Erosive effects of beverages in the presence or absence of caries simulation by acidogenic challenge on human primary enamel: an in vitro study.
AIM: To evaluate in vitro the erosive effects of beverages in the
presence or absence of caries simulation (acidogenic challenge) on the
microhardness of primary enamel. METHODS: Forty human primary teeth were
submitted to the erosive effects: 3x20-min-long daily immersion in fresh
orange juice (orange group), strawberry yogurt drink (yog group), or
cola soft drink (cola group) separately or in combination with
acidogenic challenge (pH cycling for 10 days). Specimens were also
submitted to acidogenic challenge alone, and in the negative control
group specimens were not submitted to any treatment. Mineral loss was
evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness determination. The data
(Knoop hardness numbers, KHN) were subjected to 2-way analysis of
variance and Tukey's post hoc test (a = 0.05%). RESULTS: All the
test beverages significantly reduced the sample cross-sectional enamel
hardness (KHN [+ or -] SD, 235.93 [+ or -] 18.15, 257.23 [+ or -] 21.79,
and 253.23 [+ or -] 13.86 in the orange, yog, and cola groups,
respectively) compared to samples in the negative control group (290.27
[+ or -] 3.92). In vitro acidogenic challenge exacerbated the mineral
loss induced by all beverages (166.02 [+ or -] 4.28, 190.43 [+ or -]
17.55, and 198.39 [+ or -] 21.39 in the orange, yog, and cola groups
combined to acidogenic challenge, respectively) compared to acidogenic
challenge alone. CONCLUSIONS: All beverages exhibited erosive effects on
primary enamel. Simulated caries challenge considerably exacerbated the
enamel softening of primary teeth.
Key words: Cariogenic challenge, erosion, primary tooth
Dental caries (Risk factors)
Enamel and enameling (Physiological aspects)
|Publication:||Name: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry Publisher: European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2012 European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry ISSN: 1818-6300|
|Issue:||Date: Feb, 2012 Source Volume: 13 Source Issue: 1|
|Product:||SIC Code: 2851 Paints and allied products|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: Brazil Geographic Code: 3BRAZ Brazil|
Dietary habits such as the consumption of soft drinks and acidic foods have negatively affected health and have been the focus of many studies [Marshall et al., 2003; Shenkin et al., 2003]. Diet-related changes are associated with an increase in the prevalence of dental erosion [Kazoulis et al., 2007; Murakami et al., 2011], which can be defined as the surface dissolution of the hard dental tissues by acids without microbial involvement [Imfeld, 1996].
Dental erosion is considered a multifactorial process [Lussi, 2006]. Nevertheless, diet plays an important role in the occurrence of erosion, together with low pH [Hooper et al., 2004]; the type, amount of acids present and the concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride [Caglar et al., 2006; Jensdottir et al., 2007; Kargul et al., 2007]. The frequency of intake and the prolonged ingestion of acidic beverages are also reported as factors involved in erosive tooth wear [Amaechi et al., 1999; Eisenburger et al., 2001]. On the other hand, some studies show that certain properties of foods and drinks, such as the presence of calcium fluoride and phosphates, may have some antagonistic effects on mineral loss [Caglar et al., 2006; Jensdottir et al., 2007; Kargul et al., 2007; Kitchens and Owens, 2007]. Therefore, varying compositions of acidic foods are being studied to test this hypothesis and to reduce erosive potential [Barbour et al., 2008; Syed and Chadwick, 2009].
Laboratory studies show a strong correlation between the pH of different beverages and mineral loss from the dental tissues [Lussi et al., 2000; Eisenburger et al., 2001; Hooper et al., 2004; Hunter et al., 2009]. Similarly, some recent studies show that titratable acidity measured from the total acid content and saturation degree [Kargul et al., 2007; Syed and Chadwick, 2009] are useful for determining the erosive potential of beverages. Furthermore, several reports have discussed the erosive effects of soft drinks, juices, and other potentially erosive drinks [Lussi et al., 2000; Lussi et al., 2004; Wongkhantee et al., 2006; Kitchens and Owens, 2007; Hunter et al., 2009]. However, controversy surrounds the erosive potential of yogurt products because although their pH is only approximately 4.5, they contain high amounts of calcium and phosphate [Lussi et al., 2000; Caglar et al., 2006; Kargul et al., 2007]. Caglar et al.  observed that consuming fruit yogurt twice a week was associated with dental erosion in 36% of the children studied. However, in vitro studies showed that yogurt products alone cannot induce enamel erosion [Caglar et al., 2006; Wongkhantee et al., 2006; Kargul et al., 2007]. Therefore, there appears to be no consensus in the literature about the erosive potential of yogurt products.
The effects of frequent exposure to potentially erosive drinks are commonly evaluated using sound permanent teeth. Many epidemiological studies have shown an association between erosion and dental caries [Al-Malik et al., 2001; Kazoullis et al., 2007]; however, there is limited information about the relationship between the effects of erosion and caries challenge on the enamel [Honorio et al., 2008; 2010], especially in primary teeth, which are more prone to mineral loss than are permanent teeth [Johansson et al., 2001; Amaechi and Higham, 2005].
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Materials and methods
The study protocol was approved by the Committee of Ethics (UFSM Institutional Ethics Board, process CAAE# 0032.0.243.000-06). The hardness of 40 specimens of human primary enamel was evaluated. The specimens were exposed to three acidic beverages: orange juice, fruit yogurt, and cola soft drink; the exposure was alone or combined with acidogenic challenge to simulate the chemical changes that occur during the caries process.
Specimen preparation: Forty caries-free human primary canines from children in Santa Maria, Brazil (0.7 mg/L fluoride in water supply) that were exfoliated or extracted for orthodontic purposes were used for this study. The teeth were cleaned and stored in a 0.5% chloramine-T solution at 4[degrees]C for 7 days. The teeth were subsequently stored in distilled water at the same temperature for 6 months until use.
The cervical and radicular portions of the teeth were sealed with epoxy resin-based adhesive (Araldite; Brascola, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil); the crowns were then covered with two layers of an acid-resistant varnish, leaving an exposed window of buccal surface (approximately 2 x 2 mm in size with an area of 4 [mm.sup.2]) that was used as the treatment area.
Treatments: The specimens were randomly assigned into 8 experimental groups (n = 5 each) using Random Allocation Software 2.0 (M. Saghaei, Isfahan, Iran), according to immersion media: fresh orange juice (orange group), strawberry yogurt drink (yog group), normal cola soft drink (cola group), each of the aforementioned beverage plus treatment (erosive effect combined with acidogenic challenge), acidogenic challenge only, and no treatment (Figure 1).
Three beverages commonly consumed by children were selected for this study (Table 1). The pH values of the beverages were previously analysed in triplicate using samples from 5 different batches with a digital pH meter (E520; Metrohm, Herisau, Switzerland) at room temperature. Specimens were immersed individually in 10 mL of freshly opened acidic drink at room temperature for 20 min, 3 times a day, for 10 days, under agitation. After immersion in acidic drinks, the specimens were rinsed with de-ionised water and maintained in the same solution.
All specimens of the three erosive beverage effect, combined with acidogenic challenge groups, were simultaneously submitted to pH-cycling wherein specimens were immersed in 10 mL of demineralising solution (2.2 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], 2.2 mM Na[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], and 0.05 M acetic acid, adjusted to pH 4.8) for 8h, followed by immersion in remineralising solution (1.5 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], 0.9 mM Na[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], and 0.15 mM KCl, adjusted to pH 7.0) for 16 h for 10 days [ten Cate and Djuisters, 1982]. Fresh solutions were prepared daily and maintained at room temperature. Specimens of the acidogenic challenge groups were submitted to pH-cycling only, while the specimens of the negative control group were stored in tap water for 10 days.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Cross-sectional microhardness: The erosive and acidogenic effects were evaluated by measuring enamel softening according to the cross-sectional enamel microhardness values. The specimens were longitudinally sectioned under water-cooling conditions with a diamond saw at the center of the treatment area to obtain two halves. One section was embedded in epoxy resin (Resigel; Redefibra, Sao Paulo, Brazil), while the internal portion was exposed for analysis. The specimens were polished in a rotary polisher (Ecomet 4; Buehler, Lake Bluff, IL, USA) with 600-, 1000-, 1200-, 2000-, and 4000-grit abrasive paper until the surface was shiny and scratch-free under a 20x optical microscope. After the last stage of polishing, the specimens were placed in an ultrasonic cleaner (Biowash TM20; Bio Art, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil) for 12 min to remove residues. Microhardness was measured using a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV II, Shimadzu Corp., Tokyo, Japan) with a Knoop indenter [Honorio et al., 2010] under a 25-g load for 15 s. Eighteen indentations were made on the treatment area of each specimen along 6 lines and 3 columns. The indentations of the first column were located 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 300 Mm from the margin of the enamel surface. The subsequent indentation columns were 100 [micro]m apart in both directions (Figure 2). The Knoop hardness number was obtained by the ratio of the load applied to the uncovered projected area of the indentation in [mm.sup.2].
Statistical analysis: The experimental unit in the current study was the tooth. Thus, 18 indentations from the same tooth were averaged for statistical analysis regardless of indentation depth. Data were assumed to have a normal distribution after the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The Knoop hardness number (KHN) means were subjected to 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Tukey's test for intergroup comparison. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. All analyses were performed using Minitab (version 15; Minitab Inc.).
Mean KHN values and standard deviations are shown in Table 2, in which the lowercase letters (a-c) were used to make comparisons among the beverages and control groups, and the uppercase letters (A-B) were used to make comparisons among the treatments. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in factors of the erosive (p = 0.000) and acidogenic (p = 0.000) treatments. All beverages exhibited differences in microhardness values compared with the negative control (p = 0.000). Orange juice exhibited lower enamel microhardness values than those of the other beverages (p = 0.000). When erosive treatment was combined with acidogenic challenge, the enamel microhardness values were significantly lower than those of the erosive treatment groups (p = 0.000).
The dietary habits of adults and children have changed over time with increases in the consumption of soft drinks, commercial fruit juices, and other acidic foods and beverages [Lussi et al., 2004], all of which contribute to the increased prevalence of dental erosion [Kazoullis et al., 2007; Murakami et al., 2011]. The results of the present in vitro study demonstrate the evident erosive potential of orange juice and soft drinks, concordant with other studies [Wongkhantee et al., 2006; Kitchens and Owens, 2007; Hunter et al., 2009], including those on primary teeth [Lussi et al., 2000; Hunter et al., 2000; Johansson et al., 2001; Hooper et al., 2004). Orange juice produced significantly more enamel softening compared with the other beverages tested; thus, the first null hypothesis can be rejected. Fruit juices, especially orange juice, and cola soft drinks are commonly used in similar erosion studies that compared the erosive potential of other beverages [Johansson et al., 2001; Eisenburger et al., 2001; Hara et al., 2006; Honorio et al., 2010].
Our evaluation of the erosive effects of beverages on primary enamel is justified by the increased consumption of industrially processed products among younger children; the rise in the prevalence of dental erosion, especially among younger children and teenagers [Jones and Nunn, 1995; O'Brien, 1994; Lussi and Jaeggi, 2006]; and the fact that primary teeth are more prone to mineral loss and caries [Lussi et al., 1993] than are permanent teeth [Sonju Clasen et al., 1997; Caglar et al., 2006].
Yogurt drinks are among the industrially processed products whose manufacture and sales are increasing in several countries. This may be attributed to its positive effects on children's health because of the presence of calcium and other nutrients. Pieces of fruit, microorganisms, and sweeteners are added to yogurt to increase its mass appeal. Nevertheless, until now, the erosive potential of yogurt in vitro has been debatable, as previous studies have suggested that dental erosion cannot be induced by exposure to yogurt [Caglar et al., 2006; Jensdottir et al., 2007], a claim contradicted by the findings of the present study.
Earlier studies evaluated only the pH and the degree of saturation with calcium and phosphate related to hydroxyapatite and not the effect of yogurt drinks on the enamel itself. Wongkhantee et al.  also found no erosive effects of yogurt on the enamel of permanent teeth. However, the results of the present study show that the erosive effects of fruit yogurt drink on primary teeth are similar to those of cola. Some properties of yogurt drinks, such as pH; buffering capacity; and fluoride, calcium, and phosphate concentration, can be modified by adding pieces of fruit and various other ingredients, microorganisms, and sweeteners.
Earlier studies demonstrated the effect of the addition of calcium and phosphate on reducing the erosive potential of beverages [Lussi et al., 1995; Jensdottir et al., 2005]; however, doubts persist regarding the influence of fluoride in beverages [Hara and Zero, 2008]. Caglar et al.  demonstrated that calcium and phosphorus contents vary among fruit yogurts and that strawberry yogurt is undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. In addition, evaluation of the pH of the beverages in the present study showed that yogurt could play an important role in dental erosion in vivo because of its acidic nature/enamel softening demonstrated in vitro.
In an attempt to simulate clinical situations, the beverages were kept in contact with the enamel for at least 20 min, representing a typical consumption period under real conditions. Moreover, repeating this protocol three times simulates the consumption of acidic beverages three times a day. A similar protocol was used by Hara et al. . In addition, it is important to consider that the erosive effects of the evaluated beverages were exacerbated by acidogenic challenge, with a significant reduction in enamel microhardness values compared with erosion treatment alone. Thus, the second null hypothesis can also be rejected. Ordinary pH oscillation in the oral environment has been evaluated by many researchers [Rocha et al., 2007]. However, only a few studies have evaluated the combined effect of acidic products (erosion) and the simulation of biofilm metabolism [Honorio et al., 2008; 2010; Rios et al., 2008].
The results of the present study show that the combination of the erosive effect of beverages and acidogenic challenge under laboratory conditions increased enamel softening; this finding contradicts those of Honorio et al. , who did not find a statistically significant increase in enamel softening. In addition, that study was performed in permanent enamel, differing from the present study, which was performed on the more susceptible primary enamel.
The differences between primary and permanent teeth could explain this result as primary enamel has lower mineral content than does permanent enamel [Mortimer, 1970], resulting in faster mineral loss as carious and erosion lesions [Lussi et al., 1993]. Moreover, these verying results may be explained by the different methodologies used for simulated cariogenic challenge; however, pH-cycling is a proven method for producing artificial carious lesions in enamel [ten Cate and Djuisters, 1982].
In vitro models are important for determining the chemical interactions in dental caries and erosion. However, such studies are unable to thoroughly simulate the oral environment, especially with respect to salivary flow, buffering capacity, and pellicle, all of which play important roles in the erosion process [Sonju Clasen et al., 1997]. It is important to highlight that the in vitro conditions of this study cannot be directly extrapolated to clinical situations. Nevertheless, it seems reasonable to recommend that caution be exercised with respect to the consumption of potentially erosive beverages, especially in children with caries activity. Further studies should be carried out to confirm the erosive effect of these beverages in intra-oral environments.
Within the limitations of this in vitro study, all the evaluated beverages had an erosive effect on the enamel of primary teeth, and that orange juice had a stronger erosive effect than a yogurt drink or cola. Moreover, enamel softening was exacerbated by a combination of beverage-induced erosion and caries challenge simulation.
We wish to sincerely thank to Douglas Nesadal de Souza (Department of Biomaterials and Oral Biochemistry, University of Sao Paulo) for his contribution to the performance of this work. This study was partially supported by CNPq (Pibic-UFSM).
Al-Malik MI, Holt RD, Bedi R. The relationship between erosion, caries and rampant caries and dietary habits in preschool children in Saudi Arabia. Int J Paediatr Dent 2001; 11:430-439.
Amaechi BT, Higham SM, Edgar WM. Factors influencing the development of dental erosion in vitro: enamel type, temperature and exposure time. J Oral Rehabil 1999; 26:624-630.
Amaechi BT, Higham SM. Dental erosion: possible approaches to prevention and control. J Dent 2005; 33:243-252.
Barbour ME, Shellis RP, Parker DM, Allen GC, Addy M. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite dissolution by whole casein: the effects of pH, protein concentration, calcium, and ionic strength. Eur J Oral Sci 2008; 116:473-478.
Caglar E, Kargul B, Tanboga I, Lussi A. Dental erosion among children in an Istanbul public school. J Dent Child 2005; 72:5-9.
Caglar E, Lussi A, Kargul B, Ugur K. Fruit yogurt: any erosive potential regarding teeth? Quintessence Int 2006; 37:647-651.
Eisenburger M, Addy M, Hughes JA, Shellis RP. Effect of time on the remineralisation of enamel by synthetic saliva after citric acid erosion. Caries Res 2001; 35:211-215.
Hara AT, Ando M, Gonzalez-Cabezas C et al. Protective effect of the dental pellicle against erosive challenges in situ. J Dent Res 2006; 85:612-616.
Hara AT, Zero DT. Analysis of the erosive potential of calcium-containing acidic beverages. Eur J Oral Sci 2008; 116:60-65.
Honorio HM, Rios D, Santos CF et al. Effects of erosive, cariogenic or combined erosive/cariogenic challenges on human enamel. Caries Res 2008; 42:454-459.
Honorio HM, Rios D, Santos CF et al. Cross-sectional microhardness human enamel subjected to erosive, cariogenic or combined erosive/cariogenic challenges. Caries Res 2010; 44:29-32.
Hooper S, West NX, Sharif N et al. A comparison of enamel erosion by a new sports drink compared to two proprietary products: a controlled, crossover study in situ. J Dent 2004; 32:541-545.
Hunter ML, West NX, Hughes JA, Newcombe RG, Addy M. Erosion of deciduous and permanent dental hard tissue in the oral environment. J Dent 2000; 28:257-263.
Hunter ML, Patel S, Rees J. The in vitro erosive potential of a range of baby drinks. Int J Paediat Dent 2009; 19:325-329.
Imfeld T. Dental erosion. Definition, classification and links. Eur J Oral Sci 1996; 104:151-155.
Jensdottir T, Bardow A, Holbrook P. Properties and modification of soft drinks in relation to their erosive potential in vitro. J Dent 2005; 33:569-575.
Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Bardow A. Effects of calcium on the erosive potential of acidic candies in saliva. Caries Res 2007; 41:68-73.
Johansson AK, Sorvari R, Birkhed D, Meurman JH. Dental erosion in deciduous teeth--an in vivo and in vitro study. J Dent 2001; 29:333-340.
Jones SG, Nunn JH. The dental health of 3-year-old children in East Cumbria 1993. Comunnity Dent Health 1995; 12:162-166.
Kargul B, Caglar E, Lussi A. Erosive and buffering capacities of yogurt. Quintessence Int 2007; 38:381-385.
Kazoullis S, Seow WK, Holcombe T, Newman B, Ford D. Common dental conditions associated with dental erosion in schoolchildren in Australia. Pediatr Dent 2007; 29:33-39.
Kitchens M, Owens BM. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2007; 31:153-159.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Scharer S. The influence of different factors on in vitro enamel erosion. Caries Res 1993; 27:387-393.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Jaeggi-Scharer S. Prediction of the erosive potential of some beverages. Caries Res 1995; 29:349-354.
Lussi A, Kohler N, Zero D, Schaffner M, Megert B. A comparison of the erosive potential of different beverages in primary and permanent teeth using an in vitro model. Eur J Oral Sci 2000; 108:110-114.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Zero D. The role of diet in the aetiology of dental erosion. Caries Res 2004; 38 Suppl 1:34-44.
Lussi A. Erosive tooth wear--a multifactorial condition of growing concern and increasing knowledge. Monogr Oral Sci 2006; 20:1-8.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T. Dental erosion in children. Monogr Oral Sci 2006; 20:140-151.
Marshall TA, Levy SM, Warren JJ et al. Dental caries and beverage consumption in young children. Pediatrics 2003; 112:e184-191.
Mortimer KV. The relationship of deciduous enamel structure to dental disease. Caries Res 1970; 4:206-223.
Murakami C, Oliveira LB, Sheiham A et al. Risk indicators for erosive tooth wear in brazilian preschool children. Caries Res 2011; 45:121-129.
O'Brien M. Children's dental health in the United Kingdom 1993. Office of populations censures and surveys. London: HMSO, 1994.
Rios D, Honorio HM, Francisconi LF et al. In situ effect of an erosive challenge on different restorative materials and on enamel adjacent to these materials. J Dent 2008; 36:152-157.
Rocha RO, Soares FZ, Rodrigues CR, Rodrigues Filho LE. Influence of Aging Treatments on Microtensile Bond Strength of Adhesive Systems to Primary Dentin. J Dent Child 2007; 74:109-112.
Shenkin JD, Heller KE, Warren JJ, Marshall TA. Soft drink consumption and caries risk in children and adolescents. Gen Dent 2003; 51:30-36.
Sonju Clasen AB, Ogaard B, Duschner H et al. Caries development in fluoridated and non-fluoridated deciduous and permanent enamel in situ examined by microradiography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Adv Dent Res 1997; 11:442-447.
Syed J, Chadwick RG. A laboratory investigation of consumer addition of UHT milk to lessen the erosive potential of fizzy drinks. Br Dent J 2009; 206:E6;154-155.
ten Cate JM, Djuisters PP. Alternating demineralization and remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Caries Res 1982; 16:201-210.
Wongkhantee S, Patanapiradej V, Maneenut C, Tantbirojn D. Effect of acidic food and drinks on surface hardness of enamel, dentine, and toothcoloured filling materials. J Dent 2006; 34:214-220.
Tedesco TK *, Gomes NG *, Soares FZM **, Rocha RO *
* Department of Stomatology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil.
** Department of Restorative Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil.
Postal address: T.K. Tedesco, Departamento de Estomatologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Rua Marechal Floriano Peixoto, 1184 sala 109 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
Table 1. Beverages tested; product, manufacturer, description, pH and pKa. Beverage Product Manufacturer Description pH pKa Fresh Del Valle Del Valle do Water, 3.6 4.17 orange Brasil, concentrated juice Americana, orange juice, SP, Brazil sugar, acidulants, ascorbic acid, colourants Yogurt Strawberry Nestle Milk, 4.2 3.15 drink yogurt strawberry pulp, sugar, tricalcium phosphate, fructose, vitamins and minerals (iron lactate, zinc sulfate), acidulants, citric acid, flavours, calcium chloride, milk enzymes and colourants Regular Coke CVI Carbonated 2.4 2.12 cola Refrigerantes water, 10% soft Ltda., Santa sugar, drink Maria, RS, caffeine, Brazil caramel colourant, flavours, phosphoric acid Table 2. Mean ([+ or -] SD) KHN values of the experimental groups. Groups Orange Juice Yogurt drink Treatment (pH 3,6) (pH 4,2) Erosive only 235.93 (18.15) (A,c) 257.23 (21.70) (A,b) Erosive + Acidogenic challenge 166.02 (4.28) (B,c) 190.43 (17.55) (B,b) Acidogenic challenge alone No treatment Groups Cola soft drink Control Treatment (pH 2,4) Erosive only 253.23 (13.86) (A,b) Erosive + Acidogenic challenge 198.39 (21.79) (B,b) Acidogenic challenge alone 211.50 (5.35) (B,a) No treatment 290.27 (3.92) (A,a) * Different lowercase letters a-c indicate a statistically significance difference among the columns (beverages and control groups). ** Different uppercases letters A-B indicate a statistically significance difference among the rows (treatments) (p<0.05).
|Gale Copyright:||Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.|