics (Research)
Peafowl (Physiological aspects)
Authors: Black, P.A.
Cox, S.K.
Macek, M.
Pub Date: 03/01/2011
Publication: Name: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Publisher: Association of Avian Veterinarians Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Association of Avian Veterinarians ISSN: 1082-6742
Issue: Date: March, 2011 Source Volume: 25 Source Issue: 1
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 256602981
Full Text: Tramadol is a centrally acting opiate analgesic that has not been well studied in avian species. Tramadol and its metabolites exert their effects at multiple sites, including opiate ([mu], [kappa], and [delta]), adrenergic ([alpha]-2), and serotonin (5HT) receptors. This multi-receptor mode of action is advantageous for avian patients because the mechanisms for analgesia have not been fully elucidated in all species. The objective of this study was to document the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Based on results from a pilot animal, six adult peafowl (three male, three female) judged to be clinically healthy based on physical exam and routine bloodwork were selected for this study. Each bird was anesthetized for placement of a jugular catheter, and 7.5 mg/kg tramadol was administered orally via garage tube. Blood samples were collected just prior to drug administration; at 30 main and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 34 hr. Plasma levels of tramadol and M1 were measured and the pharmacokinetics for each drug was calculated. Although tramadol was quickly metabolized, plasma levels of M1 remained at or near human analgesic levels for 12-24 hr. Based on these data, tramadol may be a practical option as an orally administered analgesic agent in avian patients. Further studies, including antinociceptive studies, are needed.

2010;41:671-676.
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