Article Type: Editorial
Subject: Medical publishing (Conferences, meetings and seminars)
Medical publishing (Rites, ceremonies and celebrations)
Author: Wilson, Denise
Pub Date: 11/01/2011
Publication: Name: Nursing Praxis in New Zealand Publisher: Nursing Praxis in New Zealand Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health care industry Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Nursing Praxis in New Zealand ISSN: 0112-7438
Issue: Date: Nov, 2011 Source Volume: 27 Source Issue: 3
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 276901005
Full Text: The 2011 INANE (International Academy of Nursing Editors) conference was held in San Francisco, August 3-5. I attended, accompanied by Kelly Rotherham (Nursing Praxis Administrator). Among the 140 attendees were editors, publishers, and others involved in the publication process. The focus this year was on nursing journals and the use of technologies such as social networking. The value of social networking as exemplified by Facebook, Blogs and Twitter, was explored as a forum for disseminating journal-related information, and as a means of reaching readers in a world where information is increasing exponentially. In addition to sessions on social media, the ethical issues confronting editors and editorial boards, and more general issues of publication were discussed and debated.

It was stated that between 40-60% of nurses use some form of social media, with Facebook and YouTube being the most popular venues. Social media enable information sharing and provide a forum for users to converse, listen, share and participate in a "virtual cocktail party". Importantly social media can be used to reach those who do not access journals through traditional routes. Interestingly, coincidentally Kelly and I, when searching San Francisco for a print copy of a book, became acutely aware of the impact of e-technology. Nearly all the bookshops had closed.

The advantages of Facebook, Blogs and Twitter for journals are numerous. As already noted, media such as these have the potential to reach nurses who do not ordinarily access journals. The younger age group in particular want information 'now'. Their first step is often the Internet. Blogs, we learned, are not just places for catharsis and expression of uninformed opinion; they provide an opportunity to develop relationships and conversations without the formality of the level of scholarship demanded for journal articles. Whereas Facebook is an effective way of reaching a variety of people, Twitter is useful for disseminating short, specific, real-time messages, and to follow what 'experts' think about topics. Twitter provides the opportunity to establish relationships with people who have similar interests, while positioning a journal as a source of timely and interesting comment. Some journals are using these media to disseminate easily accessible and useable information, hopefully encouraging readers to explore the journal itself.

As I knew little about blogs, Getting to know the Blogosphere, run by Kim McAllister (an emergency room nurse blogger) provided an excellent introduction. She explained that a blog is a concise 400-500 word piece with new content, but without the restrictions of APA referencing and normal peer review (although there is review by peers). She recommended that a team approach to producing blogs improves their success, dividing the work involved and allowing for different voices.

However social media's propensity for personal expression has a down side, and risks blurring the boundaries between the professional and personal. This is especially the case when nurses make reference to, and engage in discussions about patients, or upload on either personal or professional Facebook pages photographs that include patients. Participation in social media requires consideration of consumer perspectives similar to those applying to print media--namely permission from those who hold copyright, and--with respect to photographs--from those who appear in the images used.

Representatives of Thomas Reuters presented a session on impact factors and content evaluation. Within the context of New Zealand's Performance Based Research Funding (PBRF) and the associated focus on journals' impact factors, they stressed that the latter are about the journal--its timeliness in publishing articles, editorial content, its international diversity, and the analysis of citations. Impact factors are not intended to apply to particular articles or specific authors. It was highlighted that there is a fine line between authors staying true to a journal's core market (in the case of Nursing Praxis, locally relevant publications) and selling out to the public market--such as may occur for instance with university endeavours to increase their research ranking through publication in journals with high impact factors.

Ethical issues related to publications can originate at publisher, author and reviewer levels. All carry a responsibility to ensure publications are ethical. An interactive session based on a number of ethical dilemmas relating to the publication process focused on reviewer bias, reviewer accusations of plagiarism, informed consent and ethical approval, redundant publications (production of a similar publication from the same piece of research), management of data fabrication, and conflict of interest evident in a review. Data fabrication, interestingly, is now managed by some editors requiring submission of (and in some cases publication of) raw data in order that results can be checked by readers. To manage ethical concerns most journals now use COPE guidelines--something that I, as an editor, will be exploring further. We were also alerted to the reality that as new methods of dissemination occur with developing technology and so new ethical issues arise.

Susan Hassmiller, the Senior Advisor for Nursing and Director Future of Nursing Campaign for Action presented the Institute of Medicine's (2011) Future of Nursing report and the subsequent campaign to enact its recommendations. Furthermore, she emphasised the point that optimal patient care is dependent on team models of care, nurse practitioners, collaboration and inter-professional patient-centred health care teams, leadership and the need for the nursing workforce to reflect the ethnic diversity of the population it serves.

The success of the Future of Nursing at a political level has been in the framing of nursing around health care and health outcomes, and the role nursing can play. Susan also highlighted concern about reports in the USA that nursing shortage no longer exists. The true picture is that, due to fiscal restraints nursing positions were being cut back. She sees the potential consequence to be loss of future generations of registered nurses due to a lack of employment opportunities.

A plenary session comprising a publishers' panel with representatives from Elsevier, SAGE, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, and Wiley-Blackwell discussed a variety of publication related issues. Important trends regarding online journal articles include the emerging importance of the semantic web to assist researchers and clinicians to access the right information, at the right time, in the right way. Again, it was suggested that actual data are published with a manuscript--or at least made available to the reader. The panel also discussed a trend away from the traditional print to an online model of publication that relies on user-pays (the user being the reader) towards an author-payment open access model that some journals already have available. This trend exposes publishing to a realm of conflict of interest, and privileges those with access to funding sources. It was noted that in the USA many researchers are now including costs of publication in open access journal in research budgets.

Both Kelly and I found this conference enlightening. It highlighted the changing landscape for nursing journals and publications of research, and the influence of social media. All of which we need to consider as Nursing Praxis evolves and moves into the future.

Associate Professor Denise Wilson PhD, RN, FCNA(NZ) Editor-in-Chief / AUT University
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