Description of a new species of the genus Krisna (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) from India.
Abstract: A new species, Krisna pampadumparaensis, is described from Pampadumpara, Kerala, India collected from Ficus exasperata. It is distinguished by its deeply transversely carinate vertex and without any anterior transverse black spot. Three prominent constrictions at the ventral lower margin of aedeagal shaft, hind margin of male eighth sternite medially slightly concave and its lateral angles slightly rounded are the other distinguishing characters. Aedeagus in caudal aspects with shallow concavity in the apical region, second pair of gonapophyses with a smooth area between basal and median teeth, margin between median and apical prominent teeth with denticles and margin beyond apical prominent teeth serrated up to tip, apex with undulated margin and ventral margin with subapical notch, make it distinct from K. varia Viraktamath with which it is closely related.

Key words: Leafhoppers, Krisnini, Krisna pampadumparaensis, Ficus exasperat

Se describe una nueva especie, Krisna pampadumparaensis de la Pampadumpara, Kerala, India recolectada sobre Ficus exasperata. Se distingue por su vertice que es profundo y transversalmente carenado y sin ningun tipo de punto negro transversal anterior. Otras caracteristicas distintas son las tres constricciones prominentes en el margen ventral inferior del eje del aedeago, el margen posterior del octavo esternito del macho quetiene la parte en medio ligeramente concavo y sus angulos laterales ligeramente redondeados. El aedeago en su aspecto caudal con una concavidad poco profunda en la region apical, el segundo par de gonapofises con una superficie lisa entre los dientes basales y medianos, el margen entre los dientes medianos y los dientes prominentes apicales con denticulos y el margen mas alla de los dientes apicales prominentes es serrado hasta la punta, el apice con el margen ondulado y el margen ventral con una muesca subapical que lo hace distinta de K. varia Viraktamath con el que esta estrechamente relacionado.
Article Type: Report
Subject: Entomology (Research)
Hemiptera (Identification and classification)
Hemiptera (Physiological aspects)
Authors: Meshram, Naresh M.
Ramamurthy, V.V.
Pub Date: 06/01/2012
Publication: Name: Florida Entomologist Publisher: Florida Entomological Society Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2012 Florida Entomological Society ISSN: 0015-4040
Issue: Date: June, 2012 Source Volume: 95 Source Issue: 2
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: India Geographic Code: 9INDI India
Accession Number: 299988816
Full Text: Iassinae comprises 7 tribes with over 2000 species in 146 genera (Oman et al 1990; Dietrich, 2005). Of these, tribe Krisnini includes the type genus erected by Kirkaldy (1900) with Siva strigicollis Spinola as its designated type species. Distant (1908) treated 3 species of Kisninifrom the Indian subcontinent, while Baker (1919) dealt with its fauna from the Indo-Australian region and described 8 species. Viraktamath (2006) revised the genus from the Indian subcontinent, described 8 new species and speculated that its New World species placed under this genus probably do not belong here. The genus Krisna is distinguished from related genera by the forewing with accessory cross veins and the head angled or rimmed in front (Viraktamath 2006). Zhang et al. (2008) recently synonomized Krisna burmanica Viraktamath with Krisna rufimarginata Cai & He from China. There are 36 known Krisna species of which 8 are from India. The present study describes a new species Krisnapam padumparaensis Meshram collected from Pampadumpara (9[degrees]47' 26.81"N 77[degrees] 9' 28.19"E), Kerala, India. The type material is with the National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India (NPC).

Material and Methods

The terminology followed is after Viraktamath (2006). Line diagrams were drawn using a drawing tube attached with a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope and a Leica DM1000 phase contrast research microscope. Photographs were taken with a Leica DFC 425C digital camera on a Lei ca M205FA, and SEM images with a Carl Zeiss (EVO-MA 10) SEM in environmental mode under EHT 15 kV and pressure 110-123 P.

Male genitalia dissections were carried out as described by Oman (1949) and Knight (1965). The abdomen was removed by inserting a sharp pin between the abdomen and thorax and gentle piercing. For removal of the unsclerotized tissue, the abdomen was treated in 10% KOH for 2-4 h and the unsclerotized material removed by gently prodding the abdomen with the head of a pin. After the unsclerotized tissue had been removed, the abdomen was rinsed in water thoroughly and stored in glycerine for study. The internal structures were then removed by use of a hooked pin.

[FIGURES 1-9 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 10-17 OMITTED]

Krisna Pampadumparaensis Meshram sp. Nov. (Figs. 1-25)

Male: (Figs. 1-3, 10-17 and 18-21)

Originally greenish ochraceous changes to brownish red in 70% alcohol. Forewing with costal margin slightly transparent and appendix with basal a piceous spot.

Head medially longer than next to eyes, upper margin of the face transversely striated. Vertex slightly depressed, without any anterior transverse black spot, and deeply transversely carinate (Fig. 20). Clypellus strongly broadened apicad. Frontoclypeus sharply broadening upward (Figs. 1 and 19). Ocellus placed on front margin of crown next to corresponding eye and distance between the eye and ocellus is 0.52x of ocellus diam. Antennal ledges extending to frontoclypeus. Forewingpunctate; venation in apical part reticulate owing to 10 cross veins (Fig. 3). Pronotum with lateral margin carinate, Scutellum 1.13x as long as the pronotum. Pronotum 2.10x longer than broad and 3.22x longer than vertex (Figs. 2 and 20). Hind femoral spinulation 2+2+1. Eighth sternite 1.10x broader than long with macrosetae throughout its surface, hind margin medially slightly concave, lateral angles slightly rounded and densely covered with setae (Figs. 11 and 21)

Male Genitalia (Fig. 21):Ventral pygofer process sinuate at apex with small spine like projection at mid length, without spicules (Fig. 14). Style with type 1 apophysis long, 0.74x narrower than its base, slightly curved at apex with thickening extending to half of the width near apex; its basal region with small microsetae (Figs. 12 and 13). Aedeagal shaft with well developed preatrium, widened near mid length, ventral margin convex at apex, concave in mid and convex at basal region. Ventral lower margin of aedeagal shaft with three prominent constrictions at irregular intervals (Fig. 10). Aedeagus in caudal aspect with shallow concavity in the apical region (Fig. 16).

Female (Figs. 4-9 and 22-25)

Same as male except distance between the eye and ocellus 0.75x of ocellus diam.

Female Genitalia (Figs. 4-9 and 25). Seventh sternite 2.14x broader than long, setae confined to median area, lateral area with hair like setae, hind margin with shallow median concavity but without median notch, lateral angles rounded, mid lateral margin slightly concave (Fig. 5). Second pair of gonapophyses with smooth area between basal and median teeth, margin between median and apical prominent teeth with denticles, and margin beyond apical prominent teeth serrated up to tip; apex with undulated margin and ventral margin with a subapical notch (Fig. 8). First pair of gonapophyses with sculpturing at the apex (Figs. 6 and 7). Third pair of gonapophyses with sparse hair like setae on mid hind margin (Fig. 9).

Measurements

Male 10.20 mm long, 2.39 mm wide across eyes, 3.01 mm wide across hind margin of pronotum. Female 11.45 mm long, 2.72 mm wide across eyes, 3.31 mm wide across hind margin of pronotum.

Host: Ficus exasperata

Remarks

Krisna pampadumparaensis sp. nov. closely resembles K. varia Viraktamath but differs in the following: 3 prominent constrictions at the ventral lower margin of aedeagal shaft (vs. ventral lower margin without any constriction in K. varia) and hind margin of male eighth sternite medially slightly concave and densely covered with setae (vs eighth sternite slightly convex and sparsely covered with setae in K. varia). Second pair of a gonapophyses with a smooth area between basal and median teeth, margin between median and apical prominent teeth with denticles,

and margin beyond apical prominent teeth serrated up to tip; apex with undulated margin and ventral margin with a subapical notch. (vs. margin between basal and median and median and apical prominent teeth with denticles; apex with smooth margin and ventral margin without subapical notch of K. varia).

Type material

Holotype male INDIA: Kerala, Pampadumpara, 04-XII-2010, from stem and leaves of Ficus exasperata, N. M. Meshram; Paratypes: 1 male and 2 females with data as Holotype (NPC).

Etymology

The species is named after the locality, Pampadumpara.

Ethology

This new species was found resting on the stem and leaves of Ficus exasperata during morning hours in Pampadumpara, Kerala, India.

[FIGURES 18-25 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 26-40 OMITTED]

Krisna Varia Viraktamath (Figs. 26-40)

Material examined: INDIA: Karnataka: 1 male & 3 female Bangalore: GKVK, 7.vii.2011. from Croton, Yeshwanth H. M., Det. C. A. Virak tamath; Karnataka: 2 male, Chettalli, 3.v.2011, Shakti Singh.

In the key given by Viraktamath. (2006), this new species will key in at the couplet no. 6 leading to K. raja and K. varia. This is to be modified as follows:

References Cited

Baker, C. F. 1919. The genus Krisna (Jassidae). Philippine J. Sci. 15: 209-220.

Dietrich, C. H. 2005. Keys to the families of Cicadomorpha and subfamilies and tribes of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Florida Entomol. 88: 502-517.

Distant, W. L. 1908. Rhynchota-Homoptera In C. T. Bingham [ed.], The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Vol. IV, Taylor & Francis, London. 501pp.

Dolling, W. D. 1991. Biographies of the works of W. L. Distant and G. W. Kirkaldy. Tymbal Suppl. 1:1-60.

Hodkinson, I. D., and Casson, D. 1991. A lesser predilection for bugs: Hemiptera (Insecta) diversity in tropical rain forests. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 43: 101-109.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1900. Bibliographical and nomenclatorial notes on the Rhynchota. No. 1. Entomol. 33: 238-243.

Knight, W. J. 1965. Techniques for use in the identification of leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae).Ento mol. Gaz. 16: 129-36.

Oman, P. W., Knight, W. J., and Nielson, M. W. 1990. Leafhoppers (Cicadellidae): A bibliography, generic checklist and index to the world literature 1956-1985. C.A.B. Int. Inst. Entomol., Oxon, U.K. 368pp.

Viraktamath, C. A. 2006. Revision of the leafhopper tribe Krisnini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) of the Indian subcontinent. Zootaxa 1338:1-32.

Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., and Dai, W. 2008. Three new species of the genus Krisna Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) from China, with a checklist of the genus. Zootaxa 1783: 40-60.

Nabesh M. Meshram (1) and V. V. Ramamurthy (2)

(1,2) Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India

Corresponding authors; E-mails: 1nmmeshram@gmail.com; 2vvrento@gmail.com
6. Aedeagal shaft in lateral view
short and stout, ventral pygophore
process without spine like outgrowth
or its remnant, slender, arched
uniformly                                         K. raja Viraktamath

-- Aedeagal shaft in lateral view more
elongate and slender; ventral pygophore
process with or with out spine like
outgrowth, sinuate or bisinuate                                    11

11. Hind margin of male eighth sternite
medially slightly concave, ventral
lower margin of aedeagal shaft without
constrictions. Female seventh sternite
with a median notch on hind margin; second
pair of gonapophyses with denticles both
between basal and median teeth, and median
and apical prominent teeth with denticles;
apex with smooth margin and ventral margin
without subapical notch                          K. varia Viraktamath

-- Hind margin of male eighth sternite
medially slightly concave (Fig. 11),
ventral lower margin of aedeagal shaft with
three prominent constrictions at irregular
intervals (Fig. 10). Female seventh
sternite with shallow median concavity but
without median notch (Fig. 5); second pair of
gonapophyses with a smooth area between basal
and median teeth, margin between median
and apical prominent teeth with denticles,
and margin beyond apical prominent teeth
serrated up to tip; apex with undulated
margin and ventral margin with a subapical
notch (Fig. 8)                          K. pampadumparaensis sp. nov.
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