Drawn to the sea: Charles Bradford Hudson (1865-1939), artist, author, army officer, with special notice of his work for the United States Fish Commission and Bureau of Fisheries.
Subject: Artists (Works)
Fishes (Evaluation)
Authors: Springer, Victor G.
Murphy, Kristin A.
Pub Date: 09/22/2009
Publication: Name: Marine Fisheries Review Publisher: Superintendent of Documents Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Agricultural industry; Business Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 U.S. Department of Commerce ISSN: 0090-1830
Issue: Date: Fall, 2009 Source Volume: 71 Source Issue: 4
Product: Product Code: 0910000 Fishing NAICS Code: 11411 Fishing
Persons: Named Person: Hudson, Charles Bradford
Geographic: Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States
Accession Number: 221850772
Full Text: The Illustration Listings

Each figure is listed in numeric sequence by its illustration catalog number, followed by the plate number and alphabetic position on the plate in which it appears, and the current scientific name of the species (which is the same as that which appears in the legend to the plate). We chose an overall sequential listing, as opposed to grouped listings by plate, because many of the comments and discussions refer to several of the illustrations and we found it easier to locate individual catalog numbers in a sequence than by searching through 26 plates for a catalog number.

Under the current scientific name, we give the accepted common name only for North American species, and the fish family name for all species. Next, we provide the scientific name that was assigned to the illustration when the illustration was first published, and include the literature citation for that publication.

Other information is variable and, insofar as known, includes approximate date illustration was prepared (often based on ancillary references, e.g. the steamer Albatross station records for 1901-02 for the Hawaiian Islands, published in the Report of the Commissioner, U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Part 28, for year ending 30 June 1902 [1904], which provides dates of collection for specimens when authors cited only station data). Date of collection is the earliest possible date for preparation of an illustration, and date of publication of the illustration is the latest possible date for its preparation. CBH often indicated an actual date for preparation or indicated a year on the painting under his signature. With few exceptions, CBH and/or authors of the published plates usually only indicated total lengths (TL) of the specimen illustrated, and usually only in inches. We present the data as indicated by the authors, and also approximate conversions to millimeters. If millimeters were used originally, we usually do not convert to inches. Other information we present includes CBH's indication when a particular illustration is based on more than one specimen; status of illustrated specimen as a holotype, if indicated or can be discerned from the publication; indication of media (ink, inkwash, watercolor, gouache (an opaque watercolor), oil, lead pencil) and, occasionally technique (stippling, ink lines) used in preparation of illustrations; price CBH was paid for the illustration (indicated on the illustration and based either on the illustrated length of the fish in inches, or the length and depth in square inches). We do not indicate the length of the figures as published; these are quite often different, and much reduced from the originals; none appear to have been published enlarged.

Thirty-two of the CBH illustrations (including some of the "previously framed illustrations") were included in the exhibit, "Drawn from the Sea: Art in the Service of Ichthyology" (abbreviated DFSA, henceforth), which was on display at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History from Sept. 1985 to Mar. 1986. From 1987 to 1989, a reduced DFSA traveled to 16 museums, universities, and science centers, from Ontario to Texas and from Maine to California. (143) Only 12 of the 32 CBH illustrations that were included in the original DFSA were included in the 1987-89 version.

XX001-Plate 21C

Epinephelus striatus (Bloch) Nassau grouper, Family Serranidae

Illustration first published as: Epinephelus striatus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 12).

Date illustrated: between Jan. and Apr. 1897, when CBH was in Key West, Fla. (144)

Length of specimen: about 12 inches [about 305 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.12 inches [about 231 mm]

Remarks: original illustration lost; reproduced from published lithograph.

XX002-Plate 20C

Lutjanus jocu (Bloch and Scheneider). Dog snapper, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration first published as: Neomaenis jocu by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 18).

Date illustrated: between 15 Jan. and 1 Apr. 1897 in Key West, Fla. (see XX001, footnote to date illustrated [not illustration].

Length of specimen: about 11.5 inches [about 292 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Remarks: original illustration lost; reproduced by us from published lithograph.

P00183-Plate 9A

Alectrias benjamini Jordan and Snyder Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as: Alectrias benjamini by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 16).

Date illustrated: before 26 Sept. 1902, based on date of publication.

Length of specimen: about.7.5 inches [190.5 mm], based on scale line accompanying original illustration; length as illustrated, 12.5 inches [about 318 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

P00818-Plate 3E

Moringua edwardsi (Jordan and Bollman) Spaghetti eel, Family Moringuidae

Illustration apparently not published previously. Name on drawing is Aphthalmichthys caribbeus and represents the holotype, 270 mm TL, of Aphthalmichthys caribbeus Gill and Smith (1900:974), which was described in more detail, but not illustrated, by Evermann and Marsh (1900:71).

Length of specimen: The longest dimension of the eel in the original illustration is 10 inches [254 mm], but as the eel is drawn curved on itself, the original illustration is about twice the length of the actual specimen.

Media: includes ink wash and lead pencil, with some fine white gouache highlights.

P00979-Plate 19C

Anguilla rostrata (Leseuer) American eel, Family Anguillidae

Illustration first published as Anguilla chrysypa by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 1).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 08 Dec. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 27 inches [about 686 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [ca. 235 mm], but as the eel is drawn curved on itself, the original illustration is about two-thirds the length of the actual specimen.

Media: watercolor, fine pen and ink, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: This illustration has been reproduced in several publications and other venues subsequent to its original publication. It was included in both the initial and reduced versions of DFSA and on the poster for the exhibition. Previously framed.

P00980-Plate 19E

Clupea harengus (Linnaeus) Atlantic herring, Family Clupeidae

Illustration first published as Clupea harengus by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 5).

Date illustrated: drawn from dead specimen 16 Nov. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 13 inches [about 229 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: Watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P00981-Plate 23E

Opsanus tau (Linnaeus) Oyster toadfish, Family Batrachoididae

Illustration first published as Opsanus tau by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 15).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 31 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 10.5 inches [about 267 mm]; Length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink.

Remarks: Previously framed. Also included in original DFSA.

P00982-Plate 23D

Pollachius virens (Linnaeus) Pollock, Family Gadidae

Illustration first published as Pollachius virens by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 16).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 30 Nov. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 10.75 inches [273 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, fine gray stippling on fins.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P00984-Plate 23B

Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill) Silver hake, Family Merlucciidae

Illustration first published as Merluccius bilinearis by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 17).

Date illustrated: drawn from dead specimen, 11 Nov. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 17.625 inches [about 447.7 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: watercolor, much gouache, a little ink.

Remarks: Framed previously.

P00985-Plate 22C

Fundulus majalis (Walbaum), male Striped killifish, Family Fundulidae

Illustration first published as Fundulus majalis by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 18a).

Date illustrated: drawn from dead specimen, 17 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen and illustration: each 6 inches [about 152 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, black ink, and lead pencil.

P00986-Plate 22D

Fundulus majalis (Walbaum), female Striped killifish, Family Fundulidae

Illustration first published as Fundulus majalis by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 18b).

Date illustrated: drawn from dead specimen, 8 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen and illustration: each 6 inches [about 152 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, black ink, and lead pencil.

P00991-Plate 22B

Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode and Bean) Gag, Family Serranidae

Illustration first published as Mycteroperca microlepis by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 46).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, outline from one specimen, color from another, Feb. 1897, Key West, Fla.

Length of specimen: 16.75 inches [about 425 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.44 inches [about 240 mm].

Media: inkwash and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P00995-Plate 20B

Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) Gray snapper, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration first published as Neomaenis griseus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 17).

Date illustrated: Drawn from life, 12 Mar. 1897, Key West, Fla., outline from one specimen, color from another.

Length of specimen: 12.44 inches [about 316 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [about 235 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink in pupil.

Remarks: DFSA; previously framed. Illustration has been reproduced many times in various publications.

P00997-Plate 23F

Cynoscion regalis (Bloch and Schneider) Weakfish, Family Sciaenidae

Illustration first published as Cynoscion regalis by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 31).

Date illustrated: Unknown, data on illustration was destroyed when board was trimmed to fit in filing cabinet, probably drawn from fresh specimen at Woods Hole, Mass., during fall of 1896.

Length of specimen: unknown; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [about 235 mm].

Media: watercolor with white gouache highlights.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P00999-Plate 24D

Tautoga onitis (Linnaeus), female Tautog, Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Tautoga onitis by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 44).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 24 Sept. 1896, at Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 11.88 inches [about 302 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.06 inches [about 205 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P01001-Plate 24A

Scomber colias Gmelin Atlantic chub mackerel, Family Scombridae

Illustration first published as Scomber japonicus by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 26).

Date illustrated: probably drawn from a fresh specimen although indicated as drawn from life, 15 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 10 inches [254 mm]; length of illustration, 9.06 inches [about 230 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: DFSA, also previously framed.

P01002-Plate 24C

Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) Spanish mackerel, Family Scombridae

Illustration first published as Scomberomorus maculatus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 6).

Date illustrated: Presumably illustrated from fresh specimen; date on illustration is 5 Sept. 1896, Cape Charles City, Va.

Length of specimen: 20 inches [508 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.06 inches [about 230 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P01003-Plate 22E

Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Mitchill) Longhorn sculpin, Family Cottidae

Illustration first published as Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 21).

Date illustrated: presumably illustrated from fresh or live specimen; date on illustration is 6 Nov. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 13 inches [about 330 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: watercolor, ink, and gouache.

Remarks: DFSA. Previously framed.

P01008-Plate 22F

Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) Winter flounder, Family Pleuronectidae

Illustration first published as Pseudopleuronectes americanus by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 49).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 3 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 12.5 inches [about 318 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.12 inches [about 232 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P01035-Plate 14E

Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) Bluefish, Family Pomatomidae

Illustration first published as Pomatomus saltatrix by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 32).

Date illustrated: presumably based on fresh specimen, 14 Sept. 1896, Cape Charles City, Va.

Length of specimen: 17 inches [about 432 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [about 235 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink, fine lines of ink. Remarks: Previously framed.

P01039-Plate 14C

Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus) Florida pompano, Family Carangidae

Illustration first published as Trachinotus carolinus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 10).

Date illustrated: presumably based on a fresh specimen, 3 Sept. 1896, Cape Charles City, Va.

Length of specimen: 17 inches [432 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink around eye.

Remarks: Previously framed, DFSA.

P01115-Plate 23C

Gadus morhua Linnaeus Atlantic cod, Family Gadidae

Apparently published here for the first time.

Date illustrated: Based on a [fresh] dead specimen, 24 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 22 inches [539 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.06 inches [about 230 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P01276-Plate 26B

Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus) Stripebelly puffer, Family Tetraodontidae

Illustration first published as Tetraodon hispidus Linnaeus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: colored plate 66).

Date illustrated: painted from life, June 1901, Moanalua, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 9 inches [about 229 mm]; length as illustrated, 6.25 inches [about 159 mm]; specimen is illustrated against a blue-green background.

Media: oil on board.

Remarks: This illustration has been republished in many different venues, often with the background removed. In the original publication, the background was modified from rectangular to an irregular ellipse. DFSA.

P01358-Plate 3D

Bryconamericus eigenmanni (Evermann & Kendall) Family Characidae

Illustration first published as Astyanax eigenmanni by Evermann and Kendall (1906:fig. 1), Based on the holotype, USNM 55570.

Date illustrated: during 1906, but before 25 July (date of publication).

Length of specimen: "about 3 inches [76 mm]"; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: Ink, gouache, lead pencil.

P01391-Plate 6D

Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh) Family Chaenopsidae

Illustration first published as Auchenistius stahli by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 102), based on the holotype, USNM 49372 (indicated on illustration), from Ponce, Puerto Rico.

Date illustrated: probably from preserved specimen, between 1 Feb. 1899, date collected, and 11 Sept. 1900, date Evermann indicated approval for publication of illustration.

Length of specimen: 1.2 inches [about 30.5 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: inked stipples.

Remarks: Hastings and Springer (1994:22) reported that the illustration is in error in indicating the presence of 42 dorsal-fin spines and 25 segmented anal-fin rays. The numbers are 41 and 24 respectively. As described and illustrated, the holotype, in poor condition, has only one anal-fin spine and it is not possible to determine if a second spine, normally present, was lost through damage. Specimens of Stathmonotus are frequently distorted, and the fin rays are difficult to count. Ichthyologists now x-ray specimens to avoid difficulties in counting the vertical fin elements, a technique not generally available to ichthyologists in 1900. Although Evermann and Marsh reported the number of dorsal-fin spines in agreement with the illustration, they correctly indicated 24 rays as the maximum number in the anal fin.

P01439-Plate 26A

Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider) Family Balistidae

Illustration first published as Balistapus rectangulus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 63).

Date illustrated: drawn from life in 1901 (probably June or July), Honolulu, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 7.5 inches [about 191 mm]; length as illustrated, 7.75 inches [about 197 mm]; specimen is illustrated against a rectangular blue-green background, which was modified to a roughly oval area in the original publication.

Media: oil on board.

P01499-Plate 15C

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) Rainbow trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo gairdneri by Bond (1985:185), advertising DFSA, and on the poster, which accompanied the exhibition. The illustration apparently, had not been published otherwise previously.

Date illustrated: 1912 (on illustration), from male specimen obtained May 1911, Scotts Creek, Santa Cruz Co., Calif. Color notes or study probably made at time of collection, or color based on other specimens.

Length of specimen: 23 inches [about 584 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.25 inches [about 210 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, dark spots are ink.

Remarks: DFSA. This was the last illustration of a fish that CBH prepared, ostensibly for publication. A similar illustration by CBH, dated 1910, was first published by Evermann and Bryant (1919) as Salmo irideus, a sea-run form. The original is framed and in an office of CDFG.

P01500-Plate 15 A

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) Rainbow trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo gilberti by Evermann (1906:plate 15), now considered to be a subspecies, O. m. gilberti (Jordan). Identical plates 1, 15, and 16 (our P01787, P01500, P04042) in Evermann (1906), which was published 16 May 1906, were also published and randomly inserted in Scott (1906). According to information on page 5 in Scott, that publication would have a date of on or after 1 Dec. 1906. We note also that Henshall's (1906a), report on the fishes of Montana, exact date not indicated, but a library stamp on cover reads "Received Apr 25 1906," was republished slightly modified as Henshall (1906b) in Scott (1906). We know of no subsequent mention of Henshall (1906b) in the ichthyological literature.

Date illustrated: from life, 1904; label on reverse side of illustration states collected 19 July 1904, Kern River, Calif.

Length of specimen: 18.25 inches [about 464 mm]; length as illustrated, 10.25 inches [about 260 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, dark spots are ink.

Remarks: Reproduced many times in different venues. DFSA. This is the rainbow trout of the Kern River (see remarks in P04042). A similar illustration by CBH, dated 1910, was first published by Evermann and Bryant (1919) as Salmo irideus, a stream form. The original is framed and in an office of CDFG.

P01528-Plate 24E

Haemulon macrostomum Gunther Spanish grunt, Family Haemulidae

Illustration first published as Haemulon album by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 24).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 27 Mar. 1897, Key West, Fla., but also indicated as outline from one specimen, color from two others.

Length of specimen: about 21 inches [about 533 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Media: watercolor, a little gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P01529-Plate 20F

Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch) Yellowtail snapper, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration first published as Ocyurus chrysurus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 23).

Date illustrated: 1897, Key West, Fla. Outline and color probably based on different specimens.

Length of specimen: 13 inches [about 330 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm SL].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink on eyeball.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P01735-Plate 12E

Bembradium roseum Gilbert Family Bembridae

Illustration first published as Bembradium roseus by Gilbert (1905:plate 82), based on holotype, USNM 51617. Plate was erroneously labeled roseus (Gilbert, 1905:637, footnote).

Date illustrated: Between Mar. 1902 and 12 Feb. 1903, latter based on letter (145) from G. A. Clark, D. S. Jordan's secretary, to CBH, "Dr. Gilbert has given me the data for the enclosed bill for 6 drawings at $10 (146) each for work done for the Fish Commission in connection with his report on Hawaii. Will you kindly sign the vouchers and forward them to Washington." Five of the drawings are identifiable as P01735, P03128, P07188, P09228, P10047. The sixth is provided a spurious or tentative name, Othonias exormus, which applies to either P02327 or P02349 (CBH did seven drawings for Gilbert's study).

Length of specimen: according to Gilbert, 90 mm; according to label on illustration, 3.5 inches [88.9 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, gouache highlights.

Remarks: CBH was paid $0.50 per square inch for this illustration, which he recorded as 1.25 inches x 9 inches = $5.62.

P01787-Plate 15F

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) Rainbow trout [golden trout of the High Sierras], Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as a half-tone and as Salmo aguabonita in Evermann (1905:106), based on holotype, USNM 53064. The original illustration was first reproduced in color as Salmo roosevelti in Evermann (1906:plate 1). See also discussion in section on first publication in P01500.

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 24 July 1904, Volcano Creek, High Sierras, Calif.

Length of specimen: 11.12 inches [about 283 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, dark spots are ink.

Remarks: DFSA. This illustration has been republished in many different articles and venues; it represents O. m. aguabonita (Jordan), one of three closely related subspecies (see remarks in P04042).

P01788-Plate 16B

Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson)

Cutthroat trout, Family Salmonidae

Apparently not published previously; representative of a now extinct subspecies, Onchorhychus clarkii henshawi (Gill and Jordan).

Date illustrated: last week in June 1904, Lake Tahoe, Calif. Outline based on a female; color based on four different male specimens.

Length of specimen: 14.12 inches [about 359 mm]; length as illustrated, 10.25 inches [about 260 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, dark spots are ink.

Remarks: It is unknown why CBH would have colored an outline based on a female specimen using males. Perhaps immature females and males have the same general color pattern. Considering their interest in salmonids, it might seem puzzling why D. S. Jordan or B. W. Evermann did not publish any of the CBH's three illustrations of the Lake Tahoe cutthroat trout (see also P04046 and P04047). We provide a possible explanation in the section of our introductory narrative entitled "From Lake Tahoe to the Golden Trout of the High Sierras."

P01840-Plate 5C

Sargocentron ittodai (Jordan and Fowler)

Family Holocentridae

Illustration first published as Holocentrus ittodai by Jordan and Fowler (1902:fig. 4).

Date illustrated: between summer of 1900 (when collected) and 26 Nov. 1902 (when published), based on holotype, CAS-SU 7746.

Length of specimen: 4.94 inches [about 125 mm]; length as illustrated, 10 inches [254 mm].

Media: Oil.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge for the drawing as "2 7/8" x 10" [= 28.75 square inches x $0.50 =] $14.37." DFSA.

P01919-Plate 14A

Caranx crysos (Mitchill)

Blue runner, Family Carangidae

Illustration first published as Caranx crysos by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 9).

Date illustrated: 30 Mar. 1897, Key West, Fla., outline based on one specimen, color based on two [probably fresh and/or live] specimens.

Length of specimen: 14.5 inches [about 368 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.31 inches [about 237 mm].

Media: watercolor, a little gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P02213-Plate 2B

Catostomus warnerensis (Snyder)

Warner sucker, Family Catostomidae

Illustration first published as Catostomus warnerensis, by Snyder (1908:fig. 2), based on holotype USNM 55597.

Date illustrated: after 15 July 1904 (when collected) and before 28 Sept. 1908 (when published).

Length of specimen: 296 mm, provided by Snyder (but 11 inches [279 mm] according to CBH); length as illustrated, about 191 mm.

Media: much lead pencil, inkwash (?), minimal white gouache on in rays, eye.

P02327-Plate 7E

Callionymus caeruleonotatus Gilbert

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Callionymus caeruleonotatus by Gilbert (1905:plate 89), based on holotype, USNM 51603.

Date illustrated: between 18 July 1902 (when collected) and 5 Aug. 1905 (when published).

Length of specimen: 86 mm TL, 49 mm SL (legend to plate gives "three inches," Gilbert, 1905:iii); length as illustrated, about 305 mm.

Media: inkwash, ink, white gouache, and lead pencil.

P02328-Plate 8B

Callionymus enneactis Bleeker

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Callionymus calliste, by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:ig. 8a).

Date illustrated: Probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902. (147)

Length of specimen: 3.88 inches [about 98.5 mm] or less; length as illustrated, about 13.94 inches [about 354 mm].

Media: inkwash, ink, white gouache, and lead pencil.

Remarks: CBH was paid $0.50 per square inch for this illustration, for which he listed the measurements as 1.5 x 14 in. The measurements and amount paid, $10.50, are written in the bottom margin of the illustration.

P02349-Plate 7G

Callionymus decoratus (Gilbert)

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Calliurichthys decoratus by Gilbert (1905:plate 90), based on holotype USNM 51609.

Date illustrated: between 9 July 1902 (when collected) and 5 Aug. 1905 (when published).

Length of specimen: Gilbert (1905:651) indicates 183 mm [TL = 7.2 in], 91 mm [SL = 3.6 in]; length according to the list of plates (Gilbert:1905:vii) is "6 inches" [about 152 mm]; length as illustrated, 12.75 inches [324 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

P02378-Plate 9I

Chirolophis tarsodes (Jordan and Snyder)

Matcheek warbonnet, Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Bryostemma tarsodes in Jordan and Gilbert (1902d:fig. 1), based on holotype, USNM 50570.

Date illustrated: probably about same time as CBH was illustrating Japanese stichaeids for Jordan and Snyder's (1902b) study, between summer of 1900 and 4 Nov. 1902, when published. Specimen was collected 21 May 1890.

Length of specimen: "115 mm" [TL]; length as illustrated, 16 3/8 inches [416 mm].

Media: ink and inkwash; lead pencil on in rays; opaque white gouache highlights.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "2 3/8" x 16 3/8" [= 38.9 square inches x $0.50 =] $19.45."

P02388-Plate 8E

Priolepis eugenius (Jordan and Evermann)

Family Gobiidae

Illustration first published as Quisquilius eugenius by Jordan and Evermann (1905:plate 57, but indicated in text, pages iii and 483, as Gobiomorphus eugenius), based on holotype USNM 50674, now apparently lost.

Date illustrated: between 1901 (when collected) and 29 July 1905 (when published).

Length of specimen: 1.4 inches [about 35.6 mm] according to Jordan and Evermann (1903:205), 2 inches [about 50.8 mm] according to Jordan and Evermann (1905: xv), or 1.4 inches [maximum for all specimens] according to Jordan and Evermann (1905:483); 1.4 inch TL appears to be correct based on a scale line, which appears to represent one-half inch, that accompanies the illustration. Length as illustrated, 12.12 inches [about 308 mm].

Media: lead pencil outline, inkwash and gouache.

P02473-Plate 13

Calamus bajonado (Bloch and Schneider)

Jolthead porgy, Sparidae

Illustration first published as Calamus bajonado by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 25).

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 18 Mar 1897, Key West, Fla.; outline based on one specimen, color based on two other specimens.

Length of specimen, about 11.62 inches [about 295 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, lead pencil (see enlarged sections plate 13).

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P02933-Plate 25C

Oxycheilinus bimaculatus (Valenciennes)

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Cheilinus bimaculatus, by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 38). Probably drawn from life.

Date illustrated: summer of 1901.

Length of specimen: 5 inches [127 mm]; length as illustrated, 4.5 inches [about 107 mm].

Media: oil on Academy Board, DVOE & Co. This is one of the few CBH scientific illustrations on which the trade name of the supporting surface of the media is available. In a letter from CBH to Hugh M. Smith (NARA, Record Group 106, Smithsonian Institution, Hugh M. Smith, Box 5), dated 29 Dec. 1902, Palo Alto, Calif., CBH indicated he was working on the "Hawaiian collection" of the "Fish Commission" and requested Smith to provide "Whatman Water-color Board, NOT surface," which was unavailable in California. "It is of course understood that I will use it only for Fish Commission work." An imprint on the letter indicates Smith responded to the letter on 10 Jan. 1903, but we did not locate a copy; however, he wrote on CBH's letter requesting a Mr. Pritchard to send CBH two dozen sheets. Underneath this, in a different handwriting, "1 Doz. Boards 10 x 14" sent by mail Jan. 17-03."

Remarks: This illustration, like many of the colored plates of Jordan and Evermann's "Fishes of Hawaii," has been reproduced many different times, usually as postcards by the Waikiki and Steinhart aquariums. In all reproductions, including the original, the gray background is paler than in the actual painting, and the colors of the fish made considerably more brilliant.

P03128-Plate 12B

Chrionema squamiceps Gilbert

Family Percophidae

Illustration first published as Chrionema squamiceps by Gilbert (1905:plate 86), based on holotype, USNM 51635.

Date illustrated: between 23 July 1902 (when collected) and 5 Aug 1905 (when published).

Length of specimen: 2.4 inches [61 mm], but Gilbert (1905: vii) indicates 2.5 inches; length as illustrated, 11 inches [about 279 mm].

Media: inkwash, ink, white gouache, lead pencil.

P03198-Plate 10C

Cirrhilabrus jordani Snyder

Family Labridae

First published as Cirrhilabrus jordani by Snyder (1902: plate 10, Figure 18), based on holotype, male (USNM 50878; other specimens from same collection are females).

Date illustrated: between 14 Apr. 1902 (when collected) and 19 Jan. 1904 (when published).

Length of specimen: 3.3 inches [83.8 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [about 241 mm].

Media: lead pencil, inkwash, and white gouache.

P03214-Plate 26D

Cirrhitus pinnulatus (Forster)

Family Cirrhitidae

Illustration first published as Cirrhites marmoratus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 70).

Date illustrated: painted from live specimen, summer 1901, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 7 inches [about 178 mm]; length as illustrated, 6 inches [about 152 mm].

Media: oil; see also media under P02933.

Remarks: Gray-green background of original decreased in intensity and brightness of fish increased in publication.

P03239-Plate 12G

Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann and Marsh

Sand whiff, Family Paralichthyidae

Illustration first published as Citharichthys arenaceus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 106). Based on the holotype (USNM 49536, not 49526 as published).

Date illustrated: between 2 Jan. and 21 Feb. 1899 (when collected) and 10 Sept. 1900 (when B. W. Evermann approved illustration).

Length of specimen: 162 mm TL; length as illustrated, 172 mm.

Media: Inked stipples.

P03416-Plate 6E

Coralliozetus cardonae Evermann and Marsh

Family Chaenopsidae

Illustration irst published as Coralliozetus cardonae by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 103), based on the holotype, USNM 49377.

Date illustrated: between 1 Feb. 1899 (when collected) and 11 Sept. 1900 (when B. W. Evermann approved illustration).

Length of specimen: 1 inch [25.4 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches (203 mm].

Media: inked stipples.

P03444-Plate 18C

Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)

Lake whiteish, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Coregonus albus by Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 6).

Date illustrated: 19 June 1906, probably from fresh specimen, Lake Michigan, off Berrien County, Mich.; outline from one specimen, color from another specimen.

Length of specimen: 17.25 inches [about 438 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.5 inches [216 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, some lead pencil.

P03445-Plate 18D

Coregonus artedi Lesueur

Cisco, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Leucichthys sisco huronius by Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 2).

Date illustrated: 1 Aug. 1906, probably from fresh specimen, Lake Michigan, off Berrien County, Mich.; outline based on one specimen, color based on two others.

Length of specimen: 12.62 inches [about 321 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [about 241 mm].

Media: watercolor, yellow and pink gouache, lead pencil, and ink.

P03462-Plate 19A

Coregonus species?

Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Leucichthys hoyi in Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 5). Plate 5 is not hoyi according to Koelz (1929:377, 449), but he did not identify the fish illustrated in plate 5 in his publication, in which he did identify all the species illustrated in the other plates.

Date illustrated: 25 June 1906, probably from fresh specimen, Lake Michigan, off Berrien County, Mich.; outline based on one specimen, color on three others.

Length of specimen: 14.75 inches [about 375 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.5 inches [216 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, some lead pencil.

P03484-Plate 19B

Prosopium cylindraceum (Pennant)

Round whiteish, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Coregonus quadrilateralis by Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 7).

Date illustrated: 20 Sept. 1906, Lake Huron, off St. Ignace, Mich.; outline based on one specimen, color based on four other specimens.

Length of specimen: 18.19 inches [about 462 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.5 inches [about 216 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, some lead pencil.

P03497-Plate 10B

Coris aygula Lacepede

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Coris aygula by Jordan and Snyder (1902a:fig. 9).

Date illustrated: Based on information in letter148 from CBH to G. A. Clark (D. S. Jordan's secretary), this is one of three labrid illustrations (the others are P09474, P14692) CBH completed shortly before 18 Jan. 1902, possibly including late 1901. All three were first published in Jordan and Snyder (1902a), dated 2 May 1902.

Length of specimen: uncertain; length as illustrated, 11 inches [about 279 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

P03505-Plate 25A

Coris gaimard (Quoy & Gaimard)

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Julis pulcherrima by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 27).

Date illustrated: apparently painted from life, summer of 1901, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 8.5 inches [about 208 mm]; length as illustrated about the same.

Media: oil on academy board.

Remarks: This illustration has been published in several different venues. In all the reproductions, the color of the fish and the background have been reproduced much brighter than in the original.

P03513-Plate 25B

Coris venusta Vaillant and Sauvage

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Hemicoris venusta by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 31).

Date illustrated: Apparently painted from life, summer of 1901, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 5.75 inches [about 146 mm]; length as illustrated, same.

Media: oil on Academy Board.

Remarks: This illustration has been reproduced in several different venues.

P03674-Plate 11A

Cottiusculus schmidti Jordan and Starks

Family Cottidae

Illustration first published as Cottiusculus schmidti by Jordan and Starks (1904:fig. 30).

Date illustrated: probably early 1903 (see P11241, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: unknown, but based on the description it is less than 92 mm [TL or SL?]. If the scale line with illustration equals one-half inch (CBH's usual denomination, specimen was about 50 mm TL, or if it equals one inch, which he also often used, the specimen was about 100 mm TL); length as illustrated, 12.25 inches [about 311 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights on ins.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as, "2 1/8 x 12 1/4 = 26 1/32 [square inches x $0.50] = $13."

P03723-Plate 11B

Cottus bairdii Girard

Mottled sculpin, Family Cottidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name written on illustration: Cottus spilotus. Uranidea spilota Cope is a junior synonym of Cottus bairdii. Locality: Fish Creek, Milwaukee, Wisc.

Date illustrated: after 1905.

Length of specimen: 2.88 inches [about 73 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse. See discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton.

P03728-Plate 1D

Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz)

Lake chub, Family Cyprinidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name written on illustration is Couesius dissimilis.

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 3.3 inches [about 84 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] written on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton). Specimen appears to be part of USNM 125198, which contains five specimens collected by C. J. Eigenmann in Medicine Hat, Alberta, in 1892. The catalog entry contains the remark "U. S. B. F. [United States Bureau of Fisheries] no. 149 drawn by Hudson for [Ernest Thompson] Seton."

P04008-Plate 25F

Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner)

Family Scorpaenidae

Illustration first published as Dendrochirus hudsoni by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 73), based on the holotype, USNM 50652. Jordan and Evermann (1905:465) treated the species as D. barberi (a junior synonym) in their text, but did not change the name in the legend to the plate.

Date illustrated: painted from life, summer of 1901, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 1.8 inches [45.7 mm]; length as illustrated, 6 inches [about 153 mm].

Media: oil.

P04040-Plate 16F

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

Chinook salmon, Family Salmonidae

Illustration apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated on or about 16 July 1907, based on a male specimen taken in Monterey Bay, Calif.

Length of specimen: 29.62 inches [727 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.75 inches [222 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, inkspots.

Remarks: DFSA. A very similar painting, attributed to CBH, was published as the frontispiece to California Fish and Game, vol. 3, no. 3, 1917. According to K. Hashagen, former editor of the journal (in litt., 20 Mar 2008), the painting is framed, but (surprisingly for a CBH color illustration) unsigned and undated, and is held by the CDFG, Sacramento. Possibly a mat obscures CBH's signature and date. We know of no subsequent publication of this painting.

P04042-Plate 15D

Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei (Evermann)

Rainbow trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo whitei, holotype, USNM 53065 by Evermann (1906:plate 16). It represents a valid subspecies of O. mykiss, O. m. whitei. See also discussion in section on first publication in P01500.

Date illustrated: early July 1904, south fork of Kaweah River, High Sierras, Calif.

Length of holotype: 7.75 inches [197 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [203 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, spots are ink.

Remarks: R. J. Behnke (email, 12 July 08 to VGS), foremost authority on the systematics of North American salmon and trout, recognizes three subspecies of O. mykiss that are more closely related to each other than to any other form of O. mykiss: O. m. whitei (Plate 15 D) of the Little Kern River; O. m. aguabonita (Jordan) of the South Fork of the Kern River and Volcano Creek (Plate 15 E, F); and O. m. gilberti, "Rainbow trout" of Kern River (Plate 15 A).

P04043-Plate 15E

Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita (Jordan)

Rainbow trout [golden trout of the High Sierras], Family Salmonidae

Illustration apparently first and, possibly, only previously published as Salmo agua-bonita on a postcard by the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Sciences; date uncertain, but may have been issued at the opening of the aquarium in 1923. The original illustration and a postcard are present in the USNM Division of Fishes files.

Date illustrated: between 21 Feb. and 6 Apr. 1907, based on year date under CBH's signature on painting and information from Claire H. Brett. (149) A label on the illustration in CBH's handwriting indicates that the color is from a CBH field sketch, which was based on a specimen collected on 23 July 1904. On this date, the Evermann expedition to Mt. Whitney was at the South Fork of the Kern River (Evermann, 1906:25). The specimen on which the outline was based may have been a painting made by A. H. Baldwin, although that cannot be established with certainty (see also footnote mentioned above). Information on catalog number and associated locality information indicated on CBH's label conflict with catalog records. Determining which specimens were used as a basis for the illustration is complex, if not impossible.

Length of specimen: 7 inches [178 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink spots.

Remarks: This illustration depicts another example of O. mykiss aguabonita (compare with Plate 15 F, P01787).

P04046-Plate 16A

Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Gill & Jordon)

Cutthroat trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo clarki henshawi by Ono et al. (1983:plate 5, female); publication, otherwise, only by Behnke (1986:18, lower figure). Form is now considered representative of an extinct subspecies, Onchorhychus clarkii henshawi (Gill and Jordan).

Date illustrated: from life, June 1904, Lake Tahoe; outline based on one specimen, color based on three others. Female color pattern.

Length of specimen: 13.88 inches [about 352 mm]; length as illustrated, 10 inches [254 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink spots.

Remarks: DFSA. Considering their interest in salmonids, it might seem puzzling why D. S. Jordan or B. W. Evermann did not publish any of the CBH's three Lake Tahoe illustrations (see also P01788 and P04047). We provide a possible explanation in the section of our introductory narrative entitled "From Lake Tahoe to the Golden Trout of the High Sierras."

P04047-Plate 16C

Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson)

Cutthroat trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo clarki henshawi by Ono et al. (1983:plate 5, male); publication, otherwise, only by Behnke (1986:18, upper figure). Form is now considered representative of an extinct subspecies, Onchorhychus clarkii henshawi (Gill and Jordan).

Date illustrated: from life, 14 June 1904, Lake Tahoe, outline based on one specimen, color based on two others. Male color pattern.

Length of specimen: 16.75 inches [about 426 mm]; length as illustrated, 10.12 inches [257 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink spots.

P04054-Plate 15B

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

Rainbow trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration apparently first (and only) published as Salmo shasta on a postcard issued by the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Sciences; date uncertain, but may have been issued at opening of the aquarium in 1923. The original illustration and a postcard are present in the USNM Division of Fishes files.

Date illustrated: 1911 based on date under CBH's signature. Specimen was a male collected in Oct. 1910 from fish bred in Sisson Hatchery, Calif. General coloring from male taken from McCloud River, Calif; markings from hatchery male.

Length of specimen: 12.33 inches [313 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.5 inches [216 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink spots.

Remarks: A similar painting signed by CBH and dated 1910, was first published by Evermann and Bryant (1919:plate opposite page 114), as Salmo irideus). The painting is framed and in the possession of the CDFG, Sacramento.

P04057-Plate 16E

Salmo salar Linnaeus

Atlantic salmon, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo sebago by Kendall (1918:plate 40; breeding male).

Date illustrated: "Finished Oct. 12, 1904." Rangely stream, Oquassoc, Maine.

Length of specimen: outline based on specimen 19 inches [483 mm] long; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink spots.

Remarks: DFSA.

P04058-Plate 16D

Salmo salar Linnaeus

Atlantic salmon, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salmo sebago, by Kendall (1918:plate 40; nearly ripe female).

Date illustrated: "Painting finished Nov. 3, 1904." Rangely Lake stream, Oquassoc, Maine.

Length of specimen: CBH indicated length of specimen no. 01355, as "outline 163/4" [476 mm] long," and on a second label, as "19 inches [483 mm] long," and further indicated that the color was from a specimen, "01358, 231/2 [570 mm] long." Length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink spots.

P04059-Plate 17A

Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus)

Arctic char, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salvelinus oquassa by Kendall (1918:plate 41).

Date illustrated: 10-18 Oct. 1904, breeding female, Rangely stream, Oquassoc, Maine.

Length of specimen: CBH indicated length of specimen used for outline as 15 inches [381 mm] on one label and on another as 15.2 inches [386 mm]. Color was from specimen 16 7/8 inches [429 mm] long. Length as published, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, some lead pencil.

P04061-Plate 17E

Salvelinus aureolus Bean

Sunapee trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as "White Trout [Salvelinus aureolus] by Kendall (1914:plate 9), indicated as "Breeding Female."

Date illustrated: outline based on one specimen, 21 Nov. 1904, color from another, 26 Nov. 1904, past breeding female; Sunapee Lake, N.H.

Length of specimen used for outline: 17.5 inches [about 445mm]; specimen used for color, 17.125 inches [435 mm] Media: watercolor, gouache, ink.

P04062-Plate 17F

Salvelinus aureolus Bean

Sunapee trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as "White Trout [Salvelinus aureolus] by Kendall (1914:plate 8), indicated as "Breeding Male."

Date illustrated: outline based on one specimen, 19 Nov. 1904, color based on another specimen, 20 Nov. 1904; Sunapee Lake, N.H.

Length of specimen used for outline: 15.5 inches [394 mm]; specimen used for color, "166/8" inches [about 424 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.75 inches [248 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink.

P04064-Plate 18B

Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum)

Lake trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Cristivomer namaycush by Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 1).

Date illustrated: outline based on specimen from Lake Michigan off Berrien Co, Mich., 18 July 1906; color from specimens taken on shoals off St. Ignace, Mich. (Lake Huron) 24 Sept. 1906.

Length of specimen used for outline: 25.5 inches [648 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.5 inches [140 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, lead pencil.

P04070-Plate 17B

Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus)

Arctic char, Family Salmonidae

Illustration apparently not published previously. Name on illustration, Salvelinus marstoni [Garman = S. alpinus].

Date illustrated: outline apparently based on specimen drawn 2 Dec. 1904; [color] from another specimen; finished 4 Dec 1904. Specimens were "Young, about 3 years old. Hatched from eggs of wild fish, at St. Johnsbury, Vt."

Length of specimen used from outline: 12.25 inches [311 mm]; specimen apparently used for color, 13.75 inches [349 mm] long. Length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink, some lead pencil.

Remarks: DFSA.

P04071-Plate 17 C

Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus)

Arctic char, Family Salmonidae

Illustration apparently not published previously. Name on illustration, Salvelinus marstoni [Garman = S. alpinus].

Date illustrated: outline drawn 12 Nov. 1904, based on one specimen; color based on another specimen; illustration finished 16 Nov. 1904. Male past breeding. Fish were from U.S. fish hatchery, St. Johnsbury, Vt., transferred to Nashua, N.H., where painting was done.

Length of specimen used for outline: 14.5 inches [368 mm]; male specimen used for color, 15.2 inches [386 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink, some lead pencil.

Remarks: DFSA.

P04072-Plate 17 D

Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus)

Arctic char, Family Salmonidae

Illustration apparently not published previously. Name on illustration, Salvelinus marstoni [Garman = S. alpinus].

Date illustrated: outline drawn 29 Nov. 1904, based on one specimen, color based on another specimen, finished 1 Dec. 1904. Female past breeding. Fish were from U.S. fish hatchery, [St. Johnsbury, Vt.] transferred to Nashua, N.H., where painting was done.

Length of specimen used for outline: 15.2 inches [386 mm]; female specimen used for color, 13 inches [330 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: Watercolor, gouache, ink, some lead pencil.

Remarks: DFSA.

P04073-Plate 18 A

Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell)

Brook trout, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Salvelinus fontinalis by Kendall (1918:plate 42, female).

Date illustrated: unknown; probably 1904 based on other Rangeley Lakes illustrations; disposition of original illustration unknown.

Length of specimen: 16.5 inches [419 mm]; length as illustrated, unknown, but probably about nine inches [229 mm], in keeping with other CBH Rangeley Lakes illustrations.

Media: probably watercolor, gouache.

Remarks: CBH illustrated a male of this species in 1910, probably based on a specimen from California. The painting, which is framed, is in a CDFG office, Sacramento. It was first published as the frontispiece, unassociated with an article, in a 1917 issue of California Fish and Game, vol. 3, no. 1.

P04163-Plate 14 D

Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier)

Round scad, Family Carangidae

Illustration first published as Decapterus punctatus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 8).

Date illustrated: 10 Oct. 1896, based on dead specimen from Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 5.69 inches [about 144 mm]; length as illustrated, 5.75 inches [146 mm].

Media: watercolor, white gouache, a little lead pencil and ink.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P04272-Plate 6 C

Neoclinus bryope (Jordan and Snyder)

Family Chaenopsidae

Illustration first published as Zacalles bryope by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 3).

Date illustrated: after summer of 1900 (when collected) and before 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: 2.75 inches [about 70 mm]; length as illustrated, 16 inches [about 406 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH figured his charge as, "2" x 16" [= 32 square inches, @ 0.50 =] $16.00."

P04361-Plate 9 J

Sicyopterus stimpsoni (Gill)

Family Gobiidae

Illustration first published as Vitraria clarescens by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 60), based on holotype, USNM 50655.

Date illustrated: between the summer of 1901 (when collected) and 29 July 1905 (when published).

Length of holotype: about 1.2 inches [about 30.5 mm]; length as illustrated, 16.5 inches [419 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

Remarks: This figure was reproduced from the published figure in Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 60). The original figure is present in the USNM illustration files.

P04503-Plate 8 D

Upeneus arge Jordan and Evermann

Family Mullidae

Illustration first published as Upeneus arge by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 39), who, we believe, erroneously indicated that it was based on the "type" [= holotype], USNM 50667, Honolulu, Hawaii (see discussion below on length of specimen), which was given the field number 02999.

Date illustrated: between summer of 1901 (when collected) and 29 July 1905 (when published).

Length of specimen: Jordan and Evermann (1903:188) wrote that the type was 8.5 inches long. Handwriting (B. W. Evermann's?) on the margin of the illustration includes, in order, the species name, "type" [which someone has crossed out], "Honolulu," "10.25," and [a few illegible marks]". The only other information on the illustration is a label in someone else's handwriting stating "type" number as "3954, Field Col[lection?]. Mus. [which Jordan and Evermann, 1903:188, indicated was the final disposition of a cotype 10.25 inches long, with the field number 03795]. Based on interpretation of CBH's undenominated scale line on the illustration as representing 0.5 inch (which it represents in many of his illustrations), we calculated that the specimen, which was illustrated as 9 inches long, to be 10.28 inches long, well within a reasonable margin of error. We conclude that Jordan and Evermann (1905) were in error in indicating that this illustration was based on the holotype.

Media: inkwash, gouache, and lead pencil.

P04554-Plate 6 A

Enneapterygius etheostomus (Jordan and Snyder)

Family Tripterygiidae

Illustration first published as Tripterygion etheostoma by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 1).

Date illustrated: after summer of 1900 (when collected) and before 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: 2.55 inches [about 65 mm]; length as illustrated, 11 inches [about 280 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

P04556-Plate 6 B

Springerichthys bapturus (Jordan & Snyder)

Family Tripterygiidae

Illustration first published as Tripergion [Tripterygion] bapturum by Jordan and Snyder (1902:fig. 2), based on the holotype, CAS-SU 7066.

Date illustrated: after summer of 1900 (when collected) and before 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: 2 inches [50 mm]; length as illustrated, 13 inches [about 330 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples; fine white gouache used to interrupt inked lines of in rays and to indicate segmented in-rays.

P04925-Plate 25 E

Thalassoma duperrey (Quoy & Gaimard)

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Thalassoma duperrey by Jordan an Evermann (1905: color plate 35).

Date illustrated: from a live or fresh specimen, summer 1901.

Length of specimen: 6.75 inches [about 171 mm]; length as illustrated, 7 inches [178 mm].

Media: oil.

P05171-Plate 14 F

Sander vitreus (Mitchill)

Walleye, Family Percidae

Illustration apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: 1905, apparently from life or a fresh specimen, Georgian Bay, Ontario. Indicated as collected by CBH.

Length of specimen: 18.88 inches [479 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [203 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P05663-Plate 4 E

Scuticaria tigrina (Lesson)

Tiger reef eel, Family Muraenidae

Illustration first published as Scuticaria tigrina by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 22).

Date illustrated: between summer of 1901, when collected, and 10 Nov. 1902, when noted as having been received from D. S. Jordan (see remarks under P11719).

Length of specimen: 40 inches (about 1.02 m); length as illustrated, 24 inches [588 mm], includes curvature.

Media: Inkwash and a little white gouache.

Remarks: CBH figured his charge: "7/8" x 24" [= 21square inches, at $0.50 per square inch =] $10.50"

P05890-Plate 24 B

Scomber scombrus (Linnaeus)

Atlantic mackerel, Family Scombridae

Apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 15 Oct. 1896, Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: unknown; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [about 235 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P05934-Plate 11 C

Porocottus allisi (Jordan and Starks)

Family Cottidae

Illustration first published as Crossias allisi by Jordan and Starks (1904:fig. 28), probably based on holotype, CAS-SU 7711

Date illustrated: probably early 1903 (see P11241, date illustrated).

Length of holotype published as 77 mm (length about 73 mm, based on scale line accompanying illustration; paratypes all indicated as 68 mm or shorter; see also P11241, length of specimen); length as illustrated, 12 inches [about 305 mm].

Media: inkwash, gouache, and lead pencil.

Remarks: CBH figured his charge as: "27/8" x 12" = 34.5 sq. [@ 0.50] = $17.25."

P06626-Plate 2 C

Gila bicolor (Girard)

Tui chub, Family Cyprinidae

Illustration first published as Rutilus columbianus by Snyder (1908:fig. 4, the holotype, USNM 55595).

Date illustrated: between 20 July 1904 (based on date of collection) and before 28 Sept. 1908 (based on date of publication).

Length of specimen: 136 mm TL (we remeasured at 132 mm, but part of caudal in is missing); length as illustrated, about 191 mm.

Media: inkwash, gouache, some lead pencil.

P06627-Plate 2 D

Gila bicolor (Girard)

Tui chub, Family Cyprinidae

Illustration first published as Rutilus oregonensis by Snyder (1908:fig. 3, the holotype, USNM 55596).

Date illustrated: after July 1904 (based on date of collection) and before 28 Sept. 1908 (based on date of publication).

Length of specimen: 202 TL (we remeasured and agree); length as illustrated, about 197 mm.

Media: inkwash, gouache, some pencil.

P06885-Plate 12 D

Neomerinthe beanorum (Evermann and Marsh)

Family Scorpaenidae

Illustration first published as Pontinus beanorum by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 85), based on the holotype, USNM 49534.

Date illustrated: between 13 Jan. 1899 (when collected) and 11 Sept. 1900 (when B. W. Evermann approved the illustration; as entered on illustration).

Length of specimen: 5.5 inches [about 140 mm]; length as illustrated, 10.81 inches [about 275 mm].

Media: ink stipples.

P07159-Plate 21 E

Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein)

Goliath grouper, Family Serranidae

Illustration not previously published. Label on illustration reads, "Promicrops guttatus, juv.," an old, erroneous identification, but clearly this is a juvenile of E. itajara.

Date illustrated: unknown, but undoubtedly done in Key West, Fla., 1897, based on other CBH Key West illustrations. Other evidence is that the illustration shows stains of having been framed, which we found only on illustrations of fishes done at Key West and Woods Hole, and the species does not occur at Woods Hole, but does occur at Key West (see also remarks, below).

Length of specimen unknown; length as illustrated, 9.12 inches [231 mm].

Media: watercolor and inkwash.

Remarks: Previously framed. Although CBH did not sign and date any of his colored paintings done in Key West, this illustration is unusual in not bearing a Bureau of Fisheries label attributing it to CBH or including a date and place where the specimen was obtained. A handwritten number, "1223 color" on the reverse of the illustration corresponds to a number for this species in the U.S. Fish Commission Tag Number Ledger, which states that CBH collected this specimen, and the only place where CBH worked and where the species occurs was Key West.

P07188-Plate 12 C

Pteropsaron incisum Gilbert

Family Percophidae

Illustration first published as Pteropsaron incisum, by Gilbert (1905:plate 87), who indicated it was based on the holotype, but it is actually based on a paratype, USNM 51659.

Date illustrated: between Mar.-Aug. 1902 and 12 Feb. 1903 (see P01735, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: 2 inches [about 50 mm] based on scale line on illustration; length as illustrated, about 305 mm.

Media: inkwash, white gouache, and lead pencil.

P07220-Plate 11 D

Pseudoblennius zonostigma Jordan and Starks

Family Cottidae

Illustration first published as Pseudoblennius zonostigma by Jordan and Starks (1904:fig. 35), based on either the holotype, CAS SU 7718, or one of the two paratypes, USNM 50927. See discussion in Length of specimen section (below).

Date illustrated: probably early 1903 (see P11241, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: Jordan and Starks had three specimens. The holotype, CAS-SU 7718, stated as being 105 mm (Jordan almost always used TL), and two paratypes, one, 120 mm, probably also at Stanford, and USNM 50927, which we measured as 108 mm TL. When CBH entered a factor with his scale lines, it was either 0.5 inch [12.7 mm] or 1 inch [25.4 mm]. Using these factors resulted in our finding that the illustration represented a specimen that was either 106.7 mm or 213 mm TL. Although our conversion factor for 0.5 inch places the length of the illustrated specimen slightly closer in length to the USNM specimen than to the holotype, we think that a margin of error makes it impossible to attribute the drawing to either the holotype or USNM paratype (see also P11241, length of specimen); treating the scale as 1 inch indicates a size much larger than any of the three specimens. Length as illustrated, 10.7 inches [about 272 mm].

Media: Inkwash, white gouache, and lead pencil.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "23/8" x 103/4" [=] 25.53 sq. in [$0.50 =] $12.76."

P07225-Plate 10 D

Pseudocheilinus evanidus Jordan and Evermann

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Pseudocheilinus evanidus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 43), based on holotype, USNM 50678.

Date illustrated: 1903 (indicated by CBH on label pasted to illustration).

Length of holotype; 3.25 inches [82.6 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm]. Jordan and Evermann (1903:192, 1905:317) did not give the length of the holotype. But in the list of illustrations (Jordan and Evermann (1905:xiv), they gave the length as 3.25 inches, and indicate the specimen was collected by themselves. In both the 1903 and 1905 descriptions, however, they indicate that Mr. Sindo is the collector. The data in the illustration list was apparently taken from CBH's label, which gives the length and implies that Jordan and Evermann were the collectors. CBH was probably unaware of the information in the descriptions and Jordan and Evermann (1905), considering other errors in their illustration lists, did not read, or did not have, the opportunity to read, proof on their publication.

Media: Inkwash, white gouache, lead pencil.

P07351-Plate 6 H

Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus)

Ninespine stickleback, Family Gasterosteidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration is Pygosteus pungitius.

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 1.83 inches [about 46.5 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: Inkwash, a little white gouache, lead pencil.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P07976- Plate 23 A

Urophycis tenuis (Mitchill)

White hake, Family Phycidae

Apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: drawn from life, 25 Nov. 1896. Woods Hole, Mass.

Length of specimen: 12.12 inches [308 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [229 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P08158-Plate 1 A

Pimephales promelas (Rainesque)

Fathead minnow, Family Cyprinidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration is Pimephales promelas.

Date illustrated: probably 1905 (see remarks under P03728).

Length of specimen: 2.75 inches [70 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.0 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations for Seton).

P08206-Plate 14 B

Caranx hippos (Linnaeus)

Crevalle jack, Family Carangidae

Illustration first published as Caranx hippos by Murdy et al. (1997:plate 23).

Date illustrated: drawn from life 1 Apr. 1897 (erroneously indicated as 1898 on illustration; see footnote under XX001), outline from one specimen and color from another (latter now cataloged as 169929 in the USNM fish collection); Key West, Fla.

Length of specimen: specimen used for outline 12.62 inches [321 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, and ink.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P08510-Plate 12 F

Aulotrachichthys prosthemius (Jordan & Fowler)

Family Trachichthyidae

Illustration first published as Paratrachichthys prosthemius by Jordan and Fowler (1902:fig. 1), based on holotype, USNM 50575.

Date illustrated: between 16 May 1900 (when collected) and 25 Nov. 1902 (when published).

Length of holotype: 2.4375 inches [61.9 mm]; length as illustrated, 10.125 inches [257 mm].

Media: gouache and some lead pencil.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as "27/8" x 10" [= 28.75 square inches @ $0.50 =] $14.37."

P08657-Plate 26 F

Paracirrhites arcatus (Cuvier)

Family Cirrhitidae

Illustration first published as Paracirrhites arcatus, by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 69).

Date illustrated: from live specimen, summer of 1901, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: 4.12 inches [105 mm]; length as illustrated, same.

Media: Oil on board.

Remarks: P08657 and P08658 are on the same piece of board. CBH was probably trying to conserve materials.

P08658-Plate 26 E

Cirrhitops fasciatus (Bennett)

Family Cirrhitidae

Illustration first published as Paracirrhites cinctus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 68).

Date illustrated: from live specimen, summer of 1901, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: about 3.8 inches [about 96 mm]; length as illustrated, same.

Media: Oil on board.

Remarks: P08658 and P08657 are on the same piece of board. CBH was probably trying to conserve materials.

P08659-Plate 26 C

Paracirrhites forsteri (Schneider)

Family Cirrhitidae

Illustration first published as Paracirrhites forsteri by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 67).

Date illustrated: from life, summer of 1901.

Length of specimen: 7 inches [178 mm]; length as illustrated, 6 inches [153 mm].

Media: Oil on board.

P08697-Plate 11 E

Ocynectes maschalis Jordan and Starks

Family Cottidae

Illustration first published as Ocynectes maschalis by Jordan and Starks (1904:fig. 34), probably based on holotype, CAS-SU 7717.

Date illustrated: probably early 1903 (see P11341, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: holotype published as 55 mm, not exceeded by any paratype. Based on scale line accompanying illustration we calculated the length as 53.3 mm, within a small range of error (see also P11241, length of specimen). Length as illustrated, 12 inches (305 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

Remarks: CBH calculated his charge as: "21/2" x 12" = 30 sq. in (@ $0.50 [=] $15.00."

P08787-Plate 19 D

Osmerus mordax (Mitchill)

Rainbow smelt, Family Osmeridae

Apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: backside of illustration, in CBH's handwriting, "Woods Hole, Mass., Sept. 30, 1896. Taken on sandy or gravel bottom nearly white. Chas. B. Hudson."

Length of specimen: not provided no scale line included; length as illustrated, 9 inches [229 mm].

Media: watercolor and ink; backside of illustration board bears stamp: Fred A. Schmidt, No. 504 9th Street, Washington, D.C., Artists' & Draughtmen's Materials & Stationers.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P08806-Plate 5 E

Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier)

Family Holocentridae

Illustration first published as Ostichthys japonicus by

Jordan and Fowler (1902:ig. 2).

Date illustrated: between end of summer 1900 (when collected) and 25 Nov. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: 13.25 inches [about 325 mm]; length as illustrated, 10.5 inches [about 267 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples; fine white gouache used to break ink lines of in rays into tiny segments.

P08857-Plate 4 B

Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

Chum salmon, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Oncorhynchus keta by Jordan and Snyder (1902c:fig. 2).

Date illustrated: between end of summer, 1900 (when collected) and 25 Mar. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: unknown; length as illustrated, 11 inches (about 279 mm).

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as, "27/8" x 11" [= 31.62 square inches x $0.50] = [$]15.80."

P09228-Plate 12 A

Chrionema chryseres Gilbert

Family Percophidae

Illustration first published as Chrionema chryseres by Gilbert (1905:plate 85) based on the holotype, USNM 51655.

Date illustrated: between Mar.-Aug. 1902 and 12 Feb. 1903 (see P01735, date illustrated).

Length of holotype: 206 mm; length as illustrated, 308 mm.

Media: inkwash, ink, white gouache, some lead pencil.

P09407-Plate 1 C

Notropis atherinoides (Rainesque)

Emerald shiner, Family Cyprinidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration is Notropis atherinoides.

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 2.78 inches [about 73 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P09413-Plate 1 F

Notropis bifrenatus (Cope)

Bridle shiner, Family Cyprinidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration is Notropis cayuga.

Date illustrated: probably 1905 (see remarks under P03728).

Length of specimen: 1.81 inches [about 46 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P09436-Plate 2 A

Notropis blennius (Girard)

River shiner, Family Cyprinidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration is Notropis jejunus.

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 2.31 inches [about 58.7 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P09474-Plate 10 E

Halichoeres bleekeri Steindachner and Doderlein

Family Labridae

Ilustration first published as Halichoeres tremebundus by Jordan and Snyder (1902a:fig. 8).

Date illustrated: between late 1901 and 18 Jan. 1902 (see P03497, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: uncertain, about 3.85 inches [97.8 mm] if scale line accompanying figure represents one inch (CBH gave inch measurements in those instances where he indicated what his scale lines represented). Illustration could represent holotype (CAS-SU 6853), which Jordan and Snyder stated was about 100 mm. Length as illustrated, 10 inches (254 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "21/8" x 10" [= 21.25 inches @ $0.50 =] $10.62."

P09548-Plate 5 B

Myripristis amaena (Castelnau)

Family Holocentridae

Illustration first published as Myripristis argyromus by Jordan and Evermann (1905:black and white plate 27). The illustration is purportedly based on the type (= holotype; USNM 50631, 9.5 inches long, from Hilo, Hawaii), and the caption to plate 27 also indicates it portrays the type. CBH's label on the drawing, however, indicates it is based on a different specimen (a cotype = paratype, 9 inches long, from Honolulu). To complicate matters, in the list of black and white plates (Jordan and Evermann, 1905:xiii), plate 27 is indicated as based on the holotype, 9 inches long, collected at Honolulu by Jordan and Evermann in 1902 [sic]. It can be determined from information in Jordan and Evermann (1903), which includes the original description of M. argyromus, that the specimen CBH painted was collected by Jordan and Evermann in Honolulu in 1901.

Date illustrated: either this specimen, or P09557 (both were collected in 1901 in Hawaii) was completed about 21 Apr. 1903, according to CBH letter of that date to D. S. Jordan (150); otherwise (for either specimen), between summer of 1901 (when collected) and 29 July 1905 (when published).

Length of specimen: 9 inches [about 229 mm]; length as illustrated: 9.5 inches [about 241 mm]

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

P09557-Plate 5 A

Myripristis amaena (Castelnau)

Family Holocentridae

Illustration first published as Myripristis symmetricus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 26), based on the holotype, USNM 50632.

Date illustrated: see date illustrated under P09548.

Length of specimen: 5.5 inches [about 140 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.25 inches [about 210 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

P09660-Plate 22 A

Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey)

Black grouper, Family Serranidae

Illustration apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: "Drawn from life," Key West, Fla., 21 Jan. 1897.

Length of specimen: 27.5 inches [about 700 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.24 inches [about 235 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Outline [measurement, details] based on one specimen and color taken from two others. This appears to indicate that the specimen from which the outline was taken was not alive and, perhaps, that the two specimens from which the color was taken, were held in aquaria. We suspect that making measurements and fin-ray counts on a live specimen about 700 mm in length would present considerable difficulty. Illustration shows evidence of having been framed.

P09663-Plate 4 A

Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus)

Yellowfin grouper, Family Serranidae

Illustration originally published as Mycteroperca bowersi by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 45), based on holotype, USNM 49530.

Date illustrated: between 10 Feb. 1899 (when collected) and 15 Sept. 1900 (when B. W. Evermann approved illustration).

Length of holotype: 21.5 inches [546 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

P09681-Plate 21 F

Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus)

Yellowin grouper, Family Serranidae

Illustration apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: 27 Jan. 1897, Key West, Fla. Outline indicated from one specimen; possibly another used for color.

Length of specimen: 22.62 inches [575 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, a little gouache and lead pencil.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P10047-Plate 7 B

Draconetta xenica (Jordan and Fowler)

Family Draconettidae

Illustration first published as Draconetta hawaiiensis by Gilbert (1905:plate 91), based on holotype, USNM 51633.

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of holotype: 2 inches [50.8 mm]; length as illustrated, 10 inches (254 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as "11/8" x 10" [= 11.25 square inches x $0.50 =] $5.62."

P10048-Plate 7 A

Draconetta xenica Jordan and Fowler

Family Draconettidae

Illustration first published as Draconetta xenica by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 1), based on the holotype, USNM 50816.

Date illustrated probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328).

Length of holotype: "2 9/16 inches," according to Jordan and Fowler (1903a:940) or "21/2 inches," according to Jordan and Fowler (1903a:941); therefore about 63.5 mm; length as illustrated, 14 inches [about 356 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as "17/8" x 14" [= 26.25 square inches =] $12.25." Inasmuch as he was receiving $0.50 per square inch, he should have charged $13.12.

P10343-Plate 6 F

Emblemaria pandionis (Evermann & Marsh)

Sailin blenny, Family Chaenopsidae

Illustration first published as Emblemaria pandionis by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 104), based on the holotype, USNM 49535.

Date illustrated: between 08 Feb. 1899 (when collected) and 29 Dec. 1900 (when published).

Length of specimen: 1.5 inches [38.1 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.75 inches [about 222 mm].

Media: inked stipples.

P10448-Plate 21 A

Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck)

Rock hind, Family Serranidae

Illustration first published as Epinephelus adscensionis by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 11).

Date illustrated: 1897, Key West, Fla.

Length of specimen: 13.5 inches [343 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.44 inches [240 mm].

Media: watercolor and a little gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P10475-Plate 21 B

Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus)

Red hind, Family Serranidae

Illustration first published as Epinephelus maculosus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 13); text, however, used Epinephelus guttatus when listing the species and referring to the plate.

Date illustrated: 1897, Key West, Fla.

Length of specimen: 14.5 inches [368 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor and a little gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P10482-Plate 21 D

Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes)

Red grouper, Family Serranidae

Illustration first published as Epinephelus morio by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 14).

Date illustrated: Drawn from life, 15 Jan 1897, Key West, Fla. Outline based on one specimen, color from another.

Length of specimen used for outline: 17.75 inches [451 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.69 inches [246 mm].

Media: watercolor and a little gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed.

P10567-Plate 9 C

Ernogrammus hexagrammus (Schlegel)

Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Ernogrammus hexagrammus, by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 23).

Date illustrated: between summer of 1900 (when collected) and 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: about 4.72 inches [120 mm]; length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "25/8" x 16" [= 42 square inches x $0.50 =] $21.00."

P11005-Plate 6 G

Mugil cephalus Linnaeus

Striped mullet, Family Mugilidae

Illustration apparently published here for the first time, although the words "reduce to" without indication of how much is written on front of illustration. Specimen indicated as Stanford Univ. 6223 [= CAS-SU 6223], which was collected in Jan. 1896. Name on illustration: Mugil rammelsbergi.

Date illustrated: After 1 Jan. 1896 [when collected], probably after 1901, when CBH first moved to California.

Length of specimen: 7.75 inches [about 197 mm]; length as illustrated, 7.9 inches [about 202 mm]

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

P11040-Plate 1 B

Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque)

Silver redhorse, Family Catostomidae

Unpublished previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration.

Date illustrated: 1905. Slough of Mississippi River at Muscatine, La.

Length of specimen: 6.15 inches [about 154 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: inkwash and lead pencil.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P11183-Plate 4 D

Pseudobagrus ransonnettii Steindachner

Family Bagridae

Illustration first published as Fluvidraco ransonnetii by Jordan and Fowler (1903b:fig. 1).

Date illustrated: Between summer of 1900 (when collected) and 12/5/02 (when "B. A. B." [= Barton A. Bean (151)], assistant curator, USNM, approved payment for the illustration. Springer (2001: last paragraph on page 46 et seq.) noted that an author could ask that someone at the museum oversee production of an illustration to accompany a publication scheduled for the Proceedings of the United States National Museum. In the cited example, it was also B. A. Bean who oversaw the preparation of an illustration of a fish.

Length of specimen: unknown; length as illustrated, 9 inches [about 229 mm].

Media: inkwash and a little white gouache on Windsor & Newton's Watercolour Sketching Boards, "NOT" Surface.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge: "size 1% x 9 = [15.75 x $0.50] $7.89."

P11241-Plate 11 F

Furcina osimae Jordan and Starks

Family Cottidae

Illustration first published as Furcina osimae by Jordan and Starks (1904:fig. 33), probably based on holotype, CAS-SU 7716 (see length of specimen).

Date illustrated: probably early 1903, based on letters dated 13 and 27 Mar. and 28 Apr. 1903 (152) from David Starr Jordan in California, to CBH in Detroit, Mich. By this time Jordan must have had faith in CBH's ability as he asked that the drawings be sent directly to B. W. Evermann in Washington [without Jordan's checking].

Length of specimen: based on CBH's scale line accompanying the figure, we calculated the length of the illustrated specimen as 75.5 mm TL. Jordan and Starks gave the length of the holotype as 77 mm. The 2% difference between our calculation and the length given by Jordan and Starks is probably within a reasonable range of error; however, as there were several paratypes we are uncertain if the specimen is a paratype or the holotype. Length as illustrated is 12 inches [305 mm]. In a letter dated 25 Mar. 1901 (153), from David Starr Jordan in California, to CBH in Washington, D. C., Jordan stated that he liked to make descriptions and igures from the same specimens. For that reason, we are inclined to believe the illustrated specimen is the holotype.

Media: inkwash and gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "25/8" x 12" [=] 31.5 [square inches @ $0.50 = $15.75."

P11561-Plate 8 F

Gobionellus oceanicus (Pallas)

Highfin goby, Family Gobiidae

Illustration first published as Gobius bayamonensis by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 90), based on the holotype, USNM 49365 [CBH indicated 49367 on illustration].

Date illustrated: between Jan. 1899, when obtained at a fish market in Puerto Rico, and 11 Sept. 1900, when B. W. Evermann approved payment for, or publication of, illustration (information entered on illustration).

Length of specimen: 9 inches [289 mm]; length as illustrated, 9 inches.

Media: inked lines and stipples.

P11628-Plate 25 D

Gomphosus varius Lacepede

Family Labridae

Illustration first published as Gomphosus tricolor by Jordan and Evermann (1905: color plate 36).

Date illustrated: summer of 1901, from live or fresh specimen, Hawaii.

Length of specimen: about 8 inches [about 203 mm]; length as illustrated, 6 inches [about 152 mm].

Media: oil on "Academy Board."

Remarks: DFSA. Published version has intensity of graygreen background considerably decreased. Subsequent to original publication, image appeared on an early 1900's booklet of Hawaiian ishes and repeatedly on postcards, issued during various years by the Waikiki Aquarium.

P11719-Plate 3 C

Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw)

Zebra moray, Family Muraenidae

Illustration first published as Echidna zebra by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 20).

Date illustrated: between summer, 1901, when collected, and 10 Nov. 1902 (see remarks, below).

Length of specimen: 23.5 inches [ca. 597 mm]; length as illustrated (specimen is drawn curved on itself), about the same.

Media: inkwash and a little white gouache in eye.

Remarks: DFSA. On the reverse side of illustration is a note that "4 washed paintings of Hawaiian Fishes. By Mr. Hudson rec'd from Dr. Jordan Nov 10, 1902." These refer to this illustration and three other eel species (see P05663, P11787, P11800). CBH figured his charge: "1 3/16" x 231/2" [= 27.9 square inches, at $0.50 per square inch =] $13.95."

P11787-Plate 3 A

Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl)

Family Muraenidae

Illustration first published as Gymnothorax pictus by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 19).

Date illustrated: between summer, 1901, when collected, and 10 Nov. 1902, when delivered to D. S. Jordan (see remarks under P11719).

Length of specimen: 27.5 inches [about 699 mm]; length as illustrated, 22.5 inches [about 572 mm], specimen is drawn curved on itself.

Media: inkwash, a little gouache.

Remarks: CBH figured his charge as "19/16 x 221/2 inches" [= 28.4 square inches], for which he claimed $15.00, or a little more than the $0.50 per square inch he usually charged.

P11800-Plate 3 B

Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Ruppell)

Family Muraenidae

Illustration first published as Gymnothorax thalassopterus by Jenkins (1903:plate 2; based on holotype, USNM 50619); republished by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 17). Mistakenly recataloged as USNM 51073.

Date illustrated: between summer 1901, when collected, and 10 Nov. 1902, when delivered to D. S. Jordan (see remarks under P11719).

Length of specimen: 23 inches [about 584 mm]; length as illustrated, about 11.62 inches [about 295 mm]; specimen drawn curved on itself.

Media: inkwash and gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicate his charge as: "13/8" x 21" [= 28.87 square inches @ $0.50] = $14.43."

P11829-Plate 20 E

Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus)

Lane snapper, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration apparently not published previously.

Date illustrated: 4 Mar. 1897, Key West, Fla. Drawn from life. Outline based on one specimen, color based on another.

Length of specimen: 14.5 inches [368 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.3 inches [about 237 mm].

Media: watercolor, considerable gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed. Evermann and Marsh (1900: plate 22) used A. H. Baldwin's color painting of L. synagris, done in Puerto Rico, rather than CBH's done in Florida. It is understandable that they preferred a painting of a species from the locality of their research over one from a distant locality. Scientifically, as well as aesthetically, CBH's illustration is superior. Evermann and Marsh, however, used CBH's inked illustration (P15116) of this species, based on what they thought was a different, new Puerto Rican species.

P12848-Plate 2 F

Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque)

Goldeye, Family Hiodontidae

First published as Hiodon alosoides by Coker (1930: Fig. 8).

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 7 inches [about 178 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, white gouache, and lead pencil.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P13124-Plate 5 F

Sargocentron ensifer (Jordan & Evermann)

Family Holocentridae

Illustration first published as Holocentrus ensifer by Jordan and Evermann (1905: black and white plate 28). The plate legend indicates the illustration is based on the "type," which Jordan and Evermann (1903:177) designated as USNM 50637, with the field number 03448. A label on the reverse of the illustration, however, indicates that the drawing is based on a specimen (cotype) at the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) with the U.S. Fish Commission field number 04931. This field number, as are those of all the other type specimens, is included on page 58 in a U.S. Fish Commission catalog book deposited at USNM. (154) The catalog lists the USNM specimen as being 9 inches long and the MCZ specimen as being 8 inches long (K. Hartel, MCZ, measured the TL of that specimen, which is missing a portion of the caudal fin, as about 7.5 inches). Lengths for all the specimens on the page, including the type and eight cotypes of H. ensifer and specimens of other holocentrids, are given in whole or whole plus quarters of an inch. Based on the scale line CBH included with the illustration, we calculated the length of the illustrated specimen to be about 8.27 inches, which we consider within an acceptable range of mechanical error or shrinkage. We conclude that the illustration is based on the MCZ specimen and not the USNM holotype.

Jordan and Evermann (1903:177) gave the length of the USNM holotype as 6 inches, and Jordan and Evermann (1905:xiii), inexplicably gave the length as 6.25 inches, in either case, much shorter than the 9 inches indicated for the specimen in the Fish Commission ledger. At our request, J. T. Williams measured the holotype as having a TL of 225 mm [8.8 inches], very close to the length given in the ledger. USNM has one other specimen of the nine in the type series, USNM 126155 (field number 04929), which was originally part of the defunct Fish Commission collection. Jordan and Evermann (1903:177) give the length of this specimen as 8.75 inches and J. T. Williams measured it as 8.5 inches, again within a reasonable margin of mechanical error or shrinkage.

We presume that the erroneous 6-inch measurements of the two specimens were the result of a printer's error. In the early 1900's, tables, such as that in which Jordan and Evermann (1903:177) listed their specimens and associated data, were probably hand-set from loose type. In the type font in which their table was set, a 6 was merely a 9 upside down. Mistakes were probably common, and would have necessitated careful proofing to correct.

Date illustrated: between summer of 1901 (when collected) and 29 July 1905 (when published).

Media: inkwash, white gouache, lead pencil.

P13132-Plate 5 D

Sargocentron xantherythrum (Jordan and Evermann) Family Holocentridae

Probably not published previously. Name on label on illustration in unknown handwriting indicates: Holocentrus ensifer; xantherythrus is written above ensifer.

Date illustrated: label indicates 1903.

Length of specimen: 6.25 inches [159 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.25 inches [about 210 mm].

Media: inkwash, white gouache, lead pencil.

P13212-Plate 2 E

Hybognathus nuchalis (Agassiz)

Mississippi silvery minnow, Family Cyprinidae

Not published previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration is Hybognathus nuchale.

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 3.33 inches [about 84.6 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P13218-Plate 1 E

Macrhybopsis storeriana (Kirtland)

Silver chub, Family Cyprinidae

Not published previously, although remark concerning reduction for printing is written on illustration. Name on illustration Hybopsis storerianus.

Date illustrated: 1905.

Length of specimen: 4.6 inches [about 117 mm]; length as illustrated, 8 inches [about 203 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache.

Remarks: Initials E. T. S. [Ernest Thompson Seton] on reverse side of illustration (see discussion of illustrations drawn for Seton).

P14692- Plate 10 A

Bodianus perditio (Quoy & Gaimard)

Family Labridae

First published as Lepidaplois perditio by Jordan and Snyder (1902a:fig. 2)

Date illustrated: between late 1901 and 18 Jan. 1902 (see P03487, date illustrated).

Length of fish: not directly specified, but Jordan and Snyder (1902a:619) only indicated one specimen, 330 mm, in their description; length as illustrated, 10.5 inches [267 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as "3V8" x 101/4""[= 32.03 square inches @ $0.50 =] $16." Difference (2.4%) between our measurement and CBH's could be due to mechanical error.

P14859-Plate 18 E

Coregonus johannae (Wagner)

Deepwater cisco, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Leucichthys johannae by Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 3); identification is uncertain.

Date illustrated: 1906, probably early Oct.; outline based on specimen obtained from fishermen, 30 Sept. 1906; color based on two other specimens, date not indicated, all from Lake Huron, off Cheboygan County, Mich.

Length of specimen used for outline: 14.5 inches [361 mm]; length as illustrated, 8.5 inches [216 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, and ink.

P14870-Plate 18 F

Coregonus nigripinnis (Milner)

Blackfin cisco, Family Salmonidae

Illustration first published as Leucichthys nigripinnis (Gill) [sic] by Jordan and Evermann (1911:plate 4).

Date illustrated: 1906, probably late July-early Aug.; outline from specimen collected from Lake Michigan off Berrien Co, Mich., 24 July 1906; color from three other specimens.

Length of specimen used for outline: 15.25 inches [387 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm].

Media: watercolor, gouache, ink, lead pencil.

Remarks: DFSA

P14929-Plate 4 C

Liobagrus reinii Hilgendorf

Family Amblycipitidae

Illustration first published as Liobagrus reini by Jordan and Fowler (1903b:fig. 2).

Date illustrated: between summer 1900 (when obtained from K. Otaki) and 5 Dec. 1902, when Barton A. Bean approved the painting (see date illustrated for P11183).

Length of specimen: 3.5 inches [88.9 mm, SL]; length as illustrated, 10 inches [254 mm].

Media: inkwash, a little white gouache, lead pencil.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge: "1 3/8" x 10" [= 13.75 x $0.50] $6.87."

P15080-Plate 20 A

Lutjanus analis (Cuvier)

Mutton snapper, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration first published as Neomaenis analis by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 21).

Date illustrated: spring 1897, Key West, Fla.

Length of specimen: about 11 inches [about 279 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: DFSA; previously framed.

P15082-Plate 20 D

Lutjanus apodus (Walbaum)

Schoolmaster, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration first published as Neomaenis apodus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:plate 19).

Date illustrated: spring, 1897, Key West, Fla.

Length of specimen: about 23 inches [about 584 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.25 inches [235 mm].

Media: watercolor and gouache.

Remarks: Previously framed. DFSA.

P15116-Plate 10 F

Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus)

Lane snapper, Family Lutjanidae

Illustration first published as Neomaenis megalophthalmus by Evermann and Marsh (1900:fig. 48), based on the holotype, USNM 49531, from Puerto Real, Puerto Rico.

Date illustrated: between 25 Jan. 1899 (when collected) and 29 Dec. 1900 (when published).

Length of holotype: 11.5 inches [292 mm]; length as illustrated, 9.0625 inches [230 mm].

Media: ink stipples.

Remarks: DFSA.

P15477-Plate 8 A

Repomucenus lunatus (Temminck & Schlegel)

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Callionymus lunatus by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 5).

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: [less than or equal to] 5.4375 inches [138 mm]; length as illustrated, 13 inches [330 mm].

Media: inkwash, lead pencil, white gouache highlights.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "Size -1 3/8" x 13" [= 17.875 square inches] [+] "fin -1 3/8" x 2"" [= 2.75 sq. in] [= total 20.62 sq. in.]. [x $0.50 ]= "$10.30."

P15479-Plate 8 C

Repomucenus virgis (Jordan & Fowler)

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Callionymus virgis by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 9), based on holotype, CAS-SU 7189.

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of holotype: 2.69 inches [42.9 mm]; length as illustrated, 12 inches [305 mm].

Media: inkwash, white gouache, lead pencil on "Winsor & Newton's water colour sketching boards 'NOT' surface, made in all sizes & surfaces ... London, England."

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as; "Size 1 3/8" x 12" [= 16.5 square inches x $0.50=] $8.25."

P15709-Plate 7 F

Callionymus doryssus (Jordan and Fowler)

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Calliurichthys doryssus, by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 4).

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: 7.25 inches [184 mm]; length as illustrated, 12 inches [305 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge: "1" x 12" [= 12 square inches x $0.50 =] $6.00."

P17485-Plate 7 I

Callionymus valenciennei Temminck and Schlegel

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Callionymus valenciennesi by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 6).

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: unknown, but based on information in publication, [less than or equal to] 8.625 inches [219 mm]. If the scale line accompanying the figure represents one inch, the complete fish (male) is about 7.3 inches [about 186 mm] TL; length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: inkwash, some white gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "Size -1 1/2" x 16" [= 24 square inches] [+] Fin. 4 sq. in. Total 28 sq. in. [x $0.50 =] $14.00." DFSA.

P17575-Plate 7 C

Callionymus japonicus Houttuyn

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Calliurichthys japonicus by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 2).

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: based on information in publication, [less than or equal to] 11.25 inches [about 286 mm]. If the scale line accompanying the figure represents one inch, the complete fish (male) is about 11.25 inches. TL; length as illustrated, 17 inches [432 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "Size 1" x 17" [= 17 square inches] [+] fin 1 1/2" x 1 1/2" [= 2.25" square inches] [= 19.25 square inches x $0.50 =] $9.62."

P17576-Plate 9 D

Chirolophis japonicus (Herzenstein)

Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Bryostemma otohime by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 12).

Date illustrated: between summer of 1900 (when collected) 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: about 3.2 inches [about 82 mm], based on scale line with illustration; length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "2 9/16" x 16" [= 41 square inches x $0.50 =] $20.50."

P17577-Plate 9 E

Opisthocentrus zonope Jordan and Snyder

Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Opisthocentrus zonope by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 21).

Date illustrated: between summer of 1900 (when collected) 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: about 4.92 inches [125 mm], based on scale line with illustration; length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "2 11/16" x 16" [= 41 square inches x $0.50 =] $21.50."

P17578-Plate 9 G

Stichaeopsis nana Kner

Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Ozorthe dictyogrammus by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 25).

Date illustrated: between summer of 1900 (when collected) and 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: about 6.3 inches (about 160 mm], based on scale line with illustration; length as illustrated, 16 inches (about 406 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

P17579-Plate 9 B

Stichaeus nozawae Jordan and Snyder

Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Stichaeus nozawae by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 26), based on the holotype, in a Japanese collection ("Fisheries Bureau at Sapporo").

Date illustrated: between summer of 1900 (made available to Jordan and Snyder during their expedition to Japan) and 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of specimen: 10 inches [255 mm]; length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: inked lines and stipples.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "2.25" x 16" [= 36 square inches @ $0.50 =] $18.00."

P17580-Plate 9 F

Chirolophis saitone (Jordan & Snyder)

Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Bryostemma saitone by Jordan and Snyder (1902b:fig. 12), based on the holotype, CAS-SU 7072.

Date illustrated: probably between summer of 1900 (given to Jordan and Snyder during their expedition to Japan) and 26 Sept. 1902 (when published).

Length of holotype: Jordan and Snyder (1902b:468) state that the holotype is 95 mm long. Presumably this is standard length, because beginning on page 467, they wrote, "The only specimen which we have of this species is in such a poor state of preservation that accurate statements concerning the lateral line, the extent of the scaly covering, the tentacles of the head, the shape and character of the fins, and points of less importance can not be made; the caudal fin is entirely gone." Total length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: inkwash and a little white gouache.

Remarks: Considering the condition of the specimen, one must question its usefulness. CBH must have been challenged to prepare the illustration, of which Jordan and Snyder made no comments. CBH indicated his charge as: "2 1/2" x 16" [= 40 square inches x $0.50 =] $20.00."

P17581-Plate 7 D

Callionymus variegatus Temminck and Schlegel

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Calliurichthys variegatus by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 3)

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: 6.31 inches [160 mm]; length as illustrated, 17 inches [432 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "Size 1 1/4 " x 17" [= 21.25 square inches] [+] fin 1" x 1 1/2" [= 1.5 square inches] [= 22.75 square inches x $0.50 =] $11.37."

P21866-Plate 7 H

Callionymus valenciennei Temminck and Schlegel.

Family Callionymidae

Illustration first published as Callionymus flagris by Jordan and Fowler (1903a:fig. 7).

Date illustrated: probably between early summer and mid Oct. 1902 (see P02328, date illustrated).

Length of specimen: about 7.5 inches (190.5 mm] or smaller, based on information in Jordan and Fowler (1903a:953); length as illustrated, 16.5 inches [429 mm].

Media: inkwash and white gouache.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "Size 1" x 16.5" [= 16.5 square inches x $0.50 =] $8.25."

P22113-Plate 9 H

Bryozoichthys lysimus (Jordan and Snyder)

Nutcracker prickleback, Family Stichaeidae

Illustration first published as Bryolophus lysimus by Jordan and Snyder (1902d:fig. 3), based on the paratype with 62 dorsal-fin spines in CAS SU 3049.

Date illustrated: probably about same time as CBH was illustrating Japanese stichaeids for Jordan and Snyder's (1902b) study, between summer of 1900 and 4 Nov. 1902, when published. Specimen was collected 21 May 1890.

Length of specimen: about 100 mm TL, based on a scale accompanying the illustration; length as illustrated, 16 inches [406 mm].

Media: ink and inkwash; lead pencil on fin rays; opaque white gouache highlights.

Remarks: CBH indicated his charge as: "23/16" x 16" [= 35 square inches x $0.50 =] $17.50."

Acknowledgments

Our biography benefited greatly by the generous and gracious assistance of a large number of individuals. Foremost among these was the late Claire Hudson Brett, with whom VGS shared information on her father, CBH, during the mid 1980's. More recently, Claire's son, Hudson Brett, and granddaughter, Sarah Q. Brett, also contributed information to our study, and we here extend our appreciation to them. We were privileged to interview, by telephone, U.S. Navy Lt. Alan Hudson, and his son, Cmdr. Patrick Hudson, CBH's grandson and great grandson of his first marriage.

Many Smithsonian colleagues, both immediate and at other bureaus within the institution, contributed variously and importantly to our efforts. American Art Museum: Sarah Duffel. Smithsonian Libraries: Claire Catron, Cecilia Chin, D. Chris Cottrill, Maggie Dittmore, Richard Green, James Harar, Alvin Hutchinson, Patricia Lasker, Doug Litts, Leslie Overstreet, Jim Roan, Martha Rosen, Erin C. Rushing, Scott Scholz, David Steere, Kirsten van der Veen, Wanda West, Daria Wingreen-Mason. Smithsonian Archives: Ellen Allers, Pamela Henson, Mary Markey. Anthropological Archives: Catharine O'Sullivan. Museum of American History: Paula Johnson and Paul Johnston. Photographic services: Donald Hurlbert. Natural History Museum, Division of Fishes: Julie Mounts, Lisa Palmer, Lynne R. Parenti, Sandra Raredon, Jeffrey T. Williams. OUSS: Rebecca Snyder. General Counsel's Office: Rachelle V. Browne; Department of Vertebrate Zoology: Carol Youmans.

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: Mark Sabaj.

American Museum of Natural History: Barbara Brown.

Art Students League of New York: Stephanie Cassidy.

Annapolis, Md.: Adrienne Bales.

Bernice P. Bishop Museum: Loreen R. O'Hara, John E. Randall, B. J. Short, Arnold Suzumoto.

Boston Museum of Fine Art: Stephanie Stepanek.

California Academy of Sciences: Danielle Castronovo, Larry Currie, Karren Elsbernd, Tomio Iwamoto, Alan Leviton, Daniel Matsumoto, John E. McCosker.

California Department of Fish and Game: Ken Hashagen.

Carmel, Calif.: John and Monica Hudson.

Colorado State University: Robert J. Behnke.

Columbia University: David H. Mortimer, Sarah Elliston Weiner.

Duke University Library, Special Collections: Eleanor Mills, Janie C. Morris.

Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta: Bruce Carlson.

Harvard University: Karsten Hartel, Robert Young.

Leawood, Kansas: Joseph R. Tomelleri.

Luther Burbank Home and Gardens (Santa Rosa, Calif.): Rebecca Baker, Linda Hall.

Montalvo Arts Center, Saratoga, Calif.: Babette McKay.

National Museum of Fine Arts, Stockholm: Isabelle Siostrom, Sodra Blasieholmshamnen.

National Museum of New Zealand: Clive Roberts, Victoria Robson.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NMFS, SPO: Seattle, Wash., Jacki Strader, Willis Hobart; Washington, D.C., Bruce B. Collette.

National Park Service, California: Teresa Griggs, Susan E. Haley, Terry Kriedler, Diane Nicholson.

National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis: William Seibert, Stephen A. Smith.

Neville-Strass Collection (Sanford, Fla.): Carlton Neville, Stephanie Strass.

New Hartford, Conn.: Neal Yates.

Pace University: Susan R. Gannon.

Pacific Grove, Calif.: Nan and Jeff Barnard-Jorgensen; Public Library: Pamela Jungerberg; Heritage Society of Pacific Grove: Betty Aickelin.

Royal Collections, Stockholm: Kerstin Hagsgard.

Smith College: Thomas S. Litwin.

Stanford University Special Collections: Pat E. White and Polly Armstrong.

Stockholm University Bibliotek: Clas-Ove Strandberg.

United States Army Center of Military History: Renee Kli.

United States Geological Survey (Gainesville, Fla.): William F. Smith-Vaniz; James D. Williams.

University of Oklahoma, Library: Molly Murphy.

Waikiki Aquarium: Mark Heckman.

Special appreciation is extended to William D. Anderson, Jr., Grice Marine Laboratory, an anonymous reviewer, and MFR editor Willis Hobart, who each critiqued a prefinal copy of the entire manuscript, making numerous suggestions for its improvement.

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Earll, R. E. 1880. A report on the history and present conditions of the shore cod-fisheries of Cape Ann, Mass., together with notes on the natural history and artificial propagation of the species. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. 1878, pt. 6, 3:685-740.

Evermann, B. W. 1905. The most beautiful of all the trouts. Shields' Mag. 1(4 June):105-109. [This article is difficult to locate. A copy of the original is contained in the Calif. Acad. Sci. Arch., Barton Warren Evermann letter files, Box 74.]

--. 1906 (May 19). The golden trout of the High Sierras. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 25:151, plates 1-16, large fold-out map.

--. 1917. Report of the director of the museum for the year 1916. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 6(9):229-294, plates 3-17.

--. 1920. Report of the director of the museum for the year 1919. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 9(15):367-396, plates 3-17.

--. 1921. Animal habitat groups. Am. For. 27(Apr.):208-215.

-- and H. C. Bryant. 1919. California trout. Calif. Fish Game 5(3):111-135, 4 plates.

-- and E. L. Goldsborough. 1907. A check list of the freshwater fishes of Canada. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 20(21):89-119.

-- and W. C. Kendall. 1900. Checklist of the fishes of Florida. Rep. U.S. Fish Comm. 25:37-103. (Publication date conflicts with that of Evermann and Marsh, 1899, below, which was published in the same volume. Evermann and Marsh, 1900: xii, note, indicates that Evermann and Marsh, 1899, was published 19 Dec. 1899, which W. N. Eschmeyer corroborates in Catalog of Fishes, references section, in which he mentions that CAS has a separate of the Evermann and Marsh 1900 "Descriptions of new genera..." paper dated 1899). Volume 25 of the Rep. U.S. Fish Comm. is dated 1900, and we know of no reason to assign another date to the Evermann-Kendall check-list citation.)

-- and --. 1906. Notes on a collection of fishes from Argentina, South America, with descriptions of three new species. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 31(1482):67-108.

-- and M. C. Marsh. 1899. Descriptions of new genera and species of fishes from Puerto Rico. Rep. U.S. Fish Comm. 25:351362. (See note following Evermann and Kendall, 1900, above, for comment on date of publication of vol. 25.)

-- and --. 1900. The fishes of Porto Rico. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 20:49350, plates 1-49.

-- and L. Radcliffe. 1917. The fishes of the west coast of Peru and the Titicaca Basin. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 95: i-xii + 1-166, plates 1-14.

-- and T.-H. Shaw. 1927. Fishes from eastern China, with descriptions of new species. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 16(4):97122.

Fowler, H. W. 1941. New fishes of the family Callionymidae, mostly Philippine, obtained by the United States Bureau of Fisheries Steamer "Albatross." Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 90 (3106):1-41.

Gannett, H. 1902. General geography. In Harriman Alaska ser. 2:257-278, 11 plates.

Gilbert, C. H. 1905. The deep-sea fishes of the Hawaiian Islands. In The aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Islands, p. 577-713, plates 66-101, Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 23, part 2(2).

Gill, T., and H. M. Smith. 1900. The morin guoid eels in American waters. Science, n.s., 11(286):973-974.

Grinnell, G. B. 1902a. The natives of the Alaska coast. In Harriman Alaska ser. 1:137-183, 7 plates.

--. 1902b. The salmon industry. In Har riman Alaska ser. 2:337-356, 3 plates.

Hastings, P. A., and V. G. Springer. 1994. Review of Stathmonotus, with redefinition and phylogenetic analysis of the Chaenopsidae (Teleostei: Blennioidei). Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 558:1-48.

Hays, A. N. (Compiler). 1952. David Starr Jordan, a bibliography of his writings 18711931. Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. Libr. Stud. 1:xvi + 195 p.

Henshall, J. A. 1899. Evolution of the "Kentucky reel." Sunset Mag. 37:289-293 (Dec).

--. 1906a. A list of the fishes of Montana. Bull. Univ. Montana, 34, biol. Ser. 11, p. 1-10.

--. 1906b. Fishes of Montana. In W. F. Scott, Third biennial report of State Game and Fish Warden of the State of Montana, 1905-6, p. 158-168.

Hill. G. E. 1909. Vicennial record of the Class of 1887. Yale College. Marigold-Foster Print. Co., Bridgeport, Conn., 182 p. + frontispiece.

Hooten, E. A. 1943. Charles Clark Willoughby, 1857-1943. Am. Antiquity 9(2):235-239.

Hornaday, W. T. 1891. Taxidermy and zoological collecting. Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y., 362 p., 23 plates [only Fourth Edition, 1894, seen by us.]

--. 1894a. A few of our fur bearers. St. Nicholas 21(7):600-607.

--. 1894b. A wonderful monster-the walrus. St. Nicholas 21(11):953-959.

--. 1894c. The lions of the sea. St. Nicholas 21(12):1043-1048.

--. 1896. The man who became a savage. Peter Paul Book Co., Buffalo, N. Y., vi + 413 p. + 16 illus. [plates].

--. 1899a. A gameless west. Recreation 10(6):442-443.

--. 1899b. Chas. B. Hudson, artist and soldier. Recreation 10(6):449-451.

--. 1906. Camp-fires in the Canadian Rockies. Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y., xxii + 353 p. + 56 unnumbered plates.

Hubbs, C. L. 1943. John O[tterbein]. Snyder. Copeia 1943(4):265-266.

Hudson, C. B. 1893a. The World's Fair fisheries exhibit. Frank Leslie's Pop. Mon. 35 (May):597-604.

--. 1893b. Curious breadwinners of the deep. Cosmopolitan 15 (Oct.):750-757.

--. 1894. The Latin Quarter. Frank Leslie's Pop. Mon. 37(4):385-397.

--. 1895a. Finny proteges of Uncle Sam. Cosmopolitan 18(4):460-468.

--. 1895b. A real air-castle. St. Nicholas 22(Sept.):958-959.

--. 1895c. In the realm of the wonderful. Cosmopolitan 19(3 Sept.):483-492.

--. 1904. Preface and biographical sketch. In T. J. Hudson, The evolution of the soul, p. iv-vi. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago (only the 1920 sixth edition, courtesy of books.google.com, was available to us).

--. 1907a. The Chinaman and the foreign devils. Pop. Sci. Mo. 71 (Sept.):258-266.

--. 1907b. The crimson conquest. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 454 p.

--. 1915. Monterey on the etching plate. Sunset 35(2):298-302.

--. 1916. A voice from the desert. Experiences of an artist who tried to paint what he saw. New York Times, 18 June, col. 6, p. E2.

--. 1917. The royal outlaw. E. P. Dutton Co., N.Y., 364 p.

--. 1918. Persistence of Teuton's traits from Caesar's time. New York Times, 17 Mar., p. 87.

Hudson, T. J. 1893. The law of psychic phenomena: A working hypothesis for the systematic study of hypnotism, spiritism, mental, theraputics, etc. A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 409 p.

--. 1904. The evolution of the soul. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, xi + 344 p.

Inman, H. 1898. The ranche on the Oxhide. Grosset & Dunlap, N.Y., xi + 297 pages + 4 plates (includes frontispiece).

Jenkins, O. P. 1903. Report on collections of fishes made in the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of new species. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 22:415-511, plates 1-4.

Jennings, M. R. 1997. Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932) and his contributions to North American Ichthyology. In T. W. Pietsch and W. D. Anderson, Jr. (Editors), Collection building in ichthyology and herpetology, p. 291-310. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol., Spec. Publ. 3.

Jordan, D. S. 1922 Days of a man. World Book Co., N.Y., vol. 1, xvii + 710 pages., plates; vol. 2, xvi + 906 pages., plates.

-- and B. W. Evermann. 1903. Descriptions of new genera and species of fishes from the Hawaiian Islands. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 22:163-208.

-- and --. 1905. The aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Islands. Part I.--The shore fishes of the Hawaiian Islands, with a general account of the fish fauna. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 23 (pt. 1) [1903]:i-xxviii + 1-574, colored plates 1-73, black and white plates 1-65.

-- and --. 1911. A review of the salmonoid fishes of the Great Lakes with notes on the whitefishes of other regions. Bull. Bur. Fish. 29:1-42, plates 1-7.

-- and H. W. Fowler. 1902. A review of the berycoid fishes of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 26(1306):1-21.

-- and --. 1903a. A review of the dragonets (Callionymidae) and related fishes of the waters of Japan. Proc U.S. Natl. Mus. 25(1305):939-959.

-- and --. 1903b. A review of the siluroid fishes or catfishes of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 26(1338):897-911.

-- and J. O. Snyder. 1902a. A review of the labroid fishes of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 24(1266):595-662.

-- and --. 1902b. A review of the blennoid fishes of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 25(1293):441-504.

-- and --. 1902c. A review of the salmonoid fishes of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 24(1265):567-593.

-- and -- . 1902d. On certain species of fishes confused with Bryostemma polyactocephalum. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 25(1300):613-618.

-- and E. C. Starks. 1904. A review of the Cottidae or sculpins found in the waters of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 27(1358):231335.

Juday, C. 1907. Notes on Lake Tahoe, its trout and trout fishing. U.S. Bur. Fish., Bull. 26:133-146.

Kendall, W. C. 1914. Fishes and fishing in Sunapee Lake. U.S. Bur. Fish., Rep. Comm. Fish. for the fiscal year 1912 and spec. pap. Doc. 783, 96 p., 9 plates.

--. 1918. The Rangeley Lakes, Maine, with special reference to the habits of the fishes, fish culture, and angling. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 35(861):485-594, plates 40-46.

Koelz, W. 1929. Coregonid fishes of the Great Lakes. U.S. Dep. Commer., Bull. Bur. Fish. 43, part 2. (1048):297-643, 8 separate plates.

Lewis, J. 1892. The forging of the sword, and other poems. Lewis Publ. Co., Wash., D.C., 103 p. [Copyright 1891; only the second edition, 1894, which apparently differs only in containing a dedication dated 1893, was seen by us.]

Libbey, W., Jr. 1891. Report upon a physical investigation of the waters off the southern coast of New England, made during the summer of 1889 by the U.S. Fish Commission schooner Grampus. Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 9:391-407, plates 124-125.

Los Angeles Times. 1917. 26 Aug., p. III, 12.

MacFarland, F. M. 1905. A preliminary account of the Dorididae of Monterey Bay, California. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 118:35-54.

Malone, D. (Editor). 1932. Hudson, Thomson Jay. In Dictionary of American biography 11, p. 341-342, Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y.

-- (Editor). 1935. Shields, George Oliver.

In Dictionary of American Biography 17, p. 106. Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y.

Mason, O. T. 1891. Aboriginal skin dressing; a study based on material in the U. S. National Museum. In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing the operations, expenditures and condition of the Institution for the year ending June 30, 1889. Washington, p. 553589, plates 61-66. (Article reprinted by The Shorey Book Store, Seattle Wash., 1971, limited to 100 copies.]

McCosker, J. E. 2007. The history of research at the California Academy of Sciences' Steinhart Aquarium and Department of Aquatic Biology. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 58(11):171-195.

[McDonald, M.]. 1894. Report of the Commissioner, 1894. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. for the Year Ending June 30, 1892, pt. 18:vii-lxxxvii.

Merriam, C. H. 1902. Bogoslof, our newest volcano. Harriman Alaska ser. 2:291-336, 2 plates, Doubleday, Page, & Company, N.Y. [Volumes 1 and 2 were originally issued as parts 1 and 2 of a single volume by E. H. Harriman. Harriman transferred all rights to the original and subsequent volumes of the series to the Smithsonian Institution, which reissued the original volume as separate volumes 1 and 2, using the original text and photogravure plates. In subsequent reprintings of these two volumes, the photogravure plates were screened and issued as halftones.]

Merrill, G. P. 1889. The collection of building and ornamental stones in the U.S. National Museum: a hand-book and catalogue. Annu. Rep. Board Regents Smithson. Inst. showing operations, expenditures and condition of the Inst. for the year ending June 30, 1886. Washington 2:277-633, plates 1-9.

Miller, A. M. 1915. Artistic article illustrated by author's etchings in August Sunset. San Jose Mercury Herald, 15 Aug.

Monterey Peninsula Herald. 1939. 28 June.

Moyle, P. 2002. Inland fishes of California, revised and expanded. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, xvii + 502 pages

Muir, J. 1902. Notes on the Pacific coast glaciers. Harriman Alaska ser. 1:119-135, frontispiece to volume and 8 plates.

Murdy, E. O., R. S. Birdsong, and J. A. Musick. 1997. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Smithson. Inst. Press, Wash., D.C., xi + 324 p. + 49 color [figures].

New York Times. 1892. 29 Dec., p. 5.

--. 1898. 2 Feb., p. 3.

--. 1907. 26 Oct., p. BR678.

--. 1917. 15 July, p. 60.

--. 1938. 16 Aug., p. 19.

--. 1944. 22 Mar., p. 19.

Ono, R. D., J. P. Williams, and A. Wagner. 1983. Vanishing fishes of North America. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa., xiii + 257 p.

Pister, E. P. 2003. Good news and bad news. Environ. Biol. Fishes 67:101-102.

Rathbun, R. 1892. The United States Fish Commission. Some of its work. Century Mag. 43(5):679-697.

Ravenel, W. de C. 1902. Report of the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for the Year Ending June 30, 1901. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. for the year ending June 30, 1901, 27:1-20.

Ronnberg, E. A. R., Jr. 1987. Comments on "Report on the construction and equipment of the schooner Grampus" by Joseph W. Collins, 1887. Naut. Res. J. 32(4):182-190.

S. H. 1899. Some hogs have a "hen" hunt in South Dakota. Recreation 11(4):248-252.

Scott, W. F. 1906. Biennial report of the State Game and Fish Warden of the State of Montana, 1905-6. Indep. Publ. Co., Helena, 170 p., 19 plates.

Seton, Ernest Thompson. 1898 [see Thompson, 1898].

Sharp, L. A. 1899. To my gun. Recreation 11(4):332-337.

Shields, S. A. 2006. Artists at continent's end: the Monterey Peninsula art colony, 1875-1907. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, ix + 346 p.

Smith, H. M. 1891. Notes on the crab fishery of Crisfield, Md. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 9:103112, plates 36-41.

--. 1902. Report on the inquiry respecting food-fishes and the fishing-grounds. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. for the year ending June 30, 1901, 27:111-140.

Snyder, J. O. 1902. A catalogue of the shore fishes collected by the steamer Albatross about the Hawaiian Islands in 1902. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 22:513-538, plates 1-13.

--. 1908. Relationships of the fish fauna of the lakes of southeastern Oregon. Bull. Bur. Fish. 27:71-102, foldout map.

Springer, V. G. [1999] 2001. Kumataro Ito, Japanese artist on board the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross during the Philippine expedition, 1907-1910. Mar. Fish. Rev. 61(4):42-57.

Thompson, Earnest Seton. 1898. A list of the fishes known to occur in Manitoba. Forest and Stream 51(11):214.

Verrill, A. E. 1882. Report on the cephalopods of the northeastern coast of America. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. for 1879, pt. 7, 2:211-455, plates 1-46.

Wales, J. H. 1957. Trout of California. Dep. Fish Game, State of Calif., 57 pages. [One of the species identification booklet series, 5" wide X 6 1/8" high.

Washington Evening Star. 1887. 9 June, unnum. suppl., p. 4.

Washington Post. 1883. 16 June, p. 1

--. 1887. 9 June, p. 2.

--. 1889. 1 Oct., p. 6.

--. 1892. 10 Feb., p. 4.

--. 1898. 9 Jan., p. 10

--. 1898. 11 May.

--. 1898. 9 Sept., p. 4.

--. 1900. 1 Dec., p. 9.

--. 1903. 4 Aug., p. 3

--. 1925. 7 June, p. 1.

--. 1927. 26 Dec.

Watkins, J. E. 1891. The log of the Savannah. In Annu. Rep. Board Regents Smithson. Inst. showing the operations, expenditures and condition of the Institution for the year ending June 30, 1890, Washington, p. 611-639, plates 151-155.

Webster, J. P. 1898. Tiger shooting in India. Recreation 9(6):frontispiece, 419-420.

Whitney, W. D. (Editor). 1889-1891. The century dictionary-an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. Century Co., N.Y., 7,046 pages. [N.B., all editions through the last, 1914, have CBH's ship illustration on the same page, 5,575].

Willoughby, C. [C.] 1889. Indians of the Quinaielt Agency, Washington Territory. In Annu. Rep. Board Regents Smithson. Inst. showing the operations, expenditures and condition of the Institution for the year ending June 30, 1886, Washington, 1:267-282.

Wilson, C. G. 1949. Gump's treasure trade. T. Y. Crowell Co., N.Y., 288 pages.

Wonders, K. 1993. Habitat dioramas: illusions of wilderness in museums of natural history. Acta Univ. Ups., Figura Nova Ser. 25, 262 p. Almqvist & Wiksell Int., Uppsala, Sweden.

Yale, L. M. 1894. American game fishes. Scrib ner's Mag. 15(6):754-767.

(1) 10 Apr. 1838-5 Nov. 1908. Beginning in 1884, Mason became Curator of Ethnology, United States National Museum, and from 1902 he was head curator, Department of Anthropology (Register to the Papers of Otis Tufton Mason by L. H. Coen, revised by K. T. Baxter, 1983, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution Archives, unpagin.; reference includes a detailed chronology of Mason's life: http://www. nmnh.si.edu/naa/fa/mason.htm).

(2) Based on the number of square inches (letter from Hudson to his mother, Emma, dated 8 July 1882, quoted in letter, 13 Feb. 1985, from Hudson's daughter from his second marriage, Claire Hudson Brett, to VGS). We learned from Smithsonian account books, that he was paid $0.50 a square inch for illustrations. The account books show payments only for the period 1882-85, but details of drawings were provided only for the years 1882-84.

(3) Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 100, Box 88. The ledgers are detailed for 188284, but only Hudson's name and a reference to another ledger, which was not found, is present in the 1885 ledger.

(4) In litt., 22 May 1985, Claire Hudson Brett to VGS. We were unable to verify this assertion. Christine H. Kempton (age 96), Hudson's daughter by his first marriage, interviewed by VGS on 3 May, also mentioned that CBH was offered a chair, but was uncertain as to its subject.

(5) "Antonio Zeno Shindler (~1899) began his association with the Smithsonian Institution in 1876 when he was hired by Spencer Fullerton Baird, then Smithsonian Assistant Secretary, to paint casts of natural history specimens. He continued in various artistic positions with the United States National Museum until his death: SIA RU 7371, historical note. The Division of Fishes illustration files have a number of his original watercolor paintings of fishes, recognizable by inclusion of his distinctive monogram, comprising the letters AZS overlaid on each other.

(6) The following general description of the Official Register of the United States is from the web (10 Feb. 2009), http://www3.wooster.edu/ library/gov/serialset/agency/I/officialregister. htm: "The Register of Officers and Agents, Civil, Military, and Naval, otherwise known as the Official Register, began publication in 1816 and was made a biennial publication in 1817, reverting to annual publication after 1921. (The dates refer to the latest date covered by the Register, not the imprint date.) The Official Register became known as the "Blue Book" due to its binding in blue roan from 1817 onward. It was originally published by the State Department, but the publication was transferred respectively to the Interior Department, the Census Bureau, and finally the Civil Service Commission; not all issues, however, were published as part of the Congressional Serial Set." The full title of the volume we cite here: Official register of the United States, containing a list of the officers and employees [sic] in the civil, military, and naval service on the first of July, 1887; together with a list of vessels belonging to the United States. Volume 1, legislative, executive, judicial. Compiled under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, by J.G. Ames, Superintendent of Documents. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1887. It is also listed as House of Representatives, 50th Congress, 1st Session, Miscellaneous document, 87, Part 1. N.B. Few, if any libraries, have a complete set. In mentioning other volumes in the series, we use the abbreviated title Official Register of the United States + year; all such references are to volume 1 for that year.

(7) National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Anthropol. Hist. Off., 49033: Diary of Otis T. Mason from 1 July 1884 to 23 May 1891.

(8) Collins (1839-1904) was a former captain of the Gloucester fishing schooner Marion. We first encountered mention of him in Earll (1880:703) and Verrill (1882:226, 334, 397), mainly as someone providing information on or specimens of, sea life. By 1879, Collins was either working for, or collaborating closely with, the U.S. Fish Commission. By 1883, he was definitely employed, as an "assistant," with the Commission. In the Official Registers of 1883 and 1885, he is listed as an "assistant" with, for 1883, a monthly salary of $125.00, and for 1885, with an [unchanged] annual salary of $1,500.00. In the Register for 1887, he is listed as the captain of the schooner Grampus, at a monthly salary of $150.00, but in 1888, he was placed in charge of the newly created Division of Fisheries, and the Register for 1889 has him as an "Assistant in charge of [a] Division" at a monthly salary of $200.00. At that time, aside from the Commissioner, he was one of the Commission's two most highly paid employees. He was clearly well schooled, an able writer, illustrator, and draftsman, and if not trained as a naval architect or engineer, he was able to perform outstandingly well in those capacities. He was, additionally, extremely ambitious, and in 1892, failed in his attempts to oust his superior, U.S. Fish Commissioner Marshall McDonald, and become his replacement. Despite attempts by President Benjamin Harrison, Senator Francis B. Stockbridge (Michigan, chairman of the Senate Committee on Fisheries, and a close friend of Collins), and even McDonald, himself, to keep Collins in his Commission job, Collins resigned his position on 28 Dec. 1892 and took the position of Chief of the Department of Fisheries for the World's Columbian Exposition (a detailed account of what we have abbreviated here can be found in the New York Times, 29 Dec. 1892: 5). Collins published on many fishery topics, often historically related, and especially on commercial fisheries and the types and construction of fishing vessels. Based only on his work for the Fish Commission, Collins merits a biography.

(9) R. V. Szary's historical note on SIA, RU 239, National Museum of History and Technology, Division of Transportation.

(10) Hudson may have been employed by Collins to fill a vacancy created when Albertus Hutchinson Baldwin (12 Dec. 1865-17 Mar. 1944), an artist employed by the U.S. Fish Commission, left the Commission in 1887 to study art in Paris and Venice, from 1887 to 1889 (Washington Post, 7 June 1925:1; Hill, 1909:164). Baldwin was employed by the Fish Commission from 1884 at least until 30 June 1887, at some point in Woods Hole, Mass., but lastly in Washington, D.C. The Official Registers of the United States for 1885 and 1887 list him as an assistant working in D.C., at a salary of $60.00 per month in 1885 and $75.00 per month in 1887 (as of 1 July in each year). Baldwin and Hudson probably became acquainted during the 1885-87 period and became reassociated later. Both would illustrate fishes for Evermann and Marsh's (1900) "Fishes of Porto Rico" and Jordan and Evermann's (1905) "Shore fishes of the Hawaiian Islands." Only Baldwin would accompany the USFC expedition to Puerto Rico, but both were together on the 1901 USFC Hawaiian expedition. Baldwin probably intended to pursue a career in the fine arts (four of his paintings are in the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and were viewable on the Internet in 2008), but he found earning a living as an artist to be difficult. Ultimately, he became a bureaucrat, variously working for the departments of Agriculture (1897-1900), Interior (1902-05), Commerce and Labor (1905-06), Post Office (1906-09), Commerce and Labor, again: Census Bureau (1909-10); Bureau of Manufactures (1910-12); Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce (1912-14). He was commercial attache in London, England (1914-16) (Washington Post, ibid.), and "later served in a similar capacity at the embassies in Brussels and Paris (New York Times, 22 Mar. 1944:19). He left the U.S. Government and represented the British-American Tobacco Company in New York City and later was a vice president of the Guaranty Trust Company in New York (New York Times, ibid.).

(11) Copies of CHBMS and SQBMS are in the files of VGS held at USNM.

(12) Most of the following history concerning Thomson Jay Hudson, is derived from his biographies in: C. B. Hudson (1904:iv-vii); Anonymous (1917:520-521); Malone (1932: 341-342); U.S. censuses for 1870, 1880, 1900 (records for 1890 were destroyed and copies are not available).

(13) Inferred from SQBMS and correspondence during mid-to-late 1980's between VGS and CHB.

(14) One web site (http://www.psitek.net/index2. html) describes it: "This book explores all areas of the metaphysical world from early philosophies to hypnotism and mesmerism, clairvoyance, visions, right through an overview of the psycho-therapeutic practices. The phenomena of spiritism is [sic] covered in all its [sic] forms including contact with the spirit world as well as case histories of witchcraft, hauntings and possession."

(15) His father's house in Washington was "filled with thousands of books on the subject of psychic phenomena." CHB, unpubl. manuscr. (not CHBMS), 28 Nov. 1996 (courtesy of her son, Hudson Brett). We suspect the subjects were more varied than just on psychic phenomena.

(16) Based on a letter CBH sent his mother, he may have published illustrations in the "Penny Paper" around the time he was 17 (CHB to VGS, in litt., 10 Feb. 1985). Penny paper was a general term of the period that applied to newspapers or other publications that were sold for a penny or pennies. We were unable to learn which penny paper or what CBH's contribution might have been, and consider the attribution problematic.

(17) Rathbun (1852-1918) was trained as a paleontologist. His association with the USFC began as a volunteer in 1874, but by 1875, and until 1878, he was a geologist with the Geological Commission of Brazil. In 1878 he rejoined the USFC as a scientific assistant, and remained on the staff until 1896. In 1897 he joined the Smithsonian Institution, in which he rose, in 1898, to the position of Assistant Secretary, in charge of the National Museum, a position he occupied until his death (SIA, RU 7078, historical note (Anonymous)).

(18) John Elfreth Watkins (1852-1903), variously a railroad employee and museum curator. His Smithsonian employment, as honorary curator of the Section of Steam Transportation, Department of Arts and Industries, U.S. National Museum, began in 1885, while he was still a railroad employee. He was promoted to Curator of Transportation in 1887. In 1893, he joined the staff of the Field Columbian Museum, but in 1895 he returned to the Smithsonian where he served in various positions until 1903. (Distilled from W. R. Massa, Jr., undated, Historical Note, SIA RU 7268, q.v., for more detail).

* United States report (Collins, 1901) used the word Exhibition.

(19) In CBH's posthumous biography (Anonymous, 1941:498-499 + photograph) indicated that the wedding took place on Nov. 3, which is undoubtedly erroneous. The Washington Post for 1 Oct. 1889 indicated that their marriage license had been issued, which means it was issued no later than 30 Sept. 1889. According to a sworn statement to DVA by the minister who "solemnized" the marriage, it took place on 1 Oct. 1889, and this is the wedding date often referred to in DVA papers by both CBH and Christine.

(20) She would attain the age of 103. VGS, on 3 May 1985, interviewed her in her Annapolis, Md., apartment looking out onto Chesapeake Bay. She claimed her greatest pleasure was watching the sailing ships with binoculars. Christine had three daughters (no sons). Aside from Christine, among the sea's indirect draw on the life of CBH, were her brother, Lester Jay Hudson (21 Apr. 1894-4 July 1974), CBH's other child of his first marriage. Lester was a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Md., and retired with the rank of rear admiral. Lester had four sons. His oldest, Allan, also was an Annapolis graduate, still living at this writing (12/2008). Allan had four sons (and four daughters): Patrick, his eldest, is an Annapolis graduate and naval engineer, with a Ph.D. and the rank of commander; Alexander, deceased, was a naval officer (did not attend Annapolis) on a destroyer, and Michael, who was a Navy radioman. Alexander and Michael both served during the Viet Nam war. (Telephone interviews with Patrick J. Hudson, most recent, 17 Dec. 2008).

(21) Emails 7-8 Jan. 2008, from Stephanie Cassidy, Archivist, Art Students League of New York, to VGS. CBH also is reported to have studied with William Merritt Chase at the Art Students League, but there is no record of this. Probably, he studied with Chase in 1914 (see narrative for 1914).

(22) 1 Dec. 1854-6 Mar. 1937. In 1889 Hornaday became the first director of the Smithsonian's National Zoo, a position he held until 1896. In 1896 he left to become the founding director of the New York Zoological Society (Smithsonian News Service article, Feb. 1989).

(23) There is a fine, if any, line of distinction between what is illustration and what we term fine art. In general, illustrations, especially the type that CBH produced, were intended to provide information, and were permitted less freedom of artistic expression than fine art, which is usually intended to appeal to our aesthetic sensibilities.

(24) Pen name of John Woodruff Lewis, 27 May 1835-18 Aug. 1919, poet and novelist, and sometime patent examiner in Washington (source 01/2009: http://www.ulib.niu.edu/badndp/lewis_ juan.html) during the same period as CBH's father, one-time patent examiner, who probably introduced CBH to Lewis.

(25) Evermann (24 Oct. 1853-27 Sept. 1932). A detailed biography of Evermann was published by Jennings (1997).

(26) 19 Jan. 1851-19 Sept. 1931; early president of the University of Indiana, first president of Stanford University, world renowned ichthyologist; for a brief biography and a bibliography of his publications see Hays (1952); for his ichthyological importance at Stanford University, see Brittan (1997).

(27) According to the website of the NPRC, it has no records prior to those of World War I (ca. 1917), and that records prior to WWI are at NARA in Washington, D.C. We tried unsuccessfully to locate CBH's early records at NARA, as well as at several other non Federal institutional archives in Washington, D.C. Finally, we called the DCNG office and by chance the lady who answered the phone said, "those records used to be here, but I sent them to NPRC a couple of years ago." She gave us the name and telephone number of the person, William Seibert, she had sent the records to. Seibert informed us that the only pre WWI records at NPRC were those of the DCNG. We obtained copies of those that were available, but the most recent was 19 Dec. 1896.

(28) We made several unsuccessful attempts to determine what time and training requirements were required of National Guard enlistees in the late 19th Century. Most training was probably done on weekends and evenings, and at some time during the year there was a short period of bivouacking. Undoubtedly training at least included learning to take orders, marching, handling arms, and target practice.

(29) Probably an indication of his working on the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition.

(30) Soon after this date, CBH must have departed for Paris, where he remained for a few months.

(31) The information presented here is all that was available to us. It is contained in SQBMS.

(32) Information concerning CBH's military records during and after the Spanish-American War were obtained from NARA (Washington, D.C.), Archives Records Center, Old Military and Civilian Records, Spanish-American War, Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations, 1 D.C. Infantry, Charles B. Hudson; identifying numbers: 41091797, 41091874, 41092021, 41092168, 41088244, 41088282, 41088283; 41093565, 41093573, 41093586, 41093013, 41093032, 41093052; also, NARA, Archives Records Center, General correspondence of the Adjutant General's office, 1890-1917, Hudson Hughen: 351005, 353858, 363439.

(33) Harries recommended five men for commissioning, which he listed in order based on his opinion of their merits. CBH was third. Harries general recommendation for all five read, "All of the gentlemen named served in the District of Columbia quota during the war with Spain, and each one of them is of that type of soldierly manhood which should be essential to the possession of a commission in the regular establishment. Each of them is fully capable of attending to any military duty, either in the line or staff." His particular recommendation of CBH read, "Mr. Hudson was one of the most industrious and painstaking of those who rendered such excellent service in this country, and through the siege of Santiago, and during the prolonged struggle with disease until the day of muster out."

(34) New York State Military Museum, http://dmna. state.ny.us/forts/fortsT_Z/wikoffCamp.htm (15 Dec. 2008).

(35) The Harriman Alaska Expedition was organized by E. H. Harriman, a railway magnate and financier, to explore the coastal waters and territory of Alaska. The expedition extended from 31 May to 30 July 1899, during which thousands of documentary photographs were taken. The scientific findings were published in 14 volumes, issued between 1901 and 1914. Harriman published the first two volumes, but then turned the copyright over to the Smithsonian Institution, which published the remaining volumes and reissued the first two volumes under its own imprint. Several prominent scientists participated in the expedition: John Burroughs, Edward S. Curtis, William E. Ritter, G. K. Gilbert, George Bird. Grinnell, William H. Dall, Clinton H. Merriam, and John Muir.

(36) CHBMS

(37) The Washington Post, 9 Jan. 1898, p. 10 (ProQuest Historical Newspapers).

(38) SULS 058, Series IA, D. S. Jordan, Box 28, Folder 280, 18 Mar. 1901, CBH to D. S. Jordan; SULS 058, Series IAA, D. S. Jordan, Box 2, Folder v.3, 21 Mar. 1901, D. S. Jordan to CBH. Jordan mentioned that he still had 175 new species of Japanese fishes to be illustrated and "So far as I can see there is likely to be all the work you can do for a long period, perhaps several years."

(39) DVA contains a copy of their marriage license, which, based on handwriting, appears to have been filled out by CBH. On it, he gives his age as 38 and hers, erroneously, as 30. We obtained her birth date, which she included in a letter, 7 May 1944, she wrote to DVA.]

(40) These reproductions also included the color paintings of fishes that A. H. Baldwin produced on the expedition. Baldwin worked in watercolor, CBH in oil on academy board. (See also footnote 92 for more information on the postcards.)

(41) New York Times, 20 Aug. 1901, p. 10. The article also indicated that she was the sole support of her daughter, but that CBH's parents had contributed partly to the support of her son.

(42) J. O. Snyder, 1867-1943, spent most of his professional life as a professor teaching ichthyology and fisheries biology at Stanford University. Hubbs (1943:265) and Brittan (1997) include information about him.

(43) SULS SC058 IA, D. S. Jordan, Box 28, Folder 305.

(44) CHBMS.

(45) NARA RG 106, Smithsonian Institution, Hugh M. Smith, Box 5.

(46) Information for the period 12 Feb.-11 Oct. 1903 is contained in letters between Jordan and CBH in SULS SC058 IA, D. S. Jordan, Box 36, Folders 352, 353, 355, 357 and Box 37, Folder 368, and SULS SCO58 IAA, D. S. Jordan, Box 6, Folders 11 and 12, Box 7, Folders 13 and 14, and Box 9, Folder 17.

(47) His first wife, Christine, was granted a divorce in 1902 and she would remarry in 1903 (Washington Post, 4 Aug. 1903, p. 3), to Guy N. Collins (1872-1938), prominent chief botanist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry (New York Times, 16 Aug. 1938, p. 19). They would remain married until he died. Information from ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

(48) Although the geographic position of the studio remains the same, the original short driveway to the studio from Asilomar was allowed to become overgrown and blocked, and a long, two-track dirt road leading off Sunset Drive on the opposite side of the studio is now the entryway to the property. Sunset Drive is the closest road between the studio and the Pacific Ocean. Today, there is no street number posted for the studio on either Asilomar Avenue or Sunset Drive. The driveway entrance on Sunset Drive, however, is between addresses 1642, to the south, and 1600, to the north. One can still just discern the remains of the short, original Asilomar driveway of the studio in an aerial photograph that was available on the web during 2009.

(49) Telephone interview, by VGS, 21 July 2008, with Cmdr. Patrick J. Hudson, great grandson of CBH's first marriage.

(50) 12 Mar. 1873-18 Sept. 1946, novelist, adventurer, and conservationist, one of a select few made an Honorary Scout by the Boy Scouts of America. Barton Warren Evermann (1906:20) named Salmo whitei [= Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei] in recognition of White's effective concern about the preservation of the golden trout.

(51) 13 Sept. 1863-7 Dec. 1925, Commissioner 1898-1913, U.S. Representative from 2nd District, West Virginia, 1916-1923. For an interesting statement about his initial appointment see the New York Times, 2 Feb. 1898, p. 3.

(52) The Volcano Creek of Evermann (and as used by us in the above discussion) is today called Golden Trout Creek, and a southern tributary, which flows through a boulder field before joining Golden Trout Creek, is now designated Volcano Creek. The golden trout in Golden Trout Creek is still an isolated pure population (Robert J. Behnke, email to VGS 23 Jan. 2009).

(53) The remaining narrative includes extensive quotes from letters exchanged between CBH and Barton Warren Evermann. In general, we thought it best to let these men speak for themselves. What is omitted from the incompletely quoted letters, even when the body of the correspondence might be quite businesslike, are the men's friendly closing comments concerning their respective families, or invitations to visit and reside in their homes. Formality of the day, however, always reigned: it was always Dear Captain or Mr. Hudson, and Dear Professor or Dr. Evermann.

(54) An instrument consisting of two equal-length halves with each half pointed at both ends, and with a sliding lock screw holding the two halves together. It is used to accurately enlarge or reduce an original measurement taken between the points of one end and transferring the distance represented by the points at the other end to an illustrating surface. For example, the dividers are expanded at one end to the actual length of a specimen and the sliding lock screw is adjusted so that the opposite ends indicate half the original measurement. In this way numerous measurements of different parts of a specimen (e.g. length of head, length of tail) can be made and marked on a drawing surface in order to create an illustration in which all parts are equally proportionate (half in this example) to those of the original. CBH's letters to Evermann and others at the USFC frequently requested the use of proportional dividers to aid in his illustrating.

(55) Ernest Thompson Seton (also Ernest Seton Thompson) was born Ernest Evan Thompson, 14 July 1860, in England. In 1866 he moved to Canada with his family. At least between 15 July 1901 and 10 Feb. 04, he was living in New York City (80 West 40th St), but by 16 May 04 he was living at his estate, Wyndygoul, Cos Cob, Greenwich, Conn. He studied art and illustrated many articles and books, both those he authored and those of other authors. His subjects were varied but included color plates of fish in at least one publication (Commissioner, 1907:15). In 1881 he became Naturalist for the provincial government of Manitoba, Canada. He was an early and important organizer of the Boy Scouts of America. He died 23 Oct. 1946. (Information from various sources, including Beach and Rines (1912), websites of Boy Scouts of America and Wikipedia, and the Seton letters in the Barton W. Evermann letter file, Box 19, Archives of the California Academy of Sciences.

(56) Jennings (1997:end note 78 includes the following statement, "Many of the [U.S.] Bureau [of Fisheries] records now in the Evermann files (Archives, California Academy of Sciences) contain official Bureau information ... that can be found nowhere else ... Renee M. Jaussaud (formerly with the National Archives) once informed me that Congress authorized a number of the old Bureau files in Washington, D.C. to be destroyed ..."

(57) Authored as Thompson, E[rnest] S[eton], 1898:214, reference not seen, cited in Evermann and Goldsborough (1907:118) and alluded to by Seton in a 16 May 1904 letter to Evermann.

(58) Each of the figures is about 8 inches long and 2.5 inches deep, or about 20 square inches in area. CBH was receiving $0.50 a square inch for his fish illustrations from the U.S. Fish Commission. Thus, CBH would have charged the Commission about $10 per illustration, or $130 for all thirteen, indicating that CBH billed Seton for 2.5 times the amount he would have charged the Commission for similar illustrations.

(59) Letter from C. F. Pautzke, Commissioner, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, to L. P. Schultz, Curator of Fishes, USNM, 23 Jan.1962 (Registrar's Accession No. 239954).

(60) In CASA Evermann, letter Box 18, is a copy of a CBH letter, dated 30 Apr. 1906, from his mother's home in Detroit, to Evermann, hoping Evermann will visit on his way to Grand Rapids.

(61) Walter [Norman] Koelz, 11 [Sept. or Nov. depending on source] 1895-24 Sept. 1989, did not use his middle name or initial as an author. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1920. Under his name on the title page of this study, he indicated, "Formerly Associate Aquatic Biologist, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries." After this study, he only published one other paper on fishes, in 1931. He published extensively on Asian birds for awhile, and became interested in Asian textiles and plants. He led a very interesting life.

(62) 7 Mar. 1849-11 Apr. 1926. Burbank was survived by his wife, who willed his historic home in Santa Rosa, Calif., to the city. It is now a nonprofit organization listed as the Luther Burbank Home & Gardens.

(63) Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Papers of Luther Burbank (General Correspondence), Box 6, Folder H, miscellaneous, 190716.

(64) We exclude CBH's 1901 paintings of Hawaiian fishes and his 1904 paintings of salmonid fishes, which were issued as postcards, variously, by the Bishop Museum (beginning in the early 1900's) and the Steinhart Aquarium beginning about 1923, as well as the poster for the 1985 Smithsonian "Drawn from the Sea" exhibition, which included 11 illustrations of fishes, two by CBH, and the Cosmopolitan magazine advertisement poster of Sept. 1895, reprinted in recent years and currently available for purchase by the New York City Public Library.

(65) The Social Security Death Index (SSDI) has her birth date as 30 Dec. 1912, but the 1910 Census, indicates she was 3 months old at the time of enumeration, 12 May 1910, therefore born in Feb. 1910). According to the SSDI, she died on 26 Mar. 2007, based on information from her death certificate.

(66) CHBMS entry, "1/14/1910: Chas. A. Vogelsang letter to CBH enclosing a check for three colored drawings of Rainbow, Steelhead and Eastern Brook Trout ..."

(67.) Unless noted otherwise, information in this section is largely taken from CASA B. W. Evermann, correspondence Box 1918, A-H.

(68.) A compiled biography of Chase (1 Nov. 184925 Oct. 1916) is available at http://www.answers. com/topic/chase-william-merritt. CBH is variously reported to have studied with Chase at the Art Student's League in New York, but there is no record of this in the ASL's archives (S. Cassidy, ASL archivist, email to VGS, 2 Feb. 2009). SQBMS for summer 1914, lists an unspecified CBH-Chase Summer School relationship, and CHB (10 Feb. 1985, letter to VGS), in response to VGS's request for date of CBH's study with Chase, wrote "Studies with Chase, I believe, were while he was at home in Pacific Grove concurrently sketching the Monterey coast, etching it and writing his book ["The Royal Outlaw"]mainly during the years 1912-1916, before 1917-Academy of Sciences years which led to serious landscape painting."

(69.) Jennings (1997:302).

(70.) It never was.

(71.) John Rowley (1866-1928), a taxidermist and early exhibits specialist, began work in 1889 at the American Museum of Natural History. In 1903, he moved to California and assisted David Starr Jordan in building the university's biological museum. In 1907 he joined the staff of the California Academy of Sciences as chief of exhibits. In 1917 he was appointed director of the Oakland Museum, and in 1920 he became chief of exhibits at the Los Angeles County Museum. He participated in and supervised many of the early dioramas at the California Academy of Sciences, including those for which CBH painted the backgrounds (distilled from Wonders, 1993: 140-141).

(72.) Information about the dioramas, including invoices for payments to CBH for his background paintings are found in manuscripts in CASA files: North American Hall, Boxes 1 and 2, and Simson African Hall, Boxes 1 and 2. Also included for each hall, is a CAS published pamphlet illustrating in gray scale a photograph of each included diorama in that hall, identifications of the species and sundry comments on behavior, distribution, and conservation, of the elements in the diorama, acknowledgement of the supervisor, artist, and exhibits responsible for the preparation. The North American Hall (Anonymous, 1939a) was dedicated on 22 Sept. 1916, with only a few dioramas completed, the others to be opened soon. The Simson African Hall pamphlet (Anonymous, 1937b) is similar to the other pamphlet, but it includes a more extensive introductory history of CAS, staffing list, information about the donor, Leslie Simson, a 2-page article by him, "Collecting Animals in Africa," an illustrated 2-page article on taxidermy and modeling plants. The halls were redesigned and refurbished during 1986-88, and the North American Hall was recast and renamed as the Wild California Hall. In the process, several of the dioramas with CBH backgrounds were destroyed. Finally, beginning in 2004, CAS closed its facilities to the public, destroyed the building, and erected a new one, completing it in 2008. None of the original dioramas were saved.

(73.) Rather than painting the backgrounds directly on the wall, they were painted on canvases, which were affixed to the walls.

(74.) We think this suggestion of another, impending, novel was disingenuous.

(75.) CHB (in litt, 18 Nov. 1985) sent VGS photographs of the dioramas for which she thought CBH had painted the backgrounds. She included one of the Steller sea lion, which all three printings (1939, 1945, 1947) of the CAS pamphlet, "North American Hall" shows and credits to Charles Abel Corwin (1857-1938), as do payment vouchers (Karen Elsbern, CASA, emails 23 and 25 Feb. 2009); we earlier checked the North American Hall Box 1914 and found a notation that two payment vouchers for the "Elephant Seal" Group, were made to Corwin, one for 11 May 1923 for $400 and one for 31 May 1923 for $600.

(76.) Letter from Evermann to E. L. Goldsborough, 9 May 1918 (CASA Evermann Correspondence Box 1918, A-H.

(77.) As acknowledged by Evermann in letter to CBH dated 17 Apr. 1929 (CASA, Evermann letter files, 1914).

(78.) Letter from Toxaway Bronte Evermann and Edith Evermann Humphrey to Trustees and Council CAS, Oct. 1932 (CASA correspondence, Box 1932 D-G).

(79.) Photographs of all seven of the North American Hall dioramas and three of the four Simson African Hall dioramas for which CBH painted the backgrounds were given to VGS in late Nov. 1985, by CHB, who had had them photographed. About 1935, CAS prepared postcards showing the dioramas. The photograph of the grizzly bear diorama used on the postcard was taken by the famous photographer Ansel Adams.

(80.) Kerstin Hagsgard, associate curator, The Royal Collections, Stockholm, Sweden, email, 20 June 2007. Hagsgard photographed the painting and granted us permission to reproduce it. We note that the painting is in need of cleaning.

(81.) According to email (4 Mar. 2009) from Babette McKay, Phelan left only his villa and grounds in Saratoga, Calif. (now the Montalvo Arts Center), to the trusteeship of the San Francisco Art Association. "Most of his personal possessions were left to his nieces and nephews."

(82.) A former department, which no longer exists, of Columbian College (now George Washington University).

(83.) Washington Post, 16 June 1883, p. 1.

(84.) Washington Post, 9 June 1887, p. 2, and Washington Evening Star, for same date, unnumbered supplement p. 4; also, additional information from CBH's great granddaughter from his second marriage, Sarah Quayle Brett, attachment to email to VGS 17 Oct. 1998.

(85.) Christine Hudson Kempton (interviewed by VGS 3 May 1985), CBH's daughter by his first marriage, mentioned the offer of a chair. Claire Hudson Brett (in litt., to VGS, 22 May 1985), daughter by second marriage, wrote that it was in the Classics [Department], as he had majored in Greek and Latin," and " . . . he always had a selection from one or the other [of these languages] 'for breakfast' on either side of his plate."

(86.) B. D. Woodward, in litt., 8 May 1902 to CBH (copy in files of VGS).

(87.) Only one of the four new species of fishes (the second mentioned) is currently considered valid; the other three are junior synonyms of species described earlier by other authors, who used different scientific names. This situation does not detract from the honors being accorded CBH by the authors of these three species.

(88.) This quotation and the CBH illustration used as a preface to Hornaday's book, were reproduced in "The Literary News," July 1891, 12(7):195.

(89.) Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries, SC058 D. S. Jordan, Box 36, Folder 352.

(90.) Ibid., SC058, D. S. Jordan, Series Iaa, Box 7, v. 13

(91.) Chloe Leslie Starks (1866-1952), attended Stanford University but apparently did not graduate; ultimately she became Associate Professor of Education (graphic arts) at Stanford; she was the wife of Edwin Chapin Starks, ichthyologist and Stanford professor of zoology. All of Chloe Starks published illustrations are in black and white; many of the original illustrations are present among the illustration files of the Smithsonian Institution's Division of Fishes.

(92.) Jordan's remarks, published in 1922, refer only to postcards sold to tourists who visited the Waikiki Aquarium in Hawaii. The rare first publication ("Hawaiian Fishes," Honolulu, Hawaii: Island Curio Co.) of the printings, which were to be issued later as postcards, was sold by the aquarium and published in Germany about 1910. It is hardbound and in leporello (accordion fold) format. We know of only two copies listed as present in U.S. libraries: Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution (the latter gifted to the institution by Bruce A. Carlson, a former director of the Waikiki Aquarium). The Waikiki Aquarium opened in 1904, the year before CBH's and Baldwin's illustrations were first published by Jordan and Evermann (1905). The postcards were reproduced several times, most recently in 1990 and 1994 (Carlson, in litt., 13 Nov. 2007 to VGS). The 1994 edition (also a Carlson gift to the Smithsonian), if not the others, was published in booklet form. Information about the postcards sold by the aquarium was provided us by M. Heckman, Director of Education, Waikiki Aquarium, and Bruce Carlson.

Other postcards depicting CBH illustrated fishes, were issued and reissued by the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco, which opened in Sept. 1923 (McCosker, 2007:171), a year after Jordan (1922) published his remarks. Based on the combined holdings of the Division of Fishes and those of J. E. McCosker (director emeritus, Steinhart Aquarium, 1973-1994), 12 colored postcards were issued by Steinhart, of which 10 were by CBH, reproducing five of CBH's illustrations of Hawaiian fishes and five of his North American trout species. The other two were of Hawaiian species illustrated by Albertus H. Baldwin. Hudson and Baldwin were the illustrators on Jordan and Evermann's 1901 expedition to Hawaii.

The color reproductions, both in the booklets and on the separate postcards, are greatly wanting compared with either the original illustrations or their first appearances in scientific publications.

(93.) Founded in 1916; exhibition was open to any artist who wanted to show his/her work. The "1924 Catalogue of the Eighth Annual Exhibition ..." indicates that it took place at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel, 7-30 Mar. CBH was listed as living at 817 [317] Alder Street, Pacific Grove, Calif. Each artist was allowed to exhibit one or two paintings, depending on their size. CBH exhibited only one painting.

(94.) Article provided VGS by CHB.

(95.) Sanity in Art "is [was?] an association and a movement" founded by Mrs. Frank Granger Logan, who with her husband, had been issuing a medal and cash prize since 1917 for art. She wrote, "Sanity in Art Means Soundness, Rationalism, a Correct Integration of the Art Work Itself in Accordance with some Internal Logic." (Anonymous, 1937a).

(96.) See also Anonymous (1982), below.

(97.) NAASI, Otis T. Mason papers, 49033.

(98.) Charles Clark Willoughby (5 July 1857-21 Apr. 1943), during his early adult years was an art dealer with an interest in archaeology. By 1894 he became employed by Harvard's Peabody Museum as an assistant, ultimately becoming its director, 1915-1928 (E. A. Hooten (1943) published an extensive obituary). George Perkins Merrill (1854-1929), in 1887, was curator, Department of Lithology and Physical Geology, U.S. National Museum (SIA RU 7177, has an historical note and listing of holdings concerning him).

(99.) The original drawing for this illustration is preserved in the National Museum of American History Archives, Collection 256, Box 4, Folder 3.

(100.) The first edition of "The Century Dictionary" was originally issued in 24 fascicles between 1889 and 1891; these were then combined variously into up to 10 volumes. Several editions were published through 1914. Page 5,575 was published in 1891 and is the same in all editions through the last in 1914 (James Mead, Division of Mammals, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, personal commun. Mead, a colleague and bibliophile, has copies of all editions of the Dictionary). The next edition, "The New Century Dictionary of the English Language, "was published in 1952 and does not include CBH's illustration.

(101.) CHB to VGS, in litt., 28 Feb. 1985, 10 Sept. 1988.

(102.) Wonders did include a short biographical sketch of CBH on page 232 of her "Appendix: select list of diorama painters."

(103.) We were unable to find any publication authored by Shufeldt that contained a CBH illustration.

(104.) Washington Post, 10 Feb. 1892, p. 4.

(105.) Henry Wood Elliott, 1846-1930, highly productive illustrator, among his other activities, for the USFC.

(106.) Washington Post, information from ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

(107.) A black-and-white CBH painting was hanging in Arden House, home of Mrs. Edward H. Harriman, during 1917. G. P. Du Bois (1917), stated (on p. 296), "In the upper hall there are sea lions in black and white by Charles B. Hudson that probably were executed during the Harriman Alaskan Expedition." CBH, however, did not participate in the expedition. We tried unsuccessfully to locate the painting. Sarah Elliston Weiner, Curator of Art Properties, Columbia University Libraries Special Collections (in litt., 10 June 2008, to D. H. Mortimer, Columbia University; cc to VGS), wrote that there was a record of a CBH painting, "Seals on Rock," briefly described as a group of seals at the seashore, in an inventory of the paintings in Arden House. The description closely fits the published photogravure. The inventory did not include a photograph of the painting, but it is described as being oil on board, approximately 8 inches high, 14 inches wide, therefore, approximately twice the size of the published photogravure, which is 4 1/16" by 7 3/16". The location of the painting in the home was given as "4th floor, bathroom closet." Mortimer (in litt, 10 June 2008) wrote that the inventory is probably 15 years old, so that it is not definite that the painting is still in the house. "The Harrimans gave ... Arden House to Columbia in 1950. Three and a half years ago the university closed it and sold it to a conservation organization. Much of the noteworthy art has been dispersed and the house has remained boarded up.... The last time I was in the house, the walls were quite bare." The painting was probably based directly on a photograph taken on the Harriman Expedition, as is the other CBH lithograph published in the Harriman expedition series (see C. H. Merriam (1902) below); its disposition is also unknown.

(108.) For example, the obituary announcement of CBH in the Monterey Peninsula Herald, for 28 June 1939.

(109) The three photographs, by C. Hart Merriam, are on page 152 of volume 2, of "A Souvenir of the Harriman Alaska Expedition, 1899," which is a two-album collection of individually mounted photographs taken during the Harriman Alaska expedition. Probably only a few sets of the albums were prepared. The Library of Congress does not have a set; however, sets are present in the libraries of: American Museum of Natural History, N.Y.; University of Texas, Austin; Alaska State Library, Juneau; University of California, both Berkeley and Los Angeles; Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Hamilton College, Clinton, N.Y.; and University of Washington, Seattle.

(110) At the foot of the western approach to Mount Hitney.

(111) CASA, B. W. Evermann letter files, Box 75.

(112) A young mountain goat. Similar to the illustration mentioned in the previous footnote, a CBH oil painting for this plate probably exists.

(113) Smithsonian Libraries, National Museum of American History Branch, Trade Literature Collection, call no. 014896, barcode 390880 03837648.

(114) Various published biographical accounts about CBH, probably based on information he or his family provided, contain statements that while he was in Paris (1893-94), he was a correspondent for the Washington Star and the Detroit Free Press newspapers. We attempted a partial search of microfilms of the Star for 1893-94 (we were unable to locate an available archival source for the Free Press), but found this time consuming and unrewarding. Except for major articles, authorship of articles in the Star generally were not attributed, or attributed only anonymously (e.g. "correspondent in Paris"), and there is no internal information in those articles that suggests who the authors might have been. There is also mention that CBH contributed to the New York Buffalo Illustrated Express (Hornaday, 1899b:451), which was the Sunday edition of the Buffalo Express), but we were unable to locate any specific information on the nature of CBH's contributions to that newspaper.

(115) We were only able to obtain poor quality reproductions of some of the publications, and some of the figures we reproduce suffer accordingly, but we include these figures as evidence of the variety of CBH's productions and his artistic ability.

(116) Also known as Adolphe William Bougereau or William A. Bouguereau, 1825-1905; well known for his realistic paintings, particularly those of women.

(117) During part or all of his visit, he was joined by his first wife and their daughter Christine (V GS interview, Christine Hudson Kempton, Annapolis, Md., 3 May 1985).

(118) Two impressions of the same CBH etching, "Pont de Bercy, Paris," 1894, which CBH gifted to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1898 (S. L. Stepanek, MFA, Boston, emails, 26-27 Sept. 2007), are the only CBH etchings of which we are aware that exist in a public collection. The foreground of the etching shows a barge tied to a quay, with a bridge and buildings faintly indicated in the distant background. Our general impression of the etching is that it is quite rough, perhaps experimental, and suffers greatly in comparison with other works by CBH.

(119) Butterworth (1897) reproduced five of CBH's illustrations from this publication, one of which, "Rue Galande," we also reproduce in Figure 46. Butterworth, however, replaced the figure's legend with "A Glimpse of Poorer Paris," in keeping with the nature of his article, which was about charitable organizations in Paris that service its homeless and destitute thousands. One wonders if CBH was aware that Butterworth would use his illustrations for an article that dwelt on the other side of the happy life that CBH had so enthusiastically described.

(120) Both the American shad, Alosa sapidissima (Wilson), and striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), are desirable food fishes, native to the eastern United States. The bass is, additionally, a favorite gamefish, and both species are still present in some of the areas in which they were introduced. The introduction of fishes into areas in which they are not native is generally considered unacceptable today. The consequences of such introductions are unpredictable and can be destructive to the point of annihilation for the native fishes or other native organisms.

(121) Bean (8 Oct. 1846-28 Dec. 1916), from 1892 to 1894, was Assistant-in-charge, Division of Fish Culture, U.S. Fish Commission (Anonymous, 1935).

(122) Four of the illustrations appear on a large colorful poster (our Figure 49), which was probably intended for magazine and newspaper kiosks, advertising the magazine issue. Attractive digitally reproduced copies of the poster, in color, are available for purchase from the New York Public Library.

(123) An obsolete word meaning abyssal.

(124) Tempest (III, iii, 21); drollery meant a puppet show in Shakespeare's day; usage now obsolete.

(125) The original painting of this illustration appeared in an eBay auction in Mar. 2008, and sold for $198.

(126) The month-day date is taken from newspaper advertisements indicating "Ready To-Day." The book advertisements also note that the colorful and "striking" book cover and frontispiece are by J. C. Leyendecker (18741951), a prominent artist and illustrator whose colorful illustrations graced the covers of The Saturday Evening Post and appeared in many advertisements and magazines. Leyendecker is reported to have illustrated only seven book covers. An informative web site devoted to him is: http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/leyendec.htm.

(127) Anonymous. The American Review of Reviews, vol. 37, p. 122, 1908.

(128) Anonymous, New York Times (26 Oct. 1907, p. BR678)

(129) The Inter Ocean, a now extinct Chicago newspaper, 28 Sept. 1907, page number not available. Copy of article received courtesy of CHB.

(130) An extract entitled "The Golden Ransom," from Chapter 10 of "The Crimson Conquest," was published under CBH's name, as pages 296-301 in E. M. Tappan (Editor), "The World's Story: a History of the World in Story, Song and Art," vol, 11, 1914, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston and New York.

(131) 26 Aug. 1846-11 Nov. 1925. Editor and owner of the magazine Recreation, which published articles by W. T. Hornaday that were illustrated by CBH. The three men were good friends and mutual admirers. (Detailed biography in Malone (1935:106)

(132) We were unable to find a definition for this word. Crouched means laying low, and CBH could possibly have meant uncrouched to indicate "before mountains arose in the desert."

(133) The only definition we could find for this word was on an obscure website that indicated that it was a "hidden French word for dope." This certainly was not CBH's meaning. It seems likely that this was an exclamation that was meant for general emphasis of what followed.

(134) Unlike "The Crimson Conquest," which had an illustrated cover and frontispiece, "The Royal Outlaw" contained neither, but it contained a dedication, which his first novel did not. It was dedicated, "affectionately," but without other explanation, to Mary Betts Barnhigel [Barnhisel?], possibly CBH's sister-in-law.

(135) New York Times, 15 July 1917, p. 60. (aided by ProQuest Historic Newspapers).

(136) Los Angeles Times, 26 Aug. 1917, page III, 12, "conducted" by G. B. Young. (aided by ProQuest Historic Newspapers).

(137) Following is from: www.thirdworldtraveler. com/Genocide/SplendidBlondeBeast.html, indicated as excerpted from a book by Christopher Simpson, "The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law and Genocide in the Twentieth Century" (ISBN: 1567510620), Common Courage Press, 1995, 399 p. [original not examined]: "Friedrich Nietzsche called the aristocratic predators who write society's laws 'the splendid blond beast' precisely because they so often behave as though they are beyond the reach of elementary morality. As he saw things, these elites have cut a path toward a certain sort of excellence consisting mainly of the exercise of power at the expense of others. When dealing with ordinary people, he said, they 'revert to the innocence of wild animals.... We can imagine them returning from an orgy of murder, arson, rape and torture, jubilant and at peace with themselves as though they had committed a fraternity prank-convinced, moreover, that the poets for a long time to come will have something to sing about and to praise.' Their brutality was true courage, Nietzsche thought, and the foundation of social order."

(138) Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930), German Grand Admiral responsible for policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. Moritz Ferdinand Freiherr von Bissing (1844-1917), Prussian General, governor of occupied Belgium, long believed to have been responsible for deporting Belgians to Germany to be used as forced labor, but he may not have been responsible for this policy. Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934), often successful military strategist, but ultimately battle losing supreme commander of the German armies during World War I. In 1925, Hindenburg was elected second President of the Weimar Republic, and was reelected in 1932 (defeating Adolf Hitler, whom he unfortunately named chancellor of Germany) and served until his death in 1934 (various sources).

(139) The 32 CBH illustrations framed and used in the 1985-88 "Drawn from the Sea" exhibit (more about this exhibit in the text), were under acid-free mats with elliptical openings. These mats did not stain the illustrations.

(140) We at first thought it probable that these illustrations were framed for display at the 1898 International Fisheries Exposition in Bergen, Norway, at which CBH was awarded silver and bronze medals. These medals, however were for his illustrations of fishing vessels and a painting of a fishing method. Furthermore, plate 2 in Collins (1901) is a photograph of the section of the USFC exhibit showing framed illustrations of fishes, which were clearly not prepared by CBH: e.g. several portrayed fishes facing right, whereas all CBH fish illustrations show the fish facing left.

(141) Mention of trade names does not imply endorsement by the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA.

(142) She also gave VGS an underexposed 4 x 5inch color transparency photograph of the painting, and mentioned that there were two other oil paintings of fishes, "one of my brother's [who is deceased] and one down town ..." (CHB to VGS, 17 Sept. 1985). We do not know what "down town" referred to.

(143) The exhibit was curated by VGS and featured a poster which included 11 fishes, two by CBH (P00979, P01499). The original exhibit included 200 illustrations representing the work of 21 artists. The traveling exhibit included only 80 of the 200 illustrations, but represented all 21 of the artists.

(144) Evermann and Marsh (1900:51) erroneously state that CBH was illustrating fishes in Key West "during the winter of 1897-98," i.e. about 21 Dec. 1897-21 Mar. 1898. We believe they intended their statement to read the winter of 1896-97. Evermann and Kendall (1900:38) correctly noted, "During the early part of 1897 Mr. Charles B. Hudson was in Key West engaged in painting for the U.S. Fish Commission the important food-fishes found at that place." They stated that the specimens CBH used for illustrations, and some others, were obtained and preserved in 1897, and they referred to them generally as "Hudson coll., 1897." CBH's handwritten information on several of his illustrations records them as having been done in Key West on various dates between 2 Jan. and 27 Mar. 1897. On one illustration, P08206 (Caranx crysos), however, CBH wrote "Apr. 1. 1898." Another possibility is that CBH made color sketches and did the final paintings in Washington, D.C.

(145) Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, call number: SC 058; Box 6; Folder v. 12.

(146) Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, call number: SC 058; Box 6; Folder v. 11. Letter from G. A. Clark to CBH, 28 Dec. 1902, "President Jordan has just received ... a letter from [U.S. Fish] Commissioner Bowers approving of his recommendation that you be given a uniform rate of $10 per drawing on the Hawaiian fishes, you to make the drawings large or small, according to the amount of detail to be put in."

(147) In letters from D. S. Jordan to CBH in Detroit, dated 27 Sept. and 11 Oct. 1902, Jordan importuned CBH for information on when he would finish the drawings of the callionymids, "When you get those drawings finished, kindly send them to Dr. [Marcus] Benjamin [publications editor at the Smithsonian Institution] ... and the paper will go to the press." Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, SC 058, D. S. Jordan, Series I-AA, Box 5, Folder v. 10. CBH responded to Jordan's letter of 27 Sept. on 6 Oct. 1902, "I have one drawing yet to make of Callionymus, and will send them to Dr. Benjamin in three or four days." Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, SC 058, Series I-A, D. S. Jordan, Box 33, Folder 329.

(148) Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, SC 058 I-A, D. S. Jordan, Box 30, Folder 303, "I signed and forwarded the vouchers which you sent me, and also two others received from Washington two or three days ago, for the three labrid fishes ..."

(149) Her unpublished manuscript chronology, "Charles Bradford Hudson" mentions letter of 21 Feb. 1907 from B. W. Evermann requesting this painting, and enclosing a painting in black and white made by [Albertus H.] Baldwin [from a presumably preserved specimen] from the South Fork of the Kern River, and CBH's original painting [P04043] from Volcano Creek, requesting CBH to make a colored painting based on the Baldwin illustration.

(150) "I have finished Myripristis and will send it to Dr. Evermann tomorrow morning." Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, SC 058, D. S. Jordan, Series I-A , Box 36, Folder 357,

(151) Bean (1860-1947), joined the Smithsonian's National Museum as a clerk in 1881. He rose to the position of Assistant Curator of Fishes in 1890, which position he held until he retired in 1932. He also worked with the U.S. Fish Commission, which was closely associated with the Smithsonian (information from R. V. Szary, Historical Note in Record Unit 7224, Barton A. Bean Papers, Smithsonian Institution Archives).

(152) Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, SC 058, D. S. Jordan, ser. IAA, Box 7, Folder v. 13.

(153) Stanford University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, SC 058, D. S. Jordan, ser. IAA, Box 2, Folder v. 3.

(154) Catalogue of Specimens of Hawaiian and Philippine Fishes, with List of Tag Numbers of the Hawaiian and the Philippine Fishes.

The authors are with the Division of Fishes, MRC-159, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, D.C., 20013-7012 (springer@si.edu; murphyk@si.edu).
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