Host ranges and infestation indices of fruit flies (Tephritidae) and lance flies (Lonchaeidae) in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.
Abstract: The knowledge of the status of the different fruit fly species and their hosts is essential to manage these insects. This work reports the associations of tephritoid fly species (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) with fruits collected from 67 municipalities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. From Mar 1997 to Sep 2003, a total of 536 fruit samples was collected from 63 plant species in 28 botanical families. From overall collections, the average infestation index ranged from 0.01 to 22.98 pupae per fruit. The highest infestation was observed in Cucurbita moschata (Dusc.) Poir, followed by Mangifera indica Linnaeus and Passiflora alata Curtis, with 107.14, 59.00, and 38.50 pupae/ fruit, respectively. The pupae/kg of fruit index ranged from 0.01 in Manihot esculenta Crantz to 277.91 in Citharexylum myrianthum Cham. In total 43,104 pupae and 26,368 adults of Tephritoidea were recovered from all collections. The following Tephritoidea adults were observed: Anastrepha amita Zucchi, Anastrepha bahiensis Lima, Anastrepha distincta Greene, Anastrepha. fraterculus (Wied.), Anastrepha grandis (Macquart), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wied.), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Lonchaeidae. All host species infested by C. capitata or Anastrepha spp. also were infested by Lonchaeidae.

Key Words: Tephritoidea, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha, host plant, ecology

El conocimiento del estatus de hospedero es fundamental para el exito del manejo de las especies de moscas de las frutas. Este trabajo reporta la asociacion de moscas de las frutas (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) con huespedes colectados en 67 municipios del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Desde marzo de 1997 a septiembre de 2003, fueran obtenidos en total de 536 muestras de frutas de 63 especies botanicas, pertenecientes a 28 familias. Del total de las muestras infestadas, los indices de infestacion promedio fluctuaron entre 0.01 a 22.98 pupas por fruta. El maximo promedio de infestacion fue encontrado en Cucurbita moschata (Dusc.) Poir, seguido por Mangifera indica L. y Passiflora alata Curtis, con107.14, 59.00 y 38.50 pupas/fruto, respectivamente. En terminos de pupario/Kg de fruta, los indices fluctuaron entre 0.01 (Manihot esculenta) a 277.91 (Citharexylum myrianthum). Se obtuvo un total de 43,104 puparios y 26,368 adultos de Tephritoidea. Adultos de Tephritoidea obtenidos fueron: Anastrepha amita Zucchi, Anastrepha bahiensis Lima, Anastrepha distincta Greene, Anastrepha. fraterculus (Wied.), Anastrepha grandis (Macquart), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wied.), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) y Lonchaeidae. En todos los hospederos infestados por C. capitata oAnastrepha spp. tambien se registro la presencia de especimenes de Lonchaeidae.

Translation provided by authors.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Host plants (Environmental aspects)
Insect-plant relationships (Research)
Mediterranean fruit-fly (Environmental aspects)
Animal ecology (Research)
Authors: Raga, Adalton
de Souza-Filho, Miguel F.
Machado, Rogerio A.
Sato, Mario E.
Siloto, Romildo C.
Pub Date: 12/01/2011
Publication: Name: Florida Entomologist Publisher: Florida Entomological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Florida Entomological Society ISSN: 0015-4040
Issue: Date: Dec, 2011 Source Volume: 94 Source Issue: 4
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: Brazil Geographic Code: 3BRAZ Brazil
Accession Number: 298614292
Full Text: In many countries, tephritid species have caused tremendous losses in fruit production and imposed limits on the export market (Aluja & Mangan 2008). There are relatively few records of fruit flies on native plant species because the majority of publications report data from commercial orchards (Norrbom & Korytkowski 2009). However, current restrictions include fruit species for which there is scant information regarding fruit fly host status (Rengifo et al. 2011). In Brazil, the main fruit fly pests are native Anastrepha species and the exotic medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

Anastrepha Schiner is the largest and most economically important genus of Tephritidae in the Americas (Norrbom et al. 2000). Of the 235 described species of Anastrepha, about 104 are reported in Brazil (Uchoa-Fernandes & Nicacio 2010), and the majority of these has unknown hosts. Anastrepha species in Brazil are associated with fruit bearing trees of 29 families. Of the 41 Anastrepha species associated with host plants, 37% feed on Myrtaceae and 24% on Sapotaceae (Zucchi 2000a).

The genus Ceratitis comprises approximately 65 species, found mostly in tropical Africa. Yet, one of its species, C. capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) is dispersed throughout almost all tropical and temperate warm areas of the planet. It is considered the most cosmopolitan and harmful of all fruit flies, an invader which causes more damages to crops than any other species (Garcia 2009). The host range of C. capitata includes more than 350 fruit and vegetables around the world, and this pest has shown a preference for ripe and succulent fruits (Liquido et al. 1991). Zucchi (2001) has listed 59 hosts for medfly in Brazil with a wide distribution around the country. Souza-Filho et al. (2000) reported medfly and 35 Anastrepha species in Sao Paulo State of which only 20 have known hosts.

In Sao Paulo State, there are 248,809 square kilometers planted with a high diversity of commercial crops, many of which are hosts of fruit flies (Tephritidae). Due to intensive urbanization in the State, the fruit fly distribution and infestation period have changed with implications for the ecology of fruit flies and the strategies of IPM Programmes.

Lonchaeidae species have also been commonly recovered from fruit samples or McPhail traps (Raga et al. 2005, 2006), but in some cases without association with previous tephritid infestation (Uchoa-Fernandes & Nicacio 2010).

The capacity of tephritids to infest so many distinct hosts under different ecosystems has important implications in ecology and pest management. Indeed there are requirements for information on spatial and temporal distribution (Uchoa-Fernandes & Nicacio 2010) and competition among the fruit fly. Tephritid diversity is related to the host phenology in a complex manner, but knowledge thereof is crucial to understand the population dynamics of fruit flies (Souza-Filho et al. 2009), and for implementation of quarantine restrictions and management and control programs (McPheron 2000).

The present work reports the fruit fly and lance fly species (Tephritoidea) associated with fruits in natural conditions, collected from several localities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

From Mar 1997 to Sep 2003, a total of 536 fruit samples of 63 species in 28 botanical families (Table 1) were collected from 67 municipalities of all regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 117,396 fruits (2,130.70 kg) were collected randomly from the canopies and from the ground beneath the trees (Table 1). Samples were obtained from unsprayed trees and brought to the Laboratory of Economic Entomology, Instituto Biologico, located in the municipality of Campinas, Sao Paulo State. The fruits were counted, weighed and placed in fruit-holding boxes containing sterilized sand at the bottom and a piece of cotton cloth at the top. About 15-20 d later, the sand in the boxes was sieved to remove Tephritoidea pupae, which were counted and transferred to a glass cage (6,000 cc) with a small amount of dry sand at the bottom and kept at 25 [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C and 70 [+ or -] 10% relative humidity for 25 d to allow adult emergence. Adults were fed with a mixture of sugar/yeast extract (3:1) and water. Adults were killed in a freezer and placed in labeled vials with 70% ethanol for identification. Tephritidae adults were separated by sexes and the Anastrepha females were identified based on Stone (1942), Steyskal (1977) and Zucchi (2000b). Specimens of Lonchaeidae were not identified below family level. Infestation indices of Tephritoidea from each fruit species were measured by pupae per fruit and pupae per kg of fruits.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

From overall infested collections the infestation average indices ranged from 0.01 to 22.98 pupae per fruit, obtained respectively from Manihot esculenta Crantz and Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. (Table 1). The maximum average infestations in samples were recovered from C. moschata (107.1 pupae), followed by Mangifera indica L. and sweet passion fruit, Passiflora alata Curtis, with 107.1, 59.0, and 38.5 pupae/fruit, respectively. In terms of pupae/kg of fruit, the average indices ranged from 0.01 (M. esculenta) to 277.9 (Citharexylum myrianthum Cham.). The maximum average infestations in samples were recovered from C. myrianthum (1,217.6), Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (520.0), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (430.6), P. alata (342.2), peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (418.2), passion fruit, Passiflora edulis Sims (287.5), and mango M. indica (283.3). According to Raga et al. (2004), some samples of 'Kumquat' and 'Cravo' mandarin collected in the state of Sao Paulo reached 64.0 and 37.9 pupae/kg of fruits, respectively. In the present work, only 17 plant species showed no fruit samples infested with fruit flies (Tephritoidea).

Considering all collections, we obtained 43,104 pupae and 26,368 adults of Tephritoidea (Table 2). The following frequencies of Tephritoidea adults were obtained during the experiment: 79.2% Tephritidae (63.5% Anastrepha spp. and 15.7% C. capitata) and 20.8% Lonchaeidae. No adult fly was obtained in 22 botanical species (Table 2) of which 6 had been reported to be hosts of Anastrepha spp. or C. capitata in the remaining Brazilian states (Zucchi 2001). Only C. capitata emerged from Annona muricata L. samples. The following hosts were only infested by Lonchaeidae: atemoya (A. squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill.), Annona reticulata L., Capsicum sp., Carica papaya L., Gossypium hirsutum L., P. edulis, avocado (Persea americana Mill.), Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill., S. terebinthifolius and Swartzia langsdorfii Raddi. Only 5 hosts showed infestation by Anastrepha spp.: Cryptocarya aschersoniana Mez, Cucurbita maxima (Duchesne), Picramnia sp., Punica granatum Linnaeus, and Rubus ulmifolius Schott.

In all the hosts infested by C. capitata or Anastrepha spp. in the present work we also registered Lonchaeidae infestations (Table 2). Medfly and Lonchaeidae infestations were observed exclusively in Solanum gilo Radd. Eight plant species were considered hosts for both Anastrepha spp. and Lonchaeidae. Seventeen hosts showed infestation by C. capitata and Anastrepha species. Medfly and Lonchaeidae were recovered from 12 hosts while Anastrepha spp. and Lonchaeidae were recovered from 24 hosts.

We observed infestations by C. capitata, Anastrepha spp. and infestations by Lonchaeidae in the following 16 host plant species: Averrhoa carambola L., C. myrianthum, Dyospyros kaki L. f., E. japonica, Garcinia brasiliensis Mart., Inga spp., Malpighia emarginata Sesse & Moc ex DC, Malus domestica L., Manilkara zapota (Linnaeus) van Royen, P. alata Dryander, Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk., Prunus mume Sieb. & Zucc., P. persica, Pyrus communis (Linnaeus) Batsch. Spondias purpurea L. and Terminalia catappa.

Medfly has become established in most areas of the country (Zucchi 2001). In the present work we reported for the first time medfly infestations on C. myrianthum, P. mume, and S. gilo. Ceratitis capitata is dominant in urban areas of Sao Paulo State (Raga et al. 2004) and it has shown a preference for coffee (Raga et al. 2002) and peach (Souza-Pilho et al. 2009), although it can also infest native hosts (Table 2).

Our data indicated that Lonchaeidae is not exclusively an opportunistic group, although in the majority of fruits infested by them, previous infestation by tephritids can make them more suit able due to physical and chemical changes. Several Brazilian publications have shown an increasing number of reports of Lonchaeidae from fruit samples collected in different agro-ecosystems and biomes (Garcia & Corseuil 2004; Raga et al. 2004, 2005; Uchoa-Pernandes et al. 2002, 2003; Souza-Pilho et al. 2009; Uchoa-Pernandes & Nicacio 2010). In the present work, lonchaeids were recovered from 23 introduced hosts (Table 2).

Ten Anastrepha species were recovered from the following fruit samples: A. amita Zucchi, A. bahiensis Lima, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A grandis (Macquart), A leptozona Hendel, A obliqua (Macquart), A. pseudoparallela (Loew), A. serpentina (Wiedemann) and A sororcula Zucchi. These Anastrepha species are associated with 16 botanical families (Table 3). Six species belong to the fraterculus Group: A. amita, A. bahiensis, A. distincta, A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, and A. sororcula. Anastrepha pseudoparallela is thought to infest P. alata exclusively although only lonchaeids emerged from fruit samples from P. edulis.

Although Barbados cherry (M. emarginata) showed low infestations, their samples presented the highest diversity of tephritids: C. capitata, A. fraterculus, A. obliqua and A. sororcula. Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapotaceae were infested by 4 tephritid species each.

Among the fruit fly species recovered from the fruit samples, the South-American fruit fly, A. fraterculus, was the most polyphagous species, infesting 22 hosts from 13 botanical families. Anastrepha fraterculus is the most economically important fruit fly in Sao Paulo State, where it infests 33 hosts, including introduced ones (Souza-Filho et al. 2000). We report for the first time the infestation of A. fraterculus on C. aschersoniana (Lauraceae), Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Sapotaceae), and Picramnia sp. (Picramniaceae) in Brazil. We report A. fraterculus infesting organic strawberry for the first time in Sao Paulo State (Table 3) at high infestation rates (up to 91.8 pupae [kg.sup.-1]).

Our study showed new fruit fly-host associations in Sao Paulo State, probably due to the adaptation evolution of stenophagous/polyphagous species in highly disturbed ecosystems. Further studies should improve the knowledge of ecological aspects of Tephritoidea complex in different edapho-climatic conditions of Sao Paulo.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to Mr. Gabriel Buratto da Silva for his technical assistance in laboratory activities.

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ADALTON RAGA, MIGUEL F. DE SOUZA-FILHO, ROGERIO A. MACHADO, MARIO E. SATO AND ROMILDO C. SILOTO

Instituto Biologico, Centro Experimental, P.O. Box 70, 13012-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil
TABLE 1. HOST PLANTS OF TEPHRITOIDEA AND RESPECTIVE INFESTATION
INDICES FROM SAMPLES COLLECTED IN THE STATE OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL
(MAR 1997 TO SEP 2003).

Plant species              Total     Pupae [fruit.sup.-1]
                           number     (minimum; maximum)
                          of pupae

Aleurites moluccana            1      0.08
(L.) Willd.

Averrhoa carambola L.       5163      1.49 (0.00;5.39)

Capsicum sp.                  35      0.25 (0.03;0.31)

Carica papaya L.              26      2.89 (0.00;26.00)

Citharexylum                3143      0.2 (0.00;0.81)
myrianthum Cham.

Clausena lansium               5      0.02
(Lour.) Skeels

Cryptocarya                   52      0.19
aschersoniana Mez

Cucurbita moschata          1471     22.98 (0.00;107.14)
Duch. ex Poir.

Diospyros kaki L.f.           75      0.04 (0.00;1.17)

Eriobotrya japonica        12721      1.35 (0.00;8.74)
(Thunb.) Lindl.

Fragaria ananassa            275      0.50 (0.00;0.67)
(Wetson) Duchesne

Garcinia brasilensis         128      0.05 (0.00;0.19)
Mart.

Gossypium hirsutum L.        382      0.34 (0.00;093)

Inga spp.                   2123      0.31 (0.00;2.86)

Malpighia emarginata        1383      0.09 (0.00;0.95)
Sesse & Moc ex DC

Malus domestica L.           106      0.02 (0.00;0.56)

Mangifera indica L.         1161      0.60 (0.00;59.00)

Manihot esculenta              5      0.01 (0.00;0.007)
Crantz

Manilkara zapota (L.)        232      0.91 (0.00;3.08)
P. Royen

Mimusops commersonii          48      0.36 (0.00;0.76)
(G. Don) Engl.

Musa x paradisiaca L.          4      0.15 (0.00; 0.29)
(cv. Prata)

Passiflora alata Curtis      914      4.11 (0.00;38.50)

Passiflora edulis Sims       161      0.69 (0.00;23.00)

Persea americana Mill.       112      2.67 (0.00;3.50)

Picramnia sp.                  4      0.03

Pouteria caimito             550      0.81 (0.00;3.08)
(Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.

Prunus domestica L.           97      0.28 (0.00;2.11)

Prunus mume Siebold         1435      0.74 (0.00;2.51)
& Zucc.

Prunus persica (L.)         4996      2.94 (0.00;9.40)
Batsc.

Punica granatum L.             1      0.09

Pyrus communis L.             36      0.14 (0.00;0.35)

Rollinia mucosa               26      0.96 (0.60/1.33)
(Jacq.) Baill.

Rollinia sericea             232      5.40 (0.00;8.92)
(R.E. Pries) R.E. Pries

Rubus ulmifolius Schott        1      0.00 (0.00;0.20)

Schinus                       78      4.88
terebinthifolius Raddi

Solanum gilo Radd.           131      0.57 (0.00;11.00)

Solanum lycocarpum             7      0.24 (0.00;0.33)
St.Hil.

Solanum sp.                   16      0.04 (0.00;0.08)

Spondias dulcis              631      0.57 (0.00;2.45)
Parkinson

Spondias purpurea L.        1712      0.48 (0.02;2.09)

Swartzia langsdorfii          29      0.13 (0.00;0.32)
Raddi

Terminalia catappa L.       2405      0.40 (0.00;2.89)

Plant species               Pupae [kg.sup.-1]
                           (minimum; maximum)

Aleurites moluccana               1.08
(L.) Willd.

Averrhoa carambola L.      31.22 (0.00;227.39)

Capsicum sp.               56.45 (10.00;65.38)

Carica papaya L.            0.46 (0.00;16.05)

Citharexylum              277.91 (0.00;1217.57)
myrianthum Cham.

Clausena lansium            5.78
(Lour.) Skeels

Cryptocarya                23.64
aschersoniana Mez

Cucurbita moschata          0.11 (0.00;28.16)
Duch. ex Poir.

Diospyros kaki L.f.         0.37 (0.00;5.71)

Eriobotrya japonica       109.35 (0.00;430.59)
(Thunb.) Lindl.

Fragaria ananassa          57.53 (0.00;91.82)
(Wetson) Duchesne

Garcinia brasilensis        6.49 (0.00;29.63)
Mart.

Gossypium hirsutum L.      16.32 (0.00;61.73)

Inga spp.                  26.42 (0.00;235.43)

Malpighia emarginata       21.78 (0.00;169.37)
Sesse & Moc ex DC

Malus domestica L.         40.59 (0.00;13.27)

Mangifera indica L.         2.76 (0.00;283.33)

Manihot esculenta           0.01 (0.00;8.62)
Crantz

Manilkara zapota (L.)      23.41 (0.00;84.38)
P. Royen

Mimusops commersonii       15.14 (0.00;36.54)
(G. Don) Engl.

Musa x paradisiaca L.       1.07 (0.00;2.25)
(cv. Prata)

Passiflora alata Curtis    45.48 (0.00;342.22)

Passiflora edulis Sims      6.56 (0.00;287.50)

Persea americana Mill.      4.07 (0.00;5.53)

Picramnia sp.              32.00

Pouteria caimito           17.67 (0.00;121.25)
(Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.

Prunus domestica L.         7.3 (0.00;81.83)

Prunus mume Siebold        56.72 (0.00;264.63)
& Zucc.

Prunus persica (L.)        77.52 (0.00;418.18)
Batsc.

Punica granatum L.          0.61

Pyrus communis L.           1.47 (0.00;28.08)

Rollinia mucosa             0.12 (1.50;5.00)
(Jacq.) Baill.

Rollinia sericea            4.42 (0.00;246.81)
(R.E. Pries) R.E. Pries

Rubus ulmifolius Schott     0.68 (0.00;15.27)

Schinus                   520.00
terebinthifolius Raddi

Solanum gilo Radd.         16.3 (0.00;253.85)

Solanum lycocarpum          0.77 (0.00;0.96)
St.Hil.

Solanum sp.                24.81 (0.00;40.00)

Spondias dulcis             8.96 (0.00;81.84)
Parkinson

Spondias purpurea L.       49.01 (1.62;256.00)

Swartzia langsdorfii        1.55 (0.00;4.05)
Raddi

Terminalia catappa L.      15.29 (0.00;125.00)

TABLE 2. TEPHRITOIDEA ADULTS RECOVERED PROM SAMPLES COLLECTED IN
THE STATE OP SAO PAULO, BRAZIL (MAR 1997 TO SEP 2003).

                                              Total       Total
                           Native (N) or    number in    number
Plant species              Introduced (I)    samples    of fruits

Aleurites moluccana              I              1            12
(L.) Willd.

Anacardium                       N              2            42
occidentale L.

Ananas sp.                       N              2            29

Annona coriacea Mart.            N              1            12

Annona muricata L.               I              1             1

Annona reticulata L.             I              1             2

Annona squamosa L.               I              1             1
x A. cherimola Mill.

Artocarpus                       I              1             2
heterophyllus Lam.

Averrhoa carambola L.            I             35          3473

Bromelia antiacantha             N              1            54
Bertol.

Capsicum sp.                     I              2           142

Carica papaya L.                 I              6             9

Cereus jamacaru DC.              N              1             3

Chrysophyllum                    I              1            31
cainito L.

Citharexylum                     N             23         15534
myrianthum cham.

Clausena lansium                 I              1           244
(Lour.) Skeels

Cryptocarya                      N              1           275
aschersoniana Mez

Cucurbita maxima                 N              2             3
(Dusc.)

Cucurbita moschata               I             11            64
(Dusc.) Poir

Cucurbita moschata x             I              1             1
C. maxima

Diospyros kaki L.f.              I             30          1718

Duguetia lanceolata              N              1             1
A. St.-Hill.

Eriobotrya japonica              I             35          9434
(Thunb.) Lindl.

Fragaria ananassa                I              6           551
(Wetson) Duchesne

Garcinia brasilensis             N             12          2338
Mart.

Genipa americana L.              N              3            63

Gossypium hirsutum L.            I             13          1133

Inga spp.                        N             23          6762

Lycopersicon                     I              3           273
esculentum Mill.

Malpighia emarginata             I             48         14874
Sesse & Moc ex DC.

Malus domestica L.               I              6          5108

Mangifera indica L.              I             51          1933

Manihot esculenta                N              2           421
crantz

Manilkara zapota (L.)            I             10           254
P. Royen

Mimusops commersonii             I              3           135
(G. Don) Engl.

Murraya paniculata               I              1           259
(L.) Jacq.

Musa paradisiaca L.              I              3            27
(cv. Prata)

Passiflora alata Curtis          N             13           361

Passiflora edulis Sims           N             27           948

Persea americana Mill.           I              2            42

Picramnia sp.                    N              1           117

Pouteria caimito                 N              8           682
(Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.

Prunus domestica L.              I              6           349

Prunus mume Siebold              I              5          1938
& Zucc.

Prunus persica (L.)              I             26          1702
Batsc.

Prunus persica var.              I              2            52
nucipersica Dippel

Punica granatum L.               I              1            11

Pyrus communis L.                I              2           260

Qualea grandiflora Mart.         N              1            58

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.)          N              4            27
Baill.

Rollinia sericea                 N              2            43
(R.E. Pries) R.E. Pries

Rubus ulmifolius Schott          I              3           959

Schinus                          N              1            16
terebinthifolius Raddi

Solanum gilo Radd.               I              3           228

Solanum lycocarpum               N              2            29
St.Hil.

Solanum sp.                      N              3           366

Spondias dulcis                  I              9          1113
Parkinson

Spondias mombin L.               N              1           119

Spondias purpurea L.             I             13         36288

Swartzia langsdorfii             N              3           230
Raddi

Terminalia catappa L.            I             51          6060

Theobroma cacao L.               N              1            12

Vitis vinifera L.                I              1           168

                                                   Ceratitis
                                                  capitata (A)

                           Mass Total    Total
Plant species                 (Kg)      (A+B+C)   Female   Male

Aleurites moluccana            0,93         0       -        -
(L.) Willd.

Anacardium                     2,14         0       -        -
occidentale L.

Ananas sp.                     3,05         0       -        -

Annona coriacea Mart.          3,86         0       -        -

Annona muricata L.             2,90         6         4      2

Annona reticulata L.           0,37         4         0      0

Annona squamosa L.             0,61         3         0      0
x A. cherimola Mill.

Artocarpus                     6,90         0         -      -
heterophyllus Lam.

Averrhoa carambola L.        165,40      2208         3      0

Bromelia antiacantha           0,69         0         -      -
Bertol.

Capsicum sp.                   0,62        24         0      0

Carica papaya L.               6,24         2         0      0

Cereus jamacaru DC.            0,32         0         -      -

Chrysophyllum                  1,83         0         -      -
cainito L.

Citharexylum                  11,31      1587         0      1
myrianthum cham.

Clausena lansium               0,87         0         -      -
(Lour.) Skeels

Cryptocarya                     2,2        29         0      0
aschersoniana Mez

Cucurbita maxima               4,46        28         0      0
(Dusc.)

Cucurbita moschata           214,00       815         0      0
(Dusc.) Poir

Cucurbita moschata x           4,39         0         -      -
C. maxima

Diospyros kaki L.f.          205,34        26        13      9

Duguetia lanceolata            0,18         0         -      -
A. St.-Hill.

Eriobotrya japonica          116,34      9060       620    460
(Thunb.) Lindl.

Fragaria ananassa              4,78       179         0      0
(Wetson) Duchesne

Garcinia brasilensis          19,73        80        35     31
Mart.

Genipa americana L.           12,58         0         -      -

Gossypium hirsutum L.         23,41       339         0      0

Inga spp.                     80,37      1202        17      7

Lycopersicon                 202,00         0         -      -
esculentum Mill.

Malpighia emarginata          63,51       908        95     87
Sesse & Moc ex DC.

Malus domestica L.            23,07        76         1      5

Mangifera indica L.          420,09       688         0      0

Manihot esculenta              1,68         0         -      -
crantz

Manilkara zapota (L.)          9,91       138        84     40
P. Royen

Mimusops commersonii           3,17        45         0      0
(G. Don) Engl.

Murraya paniculata             0,13         0         -      -
(L.) Jacq.

Musa paradisiaca L.            3,74         0         -      -
(cv. Prata)

Passiflora alata Curtis       32,59       914        34     17

Passiflora edulis Sims        78,77       161         0      0

Persea americana Mill.        27,49        82         0      0

Picramnia sp.                  0,13         4         0      0

Pouteria caimito              31,12       375         1      0
(Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.

Prunus domestica L.           13,30        73         0      0

Prunus mume Siebold           25,30       910       251    176
& Zucc.

Prunus persica (L.)           64,45      3854      1606    925
Batsc.

Prunus persica var.            2,70         0         -      -
nucipersica Dippel

Punica granatum L.             1,65         1         0      0

Pyrus communis L.             24,44        35         0      1

Qualea grandiflora Mart.       1,74         0         -      -

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.)        8,20         6         0      0
Baill.

Rollinia sericea               1,22       197         0      0
(R.E. Pries) R.E. Pries

Rubus ulmifolius Schott        1,48         1         0      0

Schinus                        0,15        35         0      0
terebinthifolius Raddi

Solanum gilo Radd.             8,03        97         2      0

Solanum lycocarpum             9,15         0         -      -
St.Hil.

Solanum sp.                    0,64         5         0      0

Spondias dulcis               70,40       147         0      0
Parkinson

Spondias mombin L.             2,13         0         -      -

Spondias purpurea L.          34,99       491         2      0

Swartzia langsdorfii          19,00        25         0      0
Raddi

Terminalia catappa L.        157,26      1508       492    457

Theobroma cacao L.             5,68         0         -      -

Vitis vinifera L.              0,85         0         -      -

                            Anastrepha
                              spp. (B)

                                           Lonchaeidae
Plant species              Female   Male       (C)

Aleurites moluccana            -       -         -
(L.) Willd.

Anacardium                     -       -         -
occidentale L.

Ananas sp.                     -       -         -

Annona coriacea Mart.          -       -         -

Annona muricata L.             0       0         0

Annona reticulata L.           0       0         4

Annona squamosa L.             0       0         3
x A. cherimola Mill.

Artocarpus                     -       -         -
heterophyllus Lam.

Averrhoa carambola L.       1040    1107        58

Bromelia antiacantha           -       -         -
Bertol.

Capsicum sp.                   0       0        24

Carica papaya L.               0       0         2

Cereus jamacaru DC.            -       -         -

Chrysophyllum                  -       -         -
cainito L.

Citharexylum                 651     751       184
myrianthum cham.

Clausena lansium               -       -         -
(Lour.) Skeels

Cryptocarya                   17      12         0
aschersoniana Mez

Cucurbita maxima               9      19         0
(Dusc.)

Cucurbita moschata           303     318       194
(Dusc.) Poir

Cucurbita moschata x           -       -         -
C. maxima

Diospyros kaki L.f.            0       2         2

Duguetia lanceolata            -       -         -
A. St.-Hill.

Eriobotrya japonica         3308    4031       641
(Thunb.) Lindl.

Fragaria ananassa             69     109         1
(Wetson) Duchesne

Garcinia brasilensis           2       4         8
Mart.

Genipa americana L.            -       -         -

Gossypium hirsutum L.          0       0       339

Inga spp.                    501     270       407

Lycopersicon                   -       -         -
esculentum Mill.

Malpighia emarginata         155     153       418
Sesse & Moc ex DC.

Malus domestica L.             7       4        59

Mangifera indica L.          311     344        33

Manihot esculenta              -       -         -
crantz

Manilkara zapota (L.)          1       0        13
P. Royen

Mimusops commersonii          14      18        13
(G. Don) Engl.

Murraya paniculata             -       -         -
(L.) Jacq.

Musa paradisiaca L.            -       -         -
(cv. Prata)

Passiflora alata Curtis      194     203       466

Passiflora edulis Sims         0       0       161

Persea americana Mill.         0       0        82

Picramnia sp.                  3       1         0

Pouteria caimito             142     162        70
(Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.

Prunus domestica L.           28      44         1

Prunus mume Siebold          223     238        22
& Zucc.

Prunus persica (L.)          333     416       574
Batsc.

Prunus persica var.            -       -         -
nucipersica Dippel

Punica granatum L.             1       0         0

Pyrus communis L.             16      17         1

Qualea grandiflora Mart.       -       -         -

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.)        0       0         6
Baill.

Rollinia sericea              63      79        55
(R.E. Pries) R.E. Pries

Rubus ulmifolius Schott        1       0         0

Schinus                        0       0        35
terebinthifolius Raddi

Solanum gilo Radd.             0       0        95

Solanum lycocarpum             -       -         -
St.Hil.

Solanum sp.                    1       2         2

Spondias dulcis               83      61         3
Parkinson

Spondias mombin L.             -       -         -

Spondias purpurea L.         202     283         4

Swartzia langsdorfii           0       0        25
Raddi

Terminalia catappa L.        186     249       124

Theobroma cacao L.             -       -         -

Vitis vinifera L.              -       -         -

TABLE 3. ANASTREPHA PEMALE DIVERSITY OBTAINED PROM PRUIT SAMPLES
COLLECTED IN THE STATE OP SAO PAULO, BRAZIL (MAR 1997 TO SEP 2003).

                                Host plant

Fruit fly species      Family                    Species

Anastrepha amita     Verbenaceae      Citharexylum myrianthum Cham.
zucchi

Anastrepha           Annonaceae       Rollinia sericea (R.E. Pries)
bahiensis Lima                        R.E. Pries

Anastrepha           Pabaceae         Inga spp.
distincta Greene

Anastrepha           Anacardiaceae    Spondias purpurea L.;
fraterculus                           Mangifera indica L.
(Wiedemann)
                     Annonaceae       Rollinia sericea (R.E. Pries)
                                      R.E. Pries

                     Clusiaceae       Garcinia brasilensis Mart.

                     Combretaceae     Terminalia catappa L.

                     Pabaceae         Inga spp.

                     Lauraceae        Cryptocarya aschersoniana Mez

                     Lytraceae        Punica granatum L.

                     Malpighiaceae    Malpighia emarginata Sesse
                                      & Moc ex DC.

                     Oxalidaceae      Averrhoa carambola L.

                     Rosaceae         Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.)
                                      Lindl.; Fragaria ananassa
                                      (Wetson) Duchesne; Malus
                                      domestica L.; Prunus domestica
                                      L.; Prunus mume Siebold &
                                      Zucc.; Prunus persica (L.)
                                      Batsc.; Pyrus communis L.;
                                      Rubus ulmifolius Schott

                     Sapotaceae       Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.)
                                      Radlk.; Manilkara zapota (L.)
                                      P. Royen

                     Picramniaceae    Picramnia sp.

                     Solanaceae       Solanum sp.

Anastrepha grandis   Cucurbitaceae    Cucurbita maxima (Dusc.);
(Macquart)                            Cucurbita moschata (Dusc.)
                                      Poir

Anastrepha           Sapotaceae       Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.)
leptozona Hendel                      Radlk.

Anastrepha obliqua   Anacardiaceae    Spondias dulcis Parkinson;
(Macquart)                            Spondias purpurea L.;
                                      Mangifera indica L.

                     Malpighiaceae    Malpighia emarginata Sesse &
                                      Moc ex DC.

                     Oxalidaceae      Averrhoa carambola L.

                     Rosaceae         Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.)

Anastrepha           Passifloraceae   Passiflora alata Curtis
pseudoparallela
(Loew)

Anastrepha           Sapotaceae       Mimusops commersonii (G. Don)
serpentina                            Engl.
(Wiedemann)

Anastrepha           Anacardiaceae    Mangifera indica L.
sororcula zucchi
                     Malpighiaceae    Malpighia emarginata Sesse
                                      & Moc ex DC.

                     Rosaceae         Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.)
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