J Am Vet Med Assoc.: Investigation of factors predicting disease among zoo birds exposed to avian mycobacteriosis.
Mycobacterial infections (Demographic aspects)
Bird populations (Health aspects)
Zoo animals (Health aspects)
|Publication:||Name: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Publisher: Association of Avian Veterinarians Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2010 Association of Avian Veterinarians ISSN: 1082-6742|
|Issue:||Date: March, 2010 Source Volume: 24 Source Issue: 1|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States|
The objectives of this study were to characterize infection
patterns and identify factors associated with avian mycobacteriosis
among zoo birds that were housed with infected enclosure mates.
Seventy-nine birds with avian mycobacteriosis (cases) and 316
nondiseased birds (controls) of similar age and taxonomic group that
were present in the bird collection of the Zoological Society of San
Diego from 1991 through 2005 were part of the study. Inventory and
necropsy records from all eligible, exposed birds (n = 2,413) were
examined to determine disease incidence and prevalence in the exposed
cohort. Cases were matched in a 1:4 ratio to randomly selected controls
of similar age and taxonomic grouping. Risk factors for mycobacteriosis
(demographic, temporal, enclosure, and exposure characteristics as well
as translocation history) were evaluated with univariate and
multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses. Disease
prevalence and incidence were estimated at 3.5% and 8 cases/1,000
bird-years at risk, respectively. In the multivariable model, cases were
more likely to have been imported into the collection, exposed to
mycobacteriosis at a young age, exposed to the same bird species, and
exposed in small enclosures than were controls. Odds for disease
increased with an increasing amount of time spent with other
disease-positive birds. The low incidence of mycobacteriosis and the
risk factors identified suggested that mycobacteria may not be easily
transmitted through direct contact with infected enclosure mates.
Identification of risk factors for avian mycobacteriosis will help guide
future management of this disease in zoo bird populations.
|Gale Copyright:||Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.|