J Zoo Wildl Med.: Assessment of novel avian renal disease markers for the detection of experimental nephrotoxicosis in pigeons (Columba livia).
Article Type: Report
Subject: Kidney diseases (Diagnosis)
Kidney diseases (Research)
Biological markers (Physiological aspects)
Biological markers (Research)
Authors: Wimsatt, J.
Canon, N.
Pearce, R.D.
Pub Date: 12/01/2009
Publication: Name: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Publisher: Association of Avian Veterinarians Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 Association of Avian Veterinarians ISSN: 1082-6742
Issue: Date: Dec, 2009 Source Volume: 23 Source Issue: 4
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 252007014
Full Text: Renal disease is a major cause of illness in captive and wild avian species. Current renal disease markers (eg, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) are insensitive. Two endogenous markers, creatine and N-acetyl-[beta]-D- glucosaminidase (NAG), were selected for study in the pigeon (Columba livia). Representative organs from 4 pigeons were surveyed to determine those that exhibited the highest level of each marker. In a separate study, NAG and creatine from plasma and urine were assayed before and after gentamicin (50 rag/ kg ql2h) administration for up to 9 days. Observerblinded pathologic scoring (5 saline solution controls, 17 treated birds) was used to verify the presence of renal disease that corresponded to marker increases. The first study revealed that kidney tissue had the highest NAG activity (by approximately 6 times), and pectoral muscle had the most creatine (>900 times). In response to gentamicin, plasma creatine (>5 times) and NAG increased (approximately 6 times), which paralleled uric acid (>10 times). Urine creatine (approximately 60 times) and NAG increased dramatically (approximately 50 times) in response to gentamicin. In conclusion, NAG, especially in the urine, may be of value to noninvasively detect renal toxin exposures and to monitor potentially nephrotoxic drugs, and might be of value to screen free-ranging birds in large exhibits or in the wild by assaying fresh urate samples at feeding stations.

2009;40:487-494.
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