J Am Vet Med Assoc.: Feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac disease.
Article Type: Reprint
Subject: Echocardiography (Methods)
Macaws (Health aspects)
Authors: Beaufrere, H.
Pariaut, R.
Nevarez, J.G.
Tully, T.N.
Pub Date: 03/01/2010
Publication: Name: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Publisher: Association of Avian Veterinarians Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2010 Association of Avian Veterinarians ISSN: 1082-6742
Issue: Date: March, 2010 Source Volume: 24 Source Issue: 1
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 252005041
Full Text: The objective of this study was to establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained. Eighteen birds including 3 pigeons (Columbia livia), 3 barred owls (Strix varia), 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 goose (Anser anser), 1 mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), 1 muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), 2 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), 2 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 2 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and 1 military macaw (Ara militaris) were evaluated. For each bird, anesthesia was induced and maintained by use of isoflurane. A pediatric, multiplane transesophageal ultrasound probe was passed into the esophagus and adjusted to the level of the heart for echocardiography. Probe positions were recorded via fluoroscopy, and associated imaging planes were described. TEE was performed successfully in all birds except the pelicans, 1 Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and the redfronted macaws. Five imaging planes of the heart were consistently viewed from 3 positions of the probe (identified as caudal, middle, and cranial positions relative to the cardiac silhouette). M-mode echocardiography of the left ventricle and the aortic root was performed. Color flow and spectral Doppler ultrasonographic images of in- and outflow regions were obtained. One Hispaniolan Amazon parrot died as a result of esophageal perforation. TEE examination of birds was feasible and provided a larger number of imaging planes with better resolution and details than those typically achieved via a transcoelomic approach. However, TEE should be performed with caution in psittacines.

2010; 236:540-547.
Gale Copyright: Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.