Issues with measuring time experience in Rogers' conceptual model.
Abstract: Time experience is a key concept in Rogers' conceptual model and has been uniquely interpreted by her as a manifestation of human field patterning. In this paper, issues with measuring time experience are addressed, especially with reference to the Time Metaphor Test, the instrument used most often in Rogerian investigations. Problems with obtaining and interpreting scores with this instrument are discussed, and the validity of the instrument is questioned. Recommendations for further instrument development are presented. Although the concept of time experience is not specific to Rogers' (1970, 1992) conceptual model, it has been uniquely interpreted by her as a manifestation of human field patterning. "Awareness of the passage of time is a long-standing concomitant of the human condition" (Rogers, 1970, p. 115), which emerges "out of the human) environmental field mutual process" (Rogers, 1992, p. 31). In this paper, several issues with measuring time experience in Rogers' conceptual model will be addressed, including problems with interpreting the results of such measurement.

Key words Time experience, Rogerian model, Time Metaphor Test
Subject: Experience (Psychological aspects)
Experience (Research)
Time perception (Psychological aspects)
Time perception (Research)
Human beings (Influence on nature)
Human beings (Research)
Author: Watson, Juanita
Pub Date: 07/01/2008
Publication: Name: Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science Publisher: Society of Rogerian Scholars Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health; Health care industry Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2008 Society of Rogerian Scholars ISSN: 1072-4532
Issue: Date: July, 2008 Source Volume: 15 Source Issue: 2
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 198291200
Full Text: The Concept of Time Experience

According to Rawnsley (1977), time experience is "the perception of felt or experiential time rather than assessment ... of clock time" (p. 20). Meerloo (1970) stated that "the sense of time [is] a multilinear evolving process" (p. 3) that "connotes movement and becoming" (p. 6). He noted that "modern physical science has taught us that absolute objective time does not exist" (Meerloo, 1970, p. 7). In contrast, subjective time experience is a "continuous flow, a dynamic phenomenon" (Meerloo, 1970, p. 8). In applying Rogers' model to time experience, Paletta (1990) stated that the perception of time passing "evolves through a lifetime of continuous mutual [human and environmental field] processes, culminating in the individual's current pattern of time sense in relation to the environment" (p. 240).

Meerloo (1970) claimed that subjective time experiences vary as much as people do themselves. Similarly, Rogers (1992) indicated that diversity of the human field pattern, of which time experience is a manifestation, varies with the individual. Ac-cording to Paletta (1990), time experience may be viewed as "a subjective experience with each person developing an individual rhythm"(p. 241). Measuring Time Experience

In studies using the Rogerian model, time experience has been measured mainly through use of the Time Metaphor Test (TMT) (Knapp & Garbutt, 1958), an instrument consisting of 25 metaphors which symbolize the subjective experience of time passing. The author recognizes that Palette (1988, 1990) has developed a similar instrument, the Temporal Experience Scales (TES), for measuring time experience in relation to Rogers' model. This instrument consists of 24 metaphors which symbolize the experience of time moving. Six of the 24 metaphors on the TES are the same as those on the TMT. Because the TES has not yet been as widely used as the TMT, and because Paletta (1988) acknowledged that the TMT "established a direction for instrument development within Rogers' framework" (p. 28), the focus here will be on the use of the TMT. Description of the TMT

The TMT was developed from an original list of 40 metaphors collected from "quotations, anthologies, and other sources" (Knapp & Garbutt, 1958,p. 427). Based on the results of a pilot study, only those metaphors which elicited a wide range of valid responses were retained. The instrument was then administered to 73 male undergraduate students along with four standard Thematic Apperception Test pictures which were scored for n-Achievement (n-Ach). The intercorrelations of each metaphor with every other and with the n-Ach scores were computed. Factor analysis revealed two factors, with the highest loadings on the first factor. Through comparison of the factor loadings with the correlations between the metaphors and n-Ach, it was determined that the first factor defined a continuum ranging from swift to static time experience.

Despite low loadings on the second factor, the metaphors were placed on coordinates representing the two factors. Three distinct clusters emerged: Dynamic-Hasty, Humanistic, and Naturalistic-Passive (Knapp & Garbutt, 1958). The terms Vectorial and Oceanic are currently preferred instead of Dynamic-Hasty and Naturalistic-Passive, respectively (Fraser, 1966, p. 597). The Vectorial cluster was interpreted by Knapp and Garbutt (1958) as indicating the experience of time passing swiftly, whereas the Oceanic cluster as interpreted as indicating the experience of time passing slowly. The significance of the Humanistic cluster was not determined. Three metaphors were not included in any of the clusters and were designated as occupying intermediate spaces between the three clusters (Table 1). According to Knapp and Garbutt's (1958) analysis, the metaphors included in the Vectorial cluster loaded substantially on the first factor, which was positively correlated (r = .22) with n-Ach. The Oceanic cluster loaded negatively on both the first and second factors; this cluster was negatively correlated (r = .094) with n-Ach. The metaphors included in the Humanistic cluster loaded positively on the second factor, but had no substantial loadings on the first factor. This cluster was negatively correlated (r = -.079) with n-Ach. An F-test comparing the means of the three clusters yielded a statistically significant value (E = 5.43, p < .02). However, Knapp and Garbutt (1958) acknowledged that the Oceanic and Humanistic clusters did not differ significantly from each other. Wallach and Green (1961) used the TMT in a comparative study of time experience in adults aged 18 to 20 years (N. = 118) and adults aged 65 to 75 years (N = 160). Factor analysis revealed one major factor which concerned swift to static time experience and which was similar to the first factor extracted by Knapp & Garbutt (1958). The second factor varied from group to group. Wallach and Green make no mention of the clusters of time experience identified by Knapp and Garbutt.

Use of the TMT in Rogerian Studies

Even though the statistical validity of the TMT can be questioned, especially the derivation of the three clusters of time experience, the instrument has been used frequently in research using Rogers' (1970, 1992) conceptual model. Only those studies which have direct bearing on the issues addressed in this paper are presented.

Rawnsley (1977, 1986) used the TMT to study the perception of speed of time passing and the process of dying in 108 hospitalized adults. She postulated that since dying is a developmental stage of the life process, it should be related to other manifestations of human field patterning such as time experience. The participants were divided into four groups: older, dying (ages 55 to 75, diagnosed with metastatic cancer) (N = 30); older, not-dying (non-life-threatening diagnosis) (N = 30); younger, dying (ages 17 to 30, diagnosed with meta-static cancer) (N = 18); and younger, not dying (N = 30). No significant differences in scores were found between age groups although younger, not-dying individuals had a preference for swifter metaphors, whereas older, dying individuals had a preference for the slowest. There also were no significant differences between the dying and not-dying groups on the TMT. The hypothesis that younger, dying persons would perceive time as passing more swiftly than older, not-dying persons was not supported. Indeed, these two groups were the most similar with respect to time experience of the four groups studied.

A problem with interpreting the results of this study is that Rawnsley (1977, 1986) used Knapp and Garbutt's (1958) original designations of swift to slow metaphors in scoring the TMT. Macrae (1982) has suggested that those metaphors originally interpreted as the slowest may actually represent the fastest, connoting an experience of timelessness. When Rawnsley's scores are interpreted as suggested by Macrae, her additional hypotheses that older persons perceive time as passing more swiftly than younger persons, and that dying per-sons perceive time as passing more swiftly than those who are not dying, are partially supported.

Ference (1979) used the TMT to assess the relationships of time experience and human field motion, for which she developed the Human Field Motion Tool (HFMT). In her study of 213 volunteer adults, she elicited a positive relationship between the canonical variate, which she named "Human-Field Motion," and time experience (r = .90). Allen (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma (1992) also studied human field motion and time experience, along with other variables pertinent to their respective investigations, using the TMT and the HFMT. Scores on the TMT were re-ported according to the three clusters of time experience identified by Knapp and Garbutt (1958). Scores on the HFMT were reported according to the three basic dimensions of a semantic differential: activity, potency, and evaluation (Osgood & Suci, (1958). In both studies, significant positive correlations were found between the Vectorial cluster of the TMT and each of the three dimensions of the HFMT.

Macrae (1982) used the TMT to study time experience, as well as human field motion, in a comparative study of meditating (N = 45) and non-meditating (N = 45) individuals. Meditators describe changes in the perception of time passing, so she expected that different metaphors would be chosen by meditating and non-meditating participants. Macrae posited that meditators might choose metaphors, which were identified by Knapp and Garbutt (1958) as indicating the slowest time experience because such metaphors symbolize the sense of timelessness experienced during meditation. In Rogers' (1992) model, the experience of timelessness can be interpreted as "a wave frequency so rapid that the observer perceives it as a single, unbroken event" (p. 31). That is, time is experienced as passing swiftly, not slowly. Macrae's (1982) hypothesis about time experience was supported (t = 4.75, df = 73.09, p = .001).

Butcher and Parker (1988) used the TMT to study the relationships of guided imagery and time experience, along with human field motion, in a pretest/ post-test design, using 60 participants who were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group. Like Macrae (1982), they predicted that participants experiencing pleasant guided imagery would have lower scores on the TMT, with low scores indicating the experience of timelessness. This hypothesis was supported (F(1 ,1 18) = 4.358, p < .05).

Strumpf (1982) used the TMT to investigate the relationships among life satisfaction, self-concept, and time experience in a sample of 86 women, ages 65 and older. She found no significant relationships between time experience and life satisfaction (r = -.048, p = .328), nor between time experience and self-concept (r = -.042, p = .350). In explaining these results, she stated that perhaps the TMT "failed to capture the meaning of temporality" (p. 89) in her sample of older women.

Watson (1993) used the TMT to explore the relationships of sleep-wake rhythm, dream experience, human field motion, and time experience in a sample of 66 healthy women, ages 60 to 83 (M = 71.2). She also found no significant relationships between time experience and any of the other main variables. However, there was an unexpected significant correlation between time experience and chronological age (r = .2863, p = .05, two-tailed test).

Problems with Interpretation

One problem with interpreting the results of measures with the TMT is the variation in methods used to obtain scores on the test. Both Knapp and Garbutt (1958) and Wallach and Green (1961) instructed participants to rate all 25 items using rank scores of one to five.

Select the five phrases that seem most appropriate and before each place the number "1." Then pick out the next five most appropriate phrases and before them place the number "2." Continue this process until you have placed the number "5" before the five least appropriate phrases (Knapp & Garbutt, 1958, p. 428; Wallach & Green, 1961, p. 72).

This laborious approach to completing the instrument has been problematical. Ference (1979) reported that participants had difficulty selecting five metaphors with respect to the "five quantitative values" (p. 63), and recommended that in future investigations, participants simply check the five metaphors "which most closely resemble how time seems to be moving in your life" (p. 65). The method recommended by Ference is similar to that used by Rawnsley (1977, 1986), who needed a simpler method of administering the test because her sample included individuals who were dying. She instructed participants to choose five metaphors and assign ratings of "1" to "5" to them, with "1 " indicating their first choice. Watson (1993) used the original directions for completing the test in her pilot study (N = 19) and found that five participants were unable to complete the instrument. Those who did indicated it was difficult and time-consuming to do so. For the main study, the approach recommended by Ference (1979) was employed. This approach also has been used by Butcher and Parker (1988), Macrae (1982), and Strumpf (1982), with the directions re-worded in accordance with Ference's (1979) recommendations. Ference, for example, refers to time as moving, whereas Rawnsley (1977, 1986) describes it as passing.

In studies in which participants are instructed to check the five items on the TMT that most closely resemble how time is moving for them, scores have been deter-mined using Wallach and Green's (1961) rankings for each metaphor. These are based on their factor analysis of the instrument which revealed a swift-to-static factor similar to that identified by Knapp and Garbutt (1958). In the studies by Butcher and Parker(1988), Macrae (1982), Rawnsley (1977, 1986), and Strumpt (1982), the rankings used were the same as those from Wallach and Green (1961). In Watson's (1993) study, the metaphors originally interpreted as a slow experience of time moving were given the highest scores, because these metaphors have since been interpreted by Macrae (1982) as representing timelessness, which is the fastest time experience in Rogers' (1992) model. Thus, high scores on the TMT in Watson's (1993) study would be comparable to low scores in the aforementioned investigations.

Allen (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma (1992) used a different approach for administering and scoring the TMT. According to Allen (1988) there is "considerable loss of data" (p. 49) when participants check only five of 25 items. Further, it is not possible to determine alpha reliability, nor to perform validity measures such as factor analysis when only five items are checked. Thus, Allen applied a five-point rating scale to each metaphor, and participants rated each item independently of the others. Possible scores for each metaphor ranged "from 0 to 4, with the lowest score assigned to the response 'definitely does not resemble my sense of time" (Allen, 1988, p. 49). Unlike previous studies, a total score on the TMT was not reported. Instead, scores were reported in relation to the three clusters of time experience identified by Knapp and Garbutt (1958). In supporting her use of cluster scores, Allen (1988) reported that 'the Time Metaphor Test measures three distinct ways of viewing time which may not be summative and, therefore, may be best viewed by cluster scores" (pp. 48 & 49). When cluster scores are used, those metaphors designated by Knapp and Garbutt (1958) as occupying intermediate spaces between the three clusters are omitted in analysis.

Using her method of scoring, Allen (1988) was able to report alpha reliability for each duster of scores: Humanistic = .62, Oceanic = .64, Vectorial = .79. She indicated that the low reliabilities may have been due to the fact that each cluster contains less than 10 metaphors. Allen did not report a factor analysis using her method of scoring, possibly because of the sample size (N = 181). According to Munro and Page (1993), "a ratio of at least 10 subjects for each variable is desirable to generalize from the sample to a wider population" (p. 254). Thus, for the TMT a sample size of 250 would be needed. Hastings-Tolsma (1992) used Allen's method for scoring the TMT. She reported alpha reliabilities similar to Allen's: Humanistic = .60, Oceanic = .63, and Vectorial = .82. Her sample size was 173, and she also did not report a factor analysis.

Although the method of scoring used by Allen (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma (1992) is an improvement in terms of yielding more data, questions could be raised about the validity of using cluster scores and about how these cluster scores should be interpreted. A closer examination of how the clusters were developed by Knapp and Garbutt (1958) is required to answer these questions. As noted earlier in this paper, Knapp and Garbutt (1958) used loadings on a swift-to-static factor and loadings on an unnamed factor on which none of the loadings was especially high, along with correlations with n-Ach, to determine that there were three clusters of time experience. The Vectorial cluster was, however, the only one that correlated significantly with n-Ach. Similarly, Allen (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma (1992) found that only the Vectorial cluster correlated significantly with the activity, potency, and evaluation factors of the Human Field Motion Tool.

The metaphors identified by Knapp and Garbutt (1958) as comprising the Vectorial cluster loaded positively on the first factor at .36 or greater. One metaphor, "a galloping horseman," also loaded on the second factor at -.37. The metaphors which contributed to the Oceanic cluster were identified as having negative loadings on both factors. Inspection of the magnitude of these loadings reveals that five of the seven loaded negatively on the first factor at .33 or greater; the remaining two had negative loadings of only .12 and .22. Only one of the seven loaded negatively on the second factor at .30 or greater. Metaphors contributing to the Humanistic cluster were identified as those with positive loadings on the second factor and no substantial loadings on the first factor. Inspection of the magnitude of these loadings reveals that only five of the eight metaphors loaded on the second factor at .30 or greater. In addition, one metaphor loaded on the first factor at -.36. Of the three intermediate metaphors that did not fit into any of the three clusters, "a stairway leading upward' loaded at -.58 on the first factor, and 'a bird in flight" loaded at -.31 on the second factor. In fact, if a minimum cut-off of .30 for factor loadings is used, only 14 of the 25 metaphors loaded sufficiently on the first factor, seven positively and seven negatively, whereas 8 to the 25 metaphors loaded substantially on the second, five positively and three negatively. Three metaphors had loadings of .30 on both factors. Six of the 25 metaphors did not have salient loadings on either factor.

Knapp and Garbutt (1958) used centroid factor analysis without rotation. Nunnally (1978) stated that this method "is not quite as efficient at condensing variables as ... the method of principal components ... [although] it is far simpler to compute" (p. 349). The sophisticated computerized approaches to factor analysis in use today were not available at the time of Knapp and Garbutt's investigation. Moreover, their sample size was only 73, which. is insufficient for factor analysis of a 25-item instrument (Munro & Page, 1993).

Wallach and Green (1961), in their study with 278 participants, were able to identify a factor similar to Knapp and Garbutt's (1958) swift-to-static first factor, using the centroid method without rotation. Twenty of the 25 metaphors loaded at .30 or greater on this factor, 10 positively and 10 negatively. Of those that did not load substantially, three were from the Humanistic cluster, one was from the Oceanic cluster, and one was an intermediate metaphor. Four of these five also had no substantial loadings on Knapp and Garbutt's first factor, although two loaded substantially on the second. It is interesting to speculate why these metaphors were retained on the instrument and how their inclusion affects validity and scoring, especially when cluster scores are used. More importantly, Wallach and Green (1961) did not report a second factor, nor did they discuss their findings with respect to Knapp and Garbutt's (1958) three clusters. Thus, the three clusters of time experience used by Allen (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma (1992) were derived from one study in which an out-dated method of factor analysis was used with an inadequate sample size.

Compounding the problem of how the clusters were determined are the different ways in which they have been interpreted. According to Knapp and Garbutt (1958), metaphors in the Vectorial cluster represent the experience of time passing swiftly, whereas those in the Oceanic cluster represent the experience of time passing slowly and passively. The Humanistic cluster was not interpreted, but most of these metaphors' loadings on the swift-to-static factor fell between those for the Vectorial and Oceanic clusters. When scores are determined using Wallach and Green's (1961) rank order of loadings on the first factor, the Humanistic metaphors fall approximately in the middle of the range of 1 to 25. The metaphors by cluster do not line up exactly on the swift-to-static factor, and there is some overlap among the clusters. Thus, scoring done by cluster differs somewhat from scoring, which is done in relation to rank order of the metaphors. Yet, in investigations in which the rank-order approach to scoring has been used (Macrae, 1982; Strumpf, 1982), there is a tendency to discuss findings on individual items in relation to the clusters within which they fall, and not in relation to their rank order. Moreover, in this writer's analysis of metaphors selected most and least frequently in the studies by Macrae (1982), Strumpf (1982), and Watson (1993), striking similarities were found, despite wide age differences in the three samples. For example, the metaphors selected most frequently by the healthy older women in Watson's sample were not only similar to those selected by Strumpf's older women, but were also similar to those selected by Macrae's group of younger, non-meditating participants (Watson, 1993). Further, there were similarities among these three groups and Macrae's meditators. The only differences were that meditators were more likely to select metaphors such as "a quiet, motion-less ocean," "budding leaves," and "a vast expanse of sky," and less likely to select "a speeding train" and "a fast moving shuttle." Perhaps this indicates that only some of the metaphors are truly operative in differentiating time experience among various groups. Indeed, of the five aforementioned metaphors, four were among those with the highest loadings on the swift-to-static factor identified by Knapp and Garbutt's (1958) and Wallach and Green's (1961) analyses.

Macrae (1982) was the first to suggest that metaphors in the Oceanic cluster were "descriptive of the experience of timelessness" (p. 8), which in Rogers' (1992) model is the fastest experience of time passing. At the time of Macrae's (1982) investigation, the manifestation of patterning pertaining to time experience was delineated by Rogers (1979, 1983) as "time drags/ time races/ seems timeless" (Table 2). This was changed by Rogers in 1985 to "time experienced as slower/time experienced as faster/timelessness," and remains her current interpretation (Rogers, 1992). Based on Macrae's (1992) interpretation, the Oceanic cluster became associated with timelessness, while the Vectorial cluster became associated with time racing.

How the Humanistic cluster was interpreted in relation to Rogers' ideas of time experience is not clear, but in investigations using Wallach and Green's (1961) rankings, scores continued to be assigned according to rankings which fell roughly between those for the Oceanic and Vectorial clusters. Thus, scores were assigned to metaphors which were not interpreted by Knapp and Garbutt (1958) and which did not appear to have a theoretical relationship to Rogers' model. The aspect of "time dragging," i.e., the slowest experience of time passing, remained unmeasured.

Although cluster scoring avoids the problem of using summative scores which include the eight metaphors from the Humanistic cluster, a question could be raised as to why this cluster should be included at all. Interestingly, both Allen (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma (1992) interpret the Humanistic cluster as indicating "time dragging." Neither elaborates on how she arrived at this conclusion, nor is the interpretation related to the position of metaphors in this cluster on the swift-to-static factor (Knapp & Garbutt, 1958; Wallach & Green, 1961). Moreover, results of both Allen's and Hastings-Tolsma's studies revealed that the Humanistic cluster did not correlate significantly with any of the other variables except for the Oceanic cluster in both investigations, and with the Vectorial cluster in Hastings-Tolsma's investigation.

When Paletta (1988) developed the Temporal Experience Scales, she determined separate measures for each aspect of time experience postulated by Rogers (1983). Although she defined "time dragging" as "a human field pattern of experiencing the movement of events in the environmental field as slow, boring, tedious, leaden, or dull" (Paletta, 1988, p. 3), she did not explicitly relate time dragging to metaphors in the Humanistic cluster, nor did she include any metaphors from this cluster on her time dragging scale. Yet, she did include three metaphors from the Vectorial cluster on her time racing scale, and two metaphors from the Oceanic cluster on her timelessness scale.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Despite the wide use of the TMT in Rogerian studies, and realizing that some researchers were able to support their hypotheses with the instrument (Butcher & Parker, 1988; Ference, 1979; Macrae, 1982), questions can be raised about the validity of this instrument, especially with respect to the initial development of the three clusters of time experience. Even more problematical is the interpretation of the results in relation to Rogers' model. Yet, time experience is a manifestation of human field patterning in her model, and an approach to measuring it is needed. Perhaps the answer is to develop new instruments as Paletta (1988) did. Another possibility is to replicate the factor analysis of the TMT, using larger samples and modern data analysis techniques. Allen's (1988) and Hastings-Tolsma's (1992) approaches of having participants rate each metaphor independently would provide the data needed for such analyses. Perhaps there are clusters of time experience that are not yet identified. Certainly, the Humanistic cluster should not be used in investigations using Rogers' model as the origins of the cluster and its meaning in relation to the model are highly questionable. Finally, it is possible that qualitative studies are needed to deter-mine what Rogers' (1992) terms for time experience mean to others, so that regard-less of which quantitative instruments are used eventually, there would be consistency in interpretation across studies as well as in relation to Rogers' model.

Reprinted from Visions, Volume 4 Number 1 1996

Received December, 1995 Accepted February, 1996

References

Allen, V. L. R. (1988). The relationships of time experience, human field motion, and clairvoyance: An investigation in the Rogerian conceptual framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.

Butcher, H. K., & Parker, N. 1. (1988). Guided imagery within Rogers' science of unitary human beings: An experimental study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1, 103-110.

Ference, H. M. (1979). The relationship of time experience, creativity traits, differentiation, and human field motion. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.

Fraser, J. T. (1966). The voices of time. New York: George Braziller.

Hastings-Tolsma, M. T. (1992).The relationship of diversity of human field pattern to risk-taking and time experience: An investigation of Rogers' principles of homeodynamics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.

Knapp, R. H., & Garbutt, J. T. (1958). Time imagery and the achievement motive. Journal of Personality, 26,426-434.

Macrae, J. (1982). A comparison between meditating subjects and non-meditating subjects on time experience and human field motion. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.

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Munro, B. H., & Page, E. B. (1993). Statistical methods for health care research (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). NewYork: McGraw-Hill. Osgood, C. E., & Suci, G. J. (1955). Factor analysis of meaning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50, 325-328.

Paletta, J. L. (1988). The relationship of temporal experience to human time. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.

Paletta, J. L. (1990). The relationship of temporal experience to human time. In E. A. M.

Barrett (Ed.), Visions of Rogers' science-based nursing (pp. 239-253). New York: National League for Nursing (Pub. No. 15-2285). Rawnsley, M. M. (1977). The relationship between the perception of the speed of time and the process of dying: An empirical investigation of the holistic theory of nursing proposed by Martha Rogers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston.

Rawnsley, M. M. (1986). The relationship between the perception of the speed of time and the process of dying. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers' science of unitary human beings {pp. 79-89).Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

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Strumpf, N. E. (1982). The relationship of life satisfaction and self-concept to time experience in older women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York. Wallach, M. A., & Green, L. R. (1961). On age and the subjective speed of time. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 71-74.

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Juanita Watson, RN,C;PhD
Table 1
Clusters, Factor Loadings, and Rank Order of Metaphors on the Time
Metaphor Test (TMT).

Metaphor by cluster           Loadings on first factor  Rank order
                              K&G         W & G         W & G
                              ([N.bar]    ([N.bar]      ([N.bar]
                              = 73)       = 278)        278)
Vectorial

A fast-moving shuttle         +.69        +36           1
A speeding train              +.66        +.74          2
A galloping horseman          +.53        +.69          3
A fleeing thief               +.5         +.65          4
A space ship in flight        +.39        +.37          6
A dashing waterfall           +.36        +.44          7
A whirligig: a pinwheel       +.36        +.61          5

Humanistic

A devouring monster           +.15        +.38          9
A tedious song                +.12        -.18          14
A large revolving wheel       +.07        +.31          10
A burning candle              +.06        -.36          16
A winding spool               -.D5        +0.16         12
A string of beads             -.29        -.38          17
An old man with a staff       -.2         -.44          19
An old woman spinning         -.36        -.23          15

Oceanic Cluster.

Drifting clouds               -.12        -.46          21
Wind-driven sands             -.21        -.06          13
The Rock of Gibraltar         -.33        -.30          22
Budding leaves                -.34        -.42          18
A road leading over a hill    -.36        -.54          23
A quiet, motionless ocean     -.61        -.63          24
A vast expanse of sky         -.61        -.68          25

Intermediate

Marching feet                 +.19        +.23          11
  (Vectorial-Humanistic)
A bird in flight              +.16        +.43          8
  (Vectorial-Oceanic)
A stairway leading upward     -.58        -.44          20
  (Humanistic-Oceanic)

Note. K & G = Knapp & Garbutt (1958). W & G = Wallach & Green (1961)

Table 2
Interpretation of Time Experience

                          Slowest                       Fastest

Knapp & Garbutt (1958)    Oceanic        Humanistic     Vectorial

Macrae (1981) & Watson    Vectorial      Humanistic     Oceanic
(1993)

Allen (1988) &            Humanistic     Vectorial      Oceanic
Hastings-Tolsma (1992)

Rogers (1979) & (1983)    Time drags     Time races     Seems
                                                        timeless

Rogers (1985) & (1992)    Time           Time           Timelessness
                          experienced    experienced
                          as slower      as faster
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