Distributional records for birds from Tlaxcala, Mexico.
Abstract: In total, 14 new records of birds are reported from coniferous forests and other habitats in the municipality of Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, Mexico. These additional records reinforce the supposition that the region is important with respect to conservation of avian diversity in Mexico.

Se reportan nuevos registros para 14 especies de aves de bosques de coniferas y otros habitats en el municipio de Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Esto registros adicionales enfatizan la importancia de esta region en la conservacion de la diversidad de aves en Mexico.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Forest ecology (Research)
Birds (Identification and classification)
Animal ecology (Research)
Author: Ramirez-Albores, Jorge E.
Pub Date: 03/01/2012
Publication: Name: Southwestern Naturalist Publisher: Southwestern Association of Naturalists Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2012 Southwestern Association of Naturalists ISSN: 0038-4909
Issue: Date: March, 2012 Source Volume: 57 Source Issue: 1
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: Mexico Geographic Name: Tlaxcala, Mexico (State) Geographic Code: 1MEX Mexico
Accession Number: 285321080
Full Text: Tlaxcala is in east-central Mexico (19[degrees]05'43"-19[degrees]44'07"N, 98[degrees]37'07"-98[degrees]42'51"W) in the highlands of the Mexican Transvolcanic Belt. It shares borders with the states of Mexico, Puebla, and Hidalgo. Tlaxcala is the smallest state in Mexico (4,072 [km.sup.2]) and most of its area is in farmland and cattle range. Elevations are 2,000-4,461 m. Dominant climate is temperate subhumid with rains in summer and annual temperatures of 12-18[degrees]C. Mean annual precipitation is 600-1,200 mm in the central and southern part of the state, while in the west-northwestern portion it can be <500 mm (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia, 1986, 1997).

The study was conducted in western Tlaxcala in the municipality of Nanacamilpa during August 2008-February 2010. Fourteen state records were documented by visual observations and some species were photographed.

Ardea alba (great egret). At Laguna Azul and Pozuelos during March 2009-February 2010, 1-2 were seen regularly. A group of seven was observed on 25 April 2009 at Laguna Azul. Occasionally, the species was seen perched in low trees in open, wet pasture near swamps in lowlands at Laguna Azul and Pozuelos. The great egret is known from surrounding states (Friedmann et al., 1950).

Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's hawk). A flying and calling adult was seen at Piedra Canteada in June 2009. This hawk is rare in the area. Single individuals were observed flying at Piedra Canteada (April, August, and October 2009), San Felipe Hidalgo (November 2009), and Tepuente (November 2009). Swainson's hawk is a transient migrant throughout eastern Mexico and is under special protection in Mexico (Diario Oficial de la Federacion, 2010).

Atthis heloisa (bumblebee hummingbird). This endemic hummingbird was observed several times during the rainy season (August-October 2008 and 2009) at Piedra Canteada. It was seen in grasslands that included herbaceous vegetation associated with remnants of coniferous forests.

Trogon mexicanus (mountain trogon). One was perched in a tree in an oak (Quercus) forest at Piedra Canteada on 7 March 2009 and another on 25 April 2009. The species also was seen on 8 November 2009 at the same locality. Individuals have been recorded previously in the Valley of Mexico (Cabrera G., 1999), state of Mexico (Gonzalez and Rangel, 1992), and northeastern Hidalgo (Howell and Webb, 1992; Martinez-Morales, 2001). It probably is resident in the more inaccessible parts of mountain forests in the Valley of Mexico (Wilson and Ceballos-Lascurain, 1993). Howell and Webb (1995) reported this species as resident in interior and adjacent slopes from southern Chihuahua and southern Tamaulipas to the south.

Lepidocolaptes leucogaster (white-striped woodcreeper). One was observed at Piedra Canteada in October 2008 and another in August 2009. It is resident on the Pacific Slope and in the interior from southern Sonora to Morelos and Oaxaca; on the Atlantic Slope and the adjacent interior, it is known from western and central Veracruz to Oaxaca (Howell and Webb, 1995). The species is a fairly common but inconspicuous resident in pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus) forests in Morelos and a rare visitor in autumn in humid oak woodlands in the Contreras Valley (Wilson and Ceballos-Lascurain, 1993).

Mitrephanes phaeocercus (tufted flycatcher). This species was recorded regularly during August 2008-November 2009 at edges of forests (principally pine-oak forests) at Piedra Canteada. Wilson and Ceballos-Lascurain (1993) reported this species as fairly common in humid pine-oak woodlands. It is resident on both slopes from Sonora and southern Tamaulipas, and in the interior from central Mexico to the Andes Mountains of Peru (Miller et al., 1957).

Corvus corax (common raven). Two were heard and seen on 27 March 2009 at Piedra Canteada (3,150 m elevation). Another was heard on 15 October 2009 in the same area. The species is known from surrounding states.

Baeolophus wollweberi (bridled titmouse). The species was present locally in small numbers. At Piedra Canteada, flocks of 8-12 were seen regularly foraging on insects in pines during October 2008-March 2009 and then again in October 2009.

Dendroica fusca (blackburnian warbler). At Piedra Canteada and in adjacent areas, 1-2 were observed foraging on insects in pines and oaks during August-November 2008 and 2009. The species is a transient and uncommon in the interior of Mexico from the Distrito Federal and the Pacific Slope south to Oaxaca (Wilson and Ceballos-Lascurain, 1993; Howell and Webb, 1995). The species was conspicuous in middle strata of the forest.

Cardellina rufifrons (red-faced warbler). This species was observed several times foraging close to a small trail in a forest below pines and oyamels (Abies religiosa) at 2,850 m elevation during August-October 2008 and 2009. This is a transient and winter visitor on the Pacific Slope from Sinaloa and Durango to Veracruz and Chiapas (Miller et al., 1957).

Arremon viretriceps (green-striped brush-finch). Several times this species was observed and heard as it foraged along the edge of pine-oak forests at Piedra Canteada. It was recorded regularly during August 2008-November 2009. This endemic has been reported in understory in the Ajusco region (Nocedal, 1984; Cabrera G., 1995).

Pooecetes gramineus (vesper sparrow). This sparrow was common in open areas and grasslands during winter. A few individuals were recorded regularly at San Felipe Hidalgo, Nanacamilpa, Tepozotitla, and Tepuente during November 2008-February 2009 and November 2009-February 2010. Wilson and Ceballos-Lascurain (1993) reported this sparrow as a rare visitor in winter in the Distrito Federal, but the species probably is overlooked when it occurs within large flocks composed primarily of savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis).

Ammodramus savannarum (grasshopper sparrow). This sparrow is a rare visitor in winter. A few individuals were recorded regularly at San Felipe Hidalgo, Nanacamilpa, Tepozotitla, and Tepuente in November 2008 and 2009. Meza (2000) reported this sparrow as rare and sporadic at Lago Nabor Carrillo in the state of Mexico.

Spinus notata (black-headed siskin). This species was fairly common in open areas and grasslands at San Felipe Hidalgo, Tepuente, Piedra Canteada, Nanacamilpa, and Mazapa during autumn and winter. A flock of 15 was observed on 5 September 2008 at Piedra Canteada.

Previously, 241 species of birds have been reported from Tlaxcala (Fernandez et al., 2007). The 14 species added here represent a 5.8% increase in species recorded in the state.

This publication is the result of a study supported by Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. I thank C. Perez, L. F. Garduno, J. C. Gutierrez, A. Alaman, and J. I. Villar for assistance in the field, and R. Dickerman and G. Schnell for comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

Submitted 17 March 2010. Accepted 15 May 2011. Associate Editor was Gary D. Schnell.

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JORGE E. RAMIREZ-ALBORES

Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza Campus II, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico Present address: Museo de Zoologea "Alfonso L. Herrera" Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-399, Mexico, Distrito Federal, 04510 Mexico

Correspondent: jorgeramirez22@hotmail.com
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