Dentistry's role in the history of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
Passo, Samuel A.
Watson, Nolan A.
|Publication:||Name: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal Publisher: U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School Audience: Professional Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2012 U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School ISSN: 1524-0436|
|Issue:||Date: Oct-Dec, 2012|
|Topic:||Event Code: 280 Personnel administration Canadian Subject Form: Medical centres|
|Product:||Product Code: 8060000 Hospitals NAICS Code: 622 Hospitals SIC Code: 8062 General medical & surgical hospitals; 8063 Psychiatric hospitals; 8069 Specialty hospitals exc. psychiatric|
The military tradition of "casing the colors" symbolizes
the closing of a unit's operations. When the Walter Reed Army
Medical Center (WRAMC) cased its colors on July 27, 2011, the impact was
a cessation of operations of the many tenant units associated with the
WRAMC. Two of those units were dental services delivery commands: the US
Army Northern Region Dental Command and the Walter Reed Dental Activity.
This history of Army dentistry at the WRAMC was prepared in recognition
of the historical significance and legacy of its contribution to both
the profession of dentistry and Army medicine as a whole.
In 1909, the first patients were admitted to a new Walter Reed General Hospital. These were the beginnings of what would quickly grow into a medical center founded on principles that would integrate patient care, teaching and research. (1) In 1909, the dentistry profession was represented in the Army only in the form of 30 contracted civilian dental surgeons (2(p203)) (as explained later, there were no commissioned dental officers until 1911). There is no indication that any of the 30 were assigned to Walter Reed General Hospital. However, dental organizations evolved, including dental and maxillofacial treatment in the hospital, and oral pathology services in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The Army Medical Center was established at the hospital campus area in 1923, and in 1951 the entire complex was redesignated Walter Reed Army Medical Center. (1) Tenant units at the facility over the years included dental activities, a regional dental command, an area dental laboratory, the Army Dental School, and the US Army Institute of Dental Research. Education and training programs were imbedded in these dental organizations.
FIRST CLINICAL DENTAL CARE
On March 3, 1911, Congress directed the Army to create a dental corps of commissioned dental officers. Hyson et al indicates that the first mention of dental officers at Walter Reed General Hospital was April 1917, "One dental officer was on duty and gave dental service to the entire command." (2(p279)) The declaration of war with Germany that same month changed this situation:
Weed (3) describes the organization of the Walter Reed General Hospital during World War I, including a dental department and a maxillofacial section in the Department of Professional Services. The following excerpts provide a good description of dental service at Walter Reed during the World War I era:
DENTAL COMMAND AND CONTROL ORGANIZATIONS
Initially and for many decades, clinical dental care was delivered at Walter Reed under the direct command of the hospital commander. In 1973, Health Services Command was established along with installation level reorganization such that dental services were provided by a hospital dental company, but it also was controlled by the Walter Reed Army Medical Activity and hospital commander. Studies of dental management by Dental Corps Chiefs MG Edwin Smith and MG Surindar N. Bhaskar resulted in public law, implemented October 20, 1978 that established the US Army Dental Activity (DENTAC) separate from the hospital and Medical Activity, and commanded by an Army Dental Corps officer (4) (J. E. King, oral communication, July 2011). Prior to the closing of WRAMC in 2011, the Walter Reed Dental Activity (WR DENTAC) operated 4 dental clinics supporting the National Capital Region: Walter Reed Hospital Clinic, Fort McNair, the Pentagon, and the Forest Glen-WRAMC Annex (T. R. Tempel Jr., written communication, July 2011).
As the Army Medical Department continued to adapt its command structure to the operational requirements of the Army, on 1 November 1993 it established the US Army Dental Command (DENCOM) with the WR DENTAC as one of 31 dental activities and 20 dental clinic commands. There were 8 dental service support areas (DSSAs) organized to reduce the span of control required of DENCOM. The Commander, WR DENTAC reported directly to the Commander, DENCOM, and had additional responsibilities as commander of the new administrative layer, the North Atlantic Dental Service Support Area, which evolved into the Northern Regional Dental Command (NRDC) in 1998.4 The NRDC encompasses 7 dental activities and 3 dental clinic commands in 21 states and Washington, DC (T. R. Tempel, Jr., written communication, July 2011).
The Northern Regional Dental Command and Walter Reed Dental Activity focused on the dental health and readiness of Soldiers. The command also had the mission of operating 4 graduate education programs in dentistry. These training programs produced highly trained dental officers in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, endodontics, and comprehensive dentistry. Additionally, the Soldiers of the Northern Regional Dental Command support 10 installations which deploy, mobilize, and demobilize Soldiers in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and previously Operation Iraqi Freedom. (T. R. Tempel, Jr., written communication, July 2011).
GRADUATE DENTAL EDUCATION
DENTAL INTERNSHIP PROGRAM
During Colonel Frank P. Stone's tenure as Dental Corps Chief, his office announced that effective July 1, 1939, the War Department and Surgeon General had authorized 8 dental internships at Army general hospitals. The goal was to improve on the skills of dental officer candidates and provide familiarity with the unique requirements of military dentistry.
Three interns were assigned to the Walter Reed General Hospital, and one each was assigned to the Letterman General Hospital (San Francisco), Fitzsimons General Hospital (Denver), Army and Navy General Hospital (Hot Springs, Arkansas), William Beaumont General Hospital (El Paso), and the Station Hospital (Fort Sam Houston, Texas). The Army Dental School at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center developed a standardized training program for the internships emphasizing clinical dentistry and oral sui"geiy (2)(pp814-815)
ARMY DENTAL SCHOOL
A new and critical link in the chain of professional development for dental officers was postgraduate level Army Dental School located on the grounds of Walter Reed General Hospital. Dental educators John Sayre Marshall and Robert Oliver conceived an Army dental school during meetings of the dental examining board in February 1901. As Oliver later related, "The primal reason actuating the original thought of these two dental educators was the manifest necessity of preparing and training young dental men, just entering the Corps, to meet the new conditions of life--physical, mental, and professional--in which they were suddenly thrust" (2)(pp720-723) COL William H. G. Logan, who became the first Chief of the US Army Dental Corps in 1917, strongly advocated such a school in February 1911.
However, it was not until January 6, 1922, that the Secretary of War authorized the new Army Dental School as a special service school of the War Department. The School's first commandant was COL Seibert D. Boak who had led the Dental Section of the Army Sanitary School at Langres, France during World War I. The Army Dental School's mission was to:
MG Merritte W. Ireland, The Army Surgeon General, addressed the school's formal opening on 9 January 1922. Ireland's speech strongly endorsed not only the Army Dental School but also the role of the Dental Corps within the Army Medical Department. According to the Annual Report of the Army Surgeon General, 1922,9 the opening of the Army Dental School corrected some of the most significant deficiencies in the development of the dental service and was one of the most important events in the history of the Dental Corps. (2)(pp720-723)
The Army Dental School was located in temporary World War I buildings from 1922 to 1930, when those buildings were condemned. In October 1932, the Army Dental School and Walter Reed Central Dental Laboratory occupied parts of the first and second floors of the new north wing of the Army Medical School building 40. The new location contained the director's office, clerk's room, executive office, library, oral surgery amphitheater, bacteriology laboratory, preparation room, pathology laboratory, prosthetic laboratory (which housed the Walter Reed Central Dental Laboratory), chemical laboratory, mail room, X-ray dark room, photographic room, and oral hygiene clinic (6 chairs equipped with Ritter Tri-Dental units). During a visit to the school's new facilities, Dr G. Walter Dittmar, then president of the American Dental Association, declared it to be one of the finest and most completely equipped that it had been his pleasure to inspect.
The Army Dental School was redesignated in 1948 as the Dental Division of the Army Medical Research and Graduate School, Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. Concurrently, the enlisted training school was moved to Fort Sam Houston. In 1955, the name was changed again to the Army Medical Service Graduate School. This redesignation resulted in the upgrading of the education programs to graduate and postgraduate levels. (10)
US ARMY INSTITUTE OF DENTAL RESEARCH
Agencies change, seeking new ways to become more efficient and effective. Such is the case of the Army Dental School. In addition to the multiple personnel development missions with which the Army Dental School was founded on January 6, 1922, there were also the requirements:
As Chief of the Dental Corps, MG Joseph L. Bernier, realigned the focus to oral and dental research. On January 1, 1962, the dental division of the school was completely reorganized and renamed the US Army Institute of Dental Research (USAIDR). It was given separate institute status as an element of US Army Medical Research and Development Command. (10,11)
The USAIDR developed simplified techniques which allowed rapid and effective treatment of war-related maxillofacial injuries and dental diseases. It developed required military information on epidemiology, etiology, clinical treatment, the prevention and control of oral disease, and used the information as a basis for research. It conducted basic and clinical investigations on dental materials. It provided instruction as required for graduate education in the Advanced Theory and Science of Dental Practice Course and dental residency programs in clinical oral pathology, endodontics, and periodontics. USAIDR also conducted continuing education and training of dental personnel to maintain high professional treatment standards. (10)
Clinically relevant research designed to improve patient care was always the goal of USAIDR. Emphasis on clinical research began with the caries investigations of CPT Fernando Rodriguez in the 1920s, and was elaborated by those of MG Surindar N. Bhaskar and associates in the late 1960s and early 1970s. (10)
Between the time of CPT Rodriguez's work and World War II, much of the research emphasized methods of emergency treatment and the improvement of dental materials. Following World War II, attention focused on the importance of decalcification of teeth by bacteria. Investigations on Lactobacillus acidophilus and its decalcifying potential on sound enamel was a major project. (10) During the 1950s, the interest shifted to the nutritional aspects of dental disease. Research since the middle 1960s has emphasized problems and treatment of maxillofacial combat wounds. (10)
In October 1993, the USAIDR was reorganized as the US Army Dental Research Detachment (DRD), subordinate to the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, located at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. By 1997, the DRD had moved to the Great Lakes Naval Center near Chicago, ending the dental research and development presence at Walter Reed (4) (J. E. King, oral communication, July 2011).
At Great Lakes, the DRD collocated with the Navy's Institute of Dental and Biomedical Research and the Air Force's Detachment 1, Dental Evaluation and Consultation Service. Sometime between 1997 and 2010, the DRD was redesignated as the US Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment (DTRD). On March 24, 2010, DTRD and the Navy and Air Force activities moved from the Great Lakes Naval Center to Fort Sam Houston, Texas. The 3 military dental research units are collocated in a new, 25,000 sq ft facility, the Battlefield Health and Trauma Research Institute (4,12) (J. E. King, oral communication, July 2011).
DENTAL AND ORAL PATHOLOGY
In May 1862, Army Surgeon General William Hammond ordered establishment of the Army Medical Museum. Renamed the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in 1949, it was relocated to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in 1955. The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has become a world leader in pathology consultation, education, and research, including an important dental and oral pathology component. (5(p3))
The first Dental Corps officer was assigned to the Medical Museum/AFIP on July 1, 1926. In 1931, the American Dental Association designated the Dental Section of the Army Medical Museum as the official museum of the dental profession in the United States. (6(p18)) Later, the National Dental Museum, a Smithsonian Institute facility, was established in Baltimore, Maryland.
The essential instrument that tied AFIP to the medical community it serves was the establishment of registries for various groupings of diseases. The Dental and Oral Pathology Register was added in 1933, which served to reactivate an 1895 arrangement with the American Dental Association (ADA) designating the Army Medical Museum as the national depository for the organization's dental specimens. (5(p69))
The Dental and Oral Pathology Register became part of the American Register of Pathology, formed in cooperation with the National Research Council Division of Medical Sciences in 1930. Within 3 years, the Dental and Oral Pathology Register had 483 accessions. As time passed, accessions began to come from civilian dental professionals through the ADA as well as from Dental Corps officers. This collection provided significant research material and allowed the resident dental officer at the Army Medical Museum to provide consultation services and to conduct important pathological research. LTC James B. Mann was the assigned dental officer through much of the 1930s and made major strides on periodontoclasia and its surgical treatment. CPT Joseph L. Bernier, a trained oral pathologist and future chief of the Dental Corps (1960-1967), followed Mann as chief of oral pathology at the museum in 1938. By 1941, the registry had grown to 2,485 items. (2(pp789-800)) On May 26, 1955, AFIP Building #54 was dedicated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, with President Dwight D. Eisenhower speaking at the formal opening ceremony.
The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology continued to expand its advances in lifesaving diagnostic technologies by world-class pathologists and scientists. The many varied pathology branches conducted numerous research studies, education programs, and publications. (5)(pix) The Institute prepared personnel, including forensically trained dental officers, in forensic pathology skills through training and hands-on experience. Repeatedly, AFIP oral pathologists dramatically demonstrated their capabilities in dental identification while playing significant roles in numerous mass casualty situations, including the 1985 air crash that killed 248 Soldiers of the 101st Division near Gander Newfoundland, and, of course, the September 11, 2001 attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center. (4(pp18,22))
The congressionally mandated military Base Closure and Realignment cycle of 2005 disestablished AFIP and relocated its militarily relevant functions to the National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland; Dover AFB, Delaware; and Fort Sam Houston, Texas. (7) In addition, the Joint Pathology Center, the federal government's pathology resource center, was established in Silver Spring, Maryland. (8)
CENTRAL DENTAL LABORATORY
Dental officers in the 1920s had to devote as much of their time as possible to their many patients, leaving them little time to work in their laboratories on prosthetic appliances. It was not until fiscal year 1927 that the Army Dental School produced a sufficient number of well-trained enlisted dental mechanics who could make and also oversee the manufacture of prosthetics in a dental laboratory. This new resource relieved the dentists and their technicians of this time-consuming aspect of their work.
In 1926-1927, the dental division opened 3 new corps area dental laboratories that provided the same service to Army dentists as commercial laboratories provided to their civilian colleagues. The first laboratory, Walter Reed Central Dental Laboratory, was opened at Walter Reed General Hospital and served all dental officers in the First through Seventh Corps areas. A similar laboratory at Letterman General Hospital supported the Ninth Corps Area, and another at the Station Hospital at Fort Sam Houston supported the Eight Corps Area. (2(p734))
War Department Circular No. 42, dated August 3, 1938, redesignated the existing corps area dental laboratories as central dental laboratories and added new ones as follows: Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, serving the First, Second, and Third Corps areas; Fort McPherson, Georgia, serving the Fourth and Fifth Corps areas; Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, serving Fort Knox, Fort Benjamin Harrison, and Fort Hayes, and the Sixth and Seventh Corps areas; Fort Sam Houston, serving the Eighth Corps Area; and Presidio of San Francisco, serving the Ninth Corps Area. (2(pp800-803))
The tenant central dental laboratories were exempt from the control of local post commanders, except for the purpose of "supply, inspection, and discipline." The Army Dental School trained:
The trained enlisted personnel coming from the Army Dental School meant that the laboratories would "become a great asset to our expanding dental service..." Brigadier General Leigh Fairbank said:
The "central dental laboratory" designation was changed to "regional dental activity" in 1962, and to "area dental laboratory" in 1981. In 1991, the area dental laboratories at Alameda, California, and Walter Reed Army Medical Center were closed, leaving laboratories at Fort Gordon, Georgia, and Fort Sam Houston, Texas. On October 1, 1997, the laboratory at Fort Sam Houston was closed, leaving Fort Gordon's laboratory as the only remaining facility for dental support. On July 1, 1998, that laboratory was redesignated as the Army Dental Laboratory. (4(pp15,18,20,21))
The casing of the colors and closure of WRAMC on July 27, 2011, was an occasion of sadness, pride, and hope for the continued mission of excellence. A visitor to WRAMC is impressed with the relatively small size of the campus (easily walkable) and its enormous impact on development of patient care, teaching, and research in military (and civilian) medicine and dentistry. The caliber of clinicians, educators, researchers, and leaders that WRAMC produced is impressive. The innovations were numerous and spectacular, thinking "outside of the box." Perhaps the relatively small size and close proximity of leaders and educators in medicine and dentistry encouraged "cross-pollination" that would be hard to duplicate today.
We have many wide-spread centers of patient care, teaching, and research "connected" by our digital electronic technology. Even so, one wonders what may be missed by the loss of frequent personal interactions of these diverse leaders in the "close" campus of WRAMC during walks in the hallways, staff meetings, or in the cafeteria. The interaction of two early pioneers of Army medicine, Surgeon General Merritte Ireland and Chief of Dentistry Robert Oliver, at the WRAMC campus is an excellent example of such benefits. As we look to the bright future of the next phase of WRAMC relocations in Bethesda, Maryland and Fort Belvoir, Virginia, we hope for the same energy, innovation, and determination as in our past.
Today, "center of gravity" of the US Army Dental Corps is primarily the DENCOM Headquarters at Fort Sam Houston. There is also very strong multiservice presence and interaction at Fort Sam Houston. Perhaps we can learn from the WRAMC history and create "pockets" of intimate personal and professional relationships for the sharing of ideas and missions in our future.
We appreciate the support and consultation of COL (Ret) John E. King, DC, USA, History Consultant for the Association of Army Dentistry.
(1.) Fleek SL, Sorge CF. Walter Reed Army Medical Center. A Century of Service: 1909-2009. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 2011.
(2.) Hyson JM Jr, Whitehorne J, Greenwood JT. A History of Dentistry in the United States Army to World War II. Washington, DC: Borden Institute, Office of The Surgeon General, US Dept of the Army; 2008.
(3.) Weed FW. Military Hospitals in the United States. Washington DC: US Army Medical Dept Office of Medical History; 1923:287-307. Lynch C, Weed FW, McAfee L, eds. The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Vol 5.
(4.) Passo SA, King JE. Highlights in the history of US Army dentistry. US Army Med Dept J. January March 2011:8-25. Available at: http://history.amedd. army.mil/corps/dental/DCHighlights2012.pdf. Accessed July 30, 2011.
(5.) Stone P. Legacy of Excellence--The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1862-2011. Fort Detrick, MD: Borden Institute, Office of The Surgeon General, US Dept of the Army; 2011.
(6.) King JE, Hynson RG. Highlights in the History of U.S. Army Dentistry. Falls Church VA: Office of the Chief, US Army Dental Corps, Office of The Surgeon General, US Dept of the Army; 2007. Available at: http://history.amedd.army.mil/corps/dental/ general/highlights/Highlights.pdf. Accessed September 2, 2011.
(7.) Impact of Terminating, Relocating, or Outsourcing the Services of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office; November 9, 2007. Report GAO-08-20 Military Base Realignments and Closures. Available at: http://www.gao.gov/products/ GAO-08-20. Accessed September 3, 2011.
(8.) The Joint Pathology Center. Available at: http:// www.jpc.capmed.mil/index.asp. Accessed September 5, 2011.
(9.) Annual Report of the Army Surgeon General, 1922. Washington, DC: US War Dept; 1922.
(10.) Cutright DE, Daniels JL. The US Army Institute of Dental Research: fifty-three years of dedicated research and education. Mil Med. 1977;142(1):45-48.
(11.) Bernier JL. Editorial views and news: military dental research and emergent science. J Dent Res. 1963;42(3):749-751.
(12.) Mellus DE, Amaya J. The US Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment: Now Part of the Army Institute of Surgical Research. US Army Med Dept J. January-March 2011:68-69. Available at: http://www.cs.amedd.army.mil/amedd_journal. aspx. Accessed 4 September 2011.
COL Samuel A. Passo, DC, USA
Nolan A. Watson
COL Passo is a Periodontist at the Fort Knox Dental Activity, Fort Knox, Kentucky. He is also Consultant for Dental History to the Chief of the Army Dental Corps.
Mr Watson is a historian with the Office of Medical History, US Army Medical Command, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
From three dental surgeons in 1918, the personnel of the department increased to nine dental officers.... Five female technicians were on duty in the hygienic department of the clinic. This permitted the dental officers to spend their entire time operating. (2(p428))
The chief of the dental department was responsible for the dental service rendered at the hospital, for the supervision and instruction of all personnel assigned to his division, and for all the public property under his control. All military patients admitted to the hospital were examined by the dental survey officer, who furnished a report to the chief of his department. The chief of the dental department furnished imperative dental attention whenever indicated and elective dental attention as far as possible. Dental section. The dental service was divided into five subsections: Dental hygiene; X-ray; operative; prosthetic and oral surgery; and one dental officer for the survey of patients. The completion of the new dental building in August and its immediate occupancy facilitated the successful detachment of the dental department. The new building consisted of a large operating room, adequate for nine operators, an oral surgery department, including an operating room, and an extracting and record room, and quarters for the officer of the day and sergeant in charge, together with necessary storage space. A dental X-ray laboratory and developing room were provided and an officer was detailed to care for this work. From three dental surgeons in 1918, the personnel of the department increased to nine dental officers, one of whom was on duty to render emergency treatment at all hours of the day and night. In January, 1919, the prosthetic department was organized for the construction of splints for maxillofacial cases and prosthetic restoration of all kinds.... Maxillofacial section. The first maxillofacial patients arrived at the hospital on January 15, 1919, at which time Walter Reed General Hospital was one of the three hospitals designated by The Surgeon General's Office to receive this class of patients. They were scattered throughout the surgical wards at first, until a chief of section was detailed to care for them, in February, when they were all assembled in three wards. Prior to March very little surgical operative work was done.. Coordination with the dental surgeon, necessary in the treatment of most of the cases, was early established. At the end of the year 1918 the annual report for the hospital shows a capacity of 2,500 beds, and in the same report the record of the completion of temporary buildings, which includes the construction for the years 1917 and 1918, stands as follows:...Dental building: One-story tile construction, 24 by 350 feet, occupied by the dental, eye, ear, nose, and throat clinics.
teach newly appointed dental officers the practical application of approved methods of professional procedures in the military service, to furnish postgraduate courses in advanced military dental surgery to members of the Dental Corps, to provide an organization for the investigation, study and research of dental problems, a source of authoritative information on professional matters, and the training of enlisted personnel to meet the requirements of the dental service. (2(p721))
to provide an organization for the investigation, study, and research of dental problems, and serve as a source of authoritative information on professional matters... (2(p721))
most of the enlisted supervisors and mechanics for the central dental laboratories.... No supplies and equipment for making dentures were to be given to other stations within the continental United States. (2(pp800-803))
The mechanical processes will now be delegated to properly trained enlisted men, under the supervision of a few dental officers. Now, the great majority of dental officers can devote their entire time to the dental health problems of a greater number of personnel. (2(pp800-803))
Commanders of the Walter Reed Dental Activity (DENTAC) 2010-2011 COL Thomas R. Tempel, Jr. 2008-2010 COL Priscilla Hamilton 2005-2008 COL M. Ted Wong 2002-2005 COL Lawrence Cook 1998-2002 COL Thomas Striano 1998 COL Brent Koudelka 1996-1998 COL Gary Allen 1993-1996 COL William Priddy 1990-1993 COL Charles Bole II 1989-1990 COL Jack Vincent 1988-1989 COL Robert Brady 1985-1988 COL Robert Webster 1984-1985 COL Harley Ellinger 1983-1984 COL Peter Taylor 1980-1983 COL Emery Russell, Jr. 1977-1980 COL Ronald L. Vanswol * 1976-1977 COL William Radentz ([dagger]) *Became first commander of the new DENTAC October 20, 1978. ([dagger]) COL Radentz directed dental activities during the MEDDAC dental management trials study. Commanders and Directors, Dental School and Dental Research Activities at Walter Reed Commandants, US Army Dental School COL Seibert D. Boak, DC 1922-1923 COL Franklin P. Wing, DC 1923-1925 MAJ William S. Rice, DC 1925-1929 LTC Frank L. K. Laflamme, DC 1929-1932 Directors, US Army Dental School COL Robert H. Mills, DC 1932-1936 LTC John W. Scoval, DC 1936-1938 COL Terry P. Bull, DC 1938-1940 Dental school suspended with ad- vent of World War II, used as field 1940-1948 medicine training school Directors, Dental Division, US Army Medical Research and Graduate School COL John S. Oratel, DC 1948-1953 COL George T. Perkins, DC 1953-1954 COL Thomas A. McFall, DC 1954-1961 Directors, US Army Institute of Dental Research COL George H. Timke, DC 1961-1966 COL George W. Burnett, DC 1966-1968 COL Peter M. Margetis, DC 1968-1969 COL Richard L. Howard, DC 1969-1970 BG Sirindar M. Bhaskar, DC 1970-1973 COL Simon Civjan, DC 1973-1974 COL Duane E. Cutright, DC 1974 Commanders, US Army Institute of Dental Research COL Duane Cutright 1974-1980 COL Thomas Sweeney 1980-1985 COL Harold Plank 1987-1992 COL William Posey 1992-1996 COL Michael Rethman 1996-1999 COL Leslie Raulin 1999-2000 Source: Cutright and Daniels (10) J. E. King, oral communications, July 2011
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