Haemodialysis access by inferior vena cava catheterisation.
Hemodialysis (Technology application)
Chronic kidney failure (Care and treatment)
Chronic kidney failure (Research)
|Publication:||Name: South African Medical Journal Publisher: South African Medical Association Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2008 South African Medical Association ISSN: 0256-9574|
|Issue:||Date: Nov, 2008 Source Volume: 98 Source Issue: 11|
|Topic:||Event Code: 310 Science & research Computer Subject: Technology application|
|Product:||SIC Code: 3841 Surgical and medical instruments|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: South Africa Geographic Code: 6SOUT South Africa|
To the Editor: Progress in haemodialysis (HD) has made it
increasingly accessible to patients, who often are able to perform their
own dialysis at home. (1) We report our experience with 7 patients who
were dialysed via inferior vena cava (IVC) catheters inserted after
failure to obtain a functioning arteriovenous (AV) fistula or a femoral,
subclavian or jugular catheterisation. IVC catheterisation is useful to
gain vascular access for haemodialysis when conventional routes are
impossible, and helped to prolong the life of 7 end-stage renal disease
(ESRD) patients, with minimal side-effects.
Dialysis membranes are becoming more biocompatible, and dialysis machines safer and easier to operate, (2) while also contributing to improved care of patients with non-renal disease, including end-stage liver disease and cardiac surgery bridging. (3) But vascular access can limit haemodialysis, especially in patients with poor veins, and may cause death in patients with ESRD. AV fistulas may thrombose and lose their patency. Subclavian, jugular or femoral catheters may be used but are often associated with thrombosis or stenosis.
Patients with ESRD can be kept alive for decades by dialysis or kidney transplantation. However, the use of catheters exposes patients to complications such as venous thrombosis, which affects blood flow and the adequacy of dialysis. Haemodialysis via IVC catheters has not been widely practised. (4-6) Vascular access remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, (7) and expertise in its use may be lacking. IVC access for haemodialysis may not need to be continued indefinitely as other means of access may become available through collaterals developing or resolution of occlusion. Other venous accesses such as the common femoral vein are prone to infection. (6)
Using the Seldinger technique, a double-lumen IVC catheter set was inserted. (8) The IVC was punctured via a translumbar approach with an 18-gauge Cheeba needle (Fig. 1); a 14 French dual-lumen tunnel dialysis catheter primed with heparin was introduced co-axially over the guide wire. Haemodialysis was performed 24 hours later and continued regularly 3 times a week. All patients who underwent the procedure were included in this retrospective study. The indication for this method was occlusion of all conventional haemodialysis vascular accesses. Outcomes and complications related to IVC catheters were recorded.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Of 78 patients haemodialysed at Addington Hospital's haemodialysis unit from 2002 to 2007, 7 patients had a total of 9 IVC catheters following failure to obtain a functioning AV fistula or a femoral, subclavian or jugular catheterisation. The patients were 4 males and 3 females, ages 20-41 years, with a mean of 33 years (Table I). Two patients had torn catheters replaced. Infection of the catheters occurred in 4 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from another. Three patients died; 1 after 16 months from a cerebral bleed probably related to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), 1 from catheter-related sepsis after 14 months, and 1 from further catheter occlusion after 9 months. All 3 patients were continuously dialysed through IVC catheters during the period reported (9, 14 and 16 months). The average lifespan of IVC catheters was 11.1[+ or -]1.5 months (range 2-19 months). Selected cases highlight the course of patients following catheter insertion.
A 28-year-old man with ESRD of unknown origin had been treated by chronic dialysis for 3 years. He was treated by CAPD for 6 months that was stopped due to recurrent peritonitis and a frozen abdomen. An attempt to fashion an arteriovenous fistula failed. Renal transplant surgery was abandoned because of extensive fibrosis which rendered any dissection hazardous. Subsequent haemodialysis was via catheters placed consecutively in subclavian, jugular and femoral veins. Owing to their occlusion, haemodialysis was continued via an IVC permanent catheter that functioned very well for 8 months, when it tore at the exit site. It was successfully replaced and is functioning well with a venous Doppler revealing good venous flow. A subsequent radio-radial AV fistula is functioning well for haemodialysis.
A 40-year-old man with ESRD of unknown aetiology was treated by haemodialysis for 6 years after failure of CAPD. Well-controlled hypertension and diabetes mellitus had been diagnosed 5 years earlier. On ultrasound, the left kidney was not clearly visualised while the right kidney measured 7.2 cm and was echogenic. An AV fistula worked for 6 months but then stopped because of thrombosis, and femoral catheterisation was unsuccessful owing to occlusion. A poorly effective peritoneal dialysis was commenced because of vascular access and pending IVC catheterisation. A permanent IVC catheter was inserted and haemodialysis commenced. A S. aureus infection of the IVC catheter was successfully treated with vancomycin (Table I).
IVC catheterisation helped to prolong the lives of our 7 ESRD patients. As in previous studies, IVC catheterisation was offered when all other HD accesses failed.9,10 The technique requires expertise to be developed to improve success and reduce the risk of injury,11 as well as an experienced radiologist and a vascular suite. If these are not available, a surgical approach can be used. (4)
The state of patients' veins should be regularly reviewed to assess the development of adequate collaterals that may allow use of peripheral vein accesses. Recanalisation of an occluded vein should be considered if no other conventional vascular access is possible. (12-14)
An IVC catheter can be replaced safely. (15) IVC catheter-related thrombosis may be treated using a wallstent or thrombolitic agents. (12,16,17) Despite its usefulness for haemodialysis, IVC thromboses may also occur and other options may need to be considered.18 Our patient 2 underwent a successful AV fistula after >8 months of IVC catheter use. IVC catheters are used for indications other than haemodialysis, such as in peripheral stem cell apheresis and transplantation. (19) Complications of IVC catheters and other long-term haemodialysis catheters include infection and thrombosis. (20,21) In our series, infection occurred in 4 and thrombosis in 1 out of 7 patients. No significant difference has been found between brands of IVC catheter and the prevalence of stenosis and thrombosis. (18)
Accepted 30 June 2008.
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(11.) Uramoto H, Yano K, Hachida M, Mori A, Yasumoto K. Inferior vena cava injury after catheterization: report of a case. Hepatogastroenterology 2001; 48: 432-433.
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(14.) Petersen BD, Uchida BT. Long-term results of treatment of benign central venous obstructions unrelated to dialysis with expandable Z stents. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1999; 10: 757-766.
(15.) Shenoy SS, Ray CE Jr. Replacement of tunneled central venous dialysis catheter in the inferior vena cava. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1999; 10: 832-833.
(16.) Covarsi A, Marigliano N, Novillo R, Sanchez O. Thrombosis of the vena cava inferior secondary to catheterization of the femoral vein as a vascular access for haemodialysis. Rev Clin Esp 1990; 187: 311-312.
(17.) Gouge SF, Paulson WD, Moore J Jr. Inferior vena cava thrombosis due to an indwelling haemodialysis catheter. Am J Kidney Dis 1988; 11: 515-518.
(18.) Jean G, Chazot C, Vanel T, et al. Central venous catheters for haemodialysis: looking for optimal blood flow. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 1689-1691.
(19.) Haire WD, Stephens LC, Kotulak GD, Schmit-Pokorny K, Kessinger A. Double-lumen inferior vena cava catheters for peripheral stem cell apheresis and transplantations. Transfus Sci 1995; 16: 79-84.
(20.) Betz C, Kraus D, Muller C, Geiger H. Iliac cuffed tunneled catheters for chronic haemodialysis vascular access. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 2009-2012.
(21.) Fry AC, Jon Stratton J, Farrington K, et al. Factors affecting long-term survival of tunnelled haemodialysis catheters--a prospective audit of 812 tunnelled catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 275-281.
Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban
A G H Assounga, MD, MSc, PhD
SV Ramdial, MB ChB
TM Han, MB ChB, MMed
Department of Radiology, Entabeni Hospital, Durban
M A Conrads, MB ChB
Corresponding author: A Assounga (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Table I. Profile of patients haemodialysed via IVC catheter Patient Age/sex Nephropathy Indication 1 41/F ADPKD Occlusive veins 2 28/M Unk Vein thrombosis 3 40/M Unk Occlusive vein 4 20/M CGN Vein thrombosis 5 30/M CGN Vein thrombosis 6 27/F CIN Vein occlusion 7 32/F Unk Vein occlusion Patient Durat. IVC cath. Complication Outcome 1 2; 14 months Torn; nil Functioning cath. Death (cerebral bleed) 2 8; 10 months Torn; nil Resolved, AV fistula 3 19 months Infection Functioning cath. 4 9 months Occlusion Replaced by cath. in collateral femoral vein 5 11 months Recurrent Functioning infection 6 13 months Infection Functioning 7 14 months Infection Death ADPKD = autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Unk = unknown; CGN = chronic glomerulonephritis; CIN = chronic interstitial nephritis; cath. = catheter
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