J Zoo Wildl Med.: Ocular bacterial flora, tear production, and intra-ocular pressure in a captive flock of Humboldt penguins (Spheniseus humboldti).
Article Type: Brief article
Subject: Penguins (Health aspects)
Penguins (Research)
Intraocular pressure (Diagnosis)
Intraocular pressure (Research)
Bacteria (Health aspects)
Bacteria (Research)
Authors: Swinger, R.L.
Langan, J.N.
Hamor R.
Pub Date: 12/01/2009
Publication: Name: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Publisher: Association of Avian Veterinarians Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 Association of Avian Veterinarians ISSN: 1082-6742
Issue: Date: Dec, 2009 Source Volume: 23 Source Issue: 4
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 252007013
Full Text: The purpose of this study was to determine normal ocular surface bacterial flora, tear production, and intra-ocular pressure in a captive flock of Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti. Twenty-eight healthy penguins were studied and equally divided between fresh- and saltwater habitats. The population consisted of 15 female and 13 male penguins, which ranged from 3 to 20 years of age. After a complete ophthalmic examination, 4 penguins with cataracts were removed from the study. Eight penguins from each habitat were randomly selected for ocular surface aerobic bacterial culture. Corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus species were the most common isolates. Twenty-five organisms, which consisted of 17 species, and 15 organisms, which consisted of 9 species, were identified in fresh- and saltwater groups, respectively. Tear production and intra-ocular pressures were evaluated on 24 penguins with normal ocular examinations. The range and the mean (standard deviation) tear production, measured with the Schirmer tear test, were 1-12 mm/min and 6.45 [+ or -] 2.9 mm/min, respectively. The mean tear production for penguins housed in the freshwater habitat was greater (8.5 min/min) than those in saltwater (4.8 mm/min). The range and the mean (standard deviation) intra-ocular pressure, measured by applanation tonometry with a Tono-Pen XL tonometer, were 10-27 mm Hg and 20.36 [+ or -] 4.1 mm Hg, respectively. These data should be used as a reliable resource for those involved in avian and zoo medicine.

2009;40:430-436.
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