Dads as teachers: exploring duality of roles in the New Zealand context.
In the mostly female dominated profession of teaching, this pilot
project investigates how a group of males who are both fathers and
teachers perceive their experiences as they navigate these dual roles.
This qualitative study invited men who were teaching in early childhood,
primary and secondary settings in New Zealand, and who were also
fathers, to comment on their perceptions of how their dual roles
impacted on each other. The themes emerging from their responses
included empathy for parents, better understanding of children, benefits
for own children, and being viewed as "more real" by their
students, as well as being better equipped to understand schools and
learning, improved personal and professional qualities, and more time
available to spend with family.
Keywords: education, teaching, fathers, recruitment
Teachers (Demographic aspects)
Dualism (Educational aspects)
|Publication:||Name: The Journal of Men's Studies Publisher: Men's Studies Press Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Social sciences; Women's issues/gender studies Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 Men's Studies Press ISSN: 1060-8265|
|Issue:||Date: Spring, 2011 Source Volume: 19 Source Issue: 2|
|Geographic:||Geographic Scope: New Zealand Geographic Code: 8NEWZ New Zealand|
In New Zealand, as in most other English-speaking countries,
frequent calls are made for more male teachers in schools, particularly
at the kindergarten/primary/elementary levels. Such calls can be found
in the education policy documents of many countries (e.g., Canadian
Teachers' Federation, 2002; Education Queensland, 2002; Johnson,
2008; Ministry of Education, 2008; Porter, 2008; Teacher Training
Agency, 2003) as well as in the published academic literature (Biddulph,
1995; Cunningham & Watson, 2002; Cushman, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010;
Drudy 2008; Mulholland & Hansen, 2003) and articles and letters in
newspapers (Boys "Need Male Primary Teachers," 2008; Cole,
2002; Sacks, 2002; Spowart, 1999).
In New Zealand, females comprised 81 percent of the primary teaching workforce in 2007 (Ministry of Education, 2008--most recent figures). In the United Kingdom, in 2008, just 13 percent of registered primary school teachers were male (Boys "Need Male Primary Teachers," 2008). One of the most commonly expressed and discussed concerns relating to this gender imbalance focuses on the perception that children and adolescents need both adult male as well as adult female role models in their classrooms (see for example, Carrington, Tymms, & Merrell, 2008; Martino, 2008; Rice & Goessling, 2005; Silverstein & Auerbach, 1999; Sokal, Katz, & Chaszewski, 2007). The merits of this concern and a comprehensive view of why so few males choose to become primary/elementary teachers and why their numbers are also declining in secondary schools can be found by reading the literature of Cushman (2007, 2008, 2009, & 2010), Galbraith (1992), and Jones (2006). As Cushman points out, the discourse relating to these matters features a complexity of historical and social issues and viewpoints set within a climate of unresolved expectations about the suitability of teaching as a profession, in general, and for men, in particular.
In this article, I put to one side the issues of whether more men really are needed in the classroom and whether, once there, they can or should provide adult role models. My focus instead relates to a suggestion in the literature on male teachers, in general, and male teacher recruitment, in particular, that men who are fathers may be more receptive to taking up teaching as a profession (Jones, 2006; Moyles & Cavendish, 2001). I decided to canvass a particular group of teachers, those who are fathers, in order to explore, from their perspective, these two questions:
1. Does being a father impact positively or negatively on the role of a teacher?
2. Does being a teacher impact positively or negatively on the role of a father?
MEN IN TEACHING
The last few decades have seen changes in society that affect many school-aged children. These changes, which include single-parent homes, blended families, both traditional and non-traditional households and sometimes insecure living arrangements, have fuelled the debate that many children, boys especially, lack good male role models at home. This supposed lack has heightened concern about the low number of male teachers in the classrooms of these children. Many commentators in the media and the literature agree that more males in teaching would benefit children, but there seems to be little consensus on what skills, qualities and behaviors the ideal male teacher should exhibit (Jones, 2006).
The notion that "any man is better than no man at all" inhabits much of the public discourse around the call for more men in teaching (Jones, 2006). However, some reviewers and researchers maintain that the need is neither for the traditional "macho" male role model nor the "caring, nurturing" male role model, but rather for male teachers who can display a range of different masculinities (Jackson & Salisbury, 1996). According to Kessler, Ashendon, Connell and Dowsett, (1985) men teachers have a particular responsibility and opportunity within the school because what they say and do influences what kind of masculinity is hegemonic in the school. As such, the authors argue, it is important that the right kind of man fulfills this role. But who is the "right kind" of man for teaching?
Jones' (1996) research investigating female teachers' perceptions and experiences of working with men in the early schooling years described discourses that, taken together, presented the right kind of man as one who exhibits traditional masculinity and (what the female teachers considered to be) the more feminine traits of sensitivity and caring. Such a man is therefore strongly heterosexual. He is a macho man who can display sensitivity and gentleness. He is a man of action who is in tune with his emotions. The women who participated in Jones' (1996) research observed that such a man was likely to be one who had children of his own. Moyles and Cavendish (2001) found that men with their own children were more likely and better able than men without children to teach or be receptive to teaching children in the early years of primary schooling. The authors concluded that these older men were also more secure than the younger men in their understanding of and desire to work with children generally, and that they were less motivated in their career choice by some of the factors that research identifies as deterring younger men, in particular, from teaching. These factors include perceived low rates of pay, the alignment of the profession with women's traditional (and generally lower status) role in society, and fear around the issue of male physical interaction with children (Cushman, 2009; Hood, 2001).
This present study was conducted with the notion that if men with their own children really do care less about the commonly recorded barriers to male teacher recruitment and retention, that they are a group worthy of targeting in both these respects. It attempts to gain some idea if fathers who are teachers and vice versa think the same way, and consider that their dual roles advantage them when working in the classroom.
Two methods of invitation were offered to teachers who were also fathers to take part in this research project investigating fathers who teach. That participation involved answering a questionnaire (see below). One invitation was through a notice in the New Zealand Education Gazette (a fortnightly publication for educators), and the other was through personal invitations to fathers I knew, or knew of, who were teachers. Twenty-seven fathers responded to the notice in the gazette and requested the survey/questionnaire. Of this group, 18 completed the survey/questionnaire and sent it back to me. All of this communication was done via email. Reminder emails were sent to those
who responded initially but didn't send back the completed questionnaire. Of the ten personally invited fathers, five sent back the completed questionnaires. All of this group's communication was done by mail. In total, the 23 fathers who were also teachers participated in the research.
I elected to ask participants to complete a written questionnaire for three reasons. First, I wanted the men to complete their responses/thoughts in writing in order to obtain comprehensive, in-depth written information from them. Second, I wanted to give them opportunity to complete the questionnaire either online or on paper and to return it to me by email or mail within four weeks of their receipt of it in the hope that this flexibility and timeframe would encourage their participation. Third, the men's locations throughout the country and varying teaching jobs made it difficult to conduct face-to-face or phone interviews in the time and money I had available to me (although for future research the use of Skype may be an option).
The questionnaire first asked the fathers for some general information about themselves: age, years teaching, how many children and their ages, whether they had been a teacher or father first, and whether they were teaching in the early childhood, primary, or secondary school sector. It then went on to ask these two specific questions:
1. Do you think being a father impacts positively or negatively on your role as a teacher? Explain your answer, and
2. Do you think being a teacher impacts positively or negatively on your role as a father? Explain your answer.
When analyzing the data, I used a coding process (Strauss, 1987, p. 29) to identify emerging themes from each question. Responses to each question were given a numerical code and then collated and rearranged according to the number of times the response was given. This process led me to identify several main themes, and to draw tentative conclusions about the experiences of fathers who teach. The conclusions are tentative not only because of the small sample size but also because of the pilot status of this study. In addition to endeavoring to bring together a larger sample, I intend, in my future research, to draw on focus groups from not only the present sample but also the later one. My aims, in this respect, will be to access dominant discourse arising out of group discussions on questionnaire themes, and to seek, through an interview with each individual participant, amplification of the thinking behind each man's questionnaire responses. A considerably larger sample will also allow exploration of possible associations between characteristics, such as whether a teacher before a father, and the themes emerging from the questionnaire and interview data.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The demographic information from the 23 men revealed considerable diversity. They ranged in age from 30 years to 59 years. The number of children they had ranged from one to four, with their ages being from two months to 28 years. Number of years teaching ranged from three to 35, and 17 of the men were teachers before they were fathers. Four of the men were teaching in the early childhood sector, nine in the primary sector, and 10 in the secondary sector of the New Zealand education system. Future research could also investigate ethnicity, social background and responsibilities of these men within their schools.
Question 1: Fathers as Teachers
The first of the two specific questions, which asked the men for their perceptions of the impact that being a father had on their role as a teacher, brought a primarily positive response from all 23 respondents, due perhaps not only to their experiences of fatherhood, but also their life experiences and maturity. The following four positive themes, presented in order of most to fewest mentions across the group, emerged from their responses: empathy for parents, better understanding of children, benefits for own children, and being viewed as "more real" by their students. The men, between them, also mentioned some negative aspects. These are also detailed below.
Empathy for parents. The teachers said that being fathers gave them an understanding of the perspectives that their students' parents held about education and of what their aspirations were for their children. They understood how it felt to be a parent concerned about their child's learning and progress (White, 2010). They said they could see children not just from an academic point of view but from a broader perspective built on insight into their lives as children and young people.
When I was first teaching, I lacked empathy for parents' problems and saw solutions in just an academic light. Now, as a parent, the realities of the difficulty of child rearing became more obvious. Now I am a more effective teacher and parent-educator. (Questionnaire respondent No. 1, early childhood teacher, age 59, teacher before father)
[I have a] greater insight into life with children and the experiences that shape them. As teachers without children, we work from a theory base, rather than practical. As a parent, I now help set goals based on parents' aspirations for their children in combination with my professional goals. (Respondent No. 4, early childhood teacher, age 36, teacher before father)
[I] know how parents feel when they are concerned about their child; understand the dynamics between parent and child. (Respondent No. 8, primary teacher, age 40, father before teacher)
Several of the teachers thought that their familiarity with what parents want to know about their children's experiences at school had made their (the teachers') participation in various areas of school outreach to parents and the community, such as parent-teacher conferences, more successful. This could also suggest that teachers who are mothers may have similar experiences thus opening up the discussion around recruiting more parents into the teaching profession.
Relate much more positively and sincerely to parents' concerns at parent-teacher interviews. I empathize more closely with their concerns and comments than before. (Respondent No. 15, secondary teacher, age 54, teacher before father)
Better understanding of children. Nearly all of the fathers directly stated or implied in their responses that, as fathers, they had a "hands-on" understanding that all children have a home life that influences their attitudes to school and learning and the choices they make at and beyond school. They thought that being fathers offered them a greater range of means by which to assist their students than they would have had otherwise. More specifically, several said they had being fathers had helped them appreciate that not all children have parents with the same skills, education and resources, and that this realization had brought a caring and nurturing approach to their teaching. Patience and being generous with time and resources was offered as a result of understanding students' needs more fully.
[I am] more compassionate now I am a dad. (Respondent No. 6, primary teacher, age 30, teacher before father)
Once I became a father, I saw pupils as other people's children! (Respondent No. 15, secondary teacher, age 54, teacher before father)
Made me more aware of caring about kids--not all kids have good parents. (Respondent No. 20, secondary teacher, age 52, teacher before father)
These men's comments align with the findings of work conducted by De Corse and Vogtle (1997) and Francis et al. (2008). They found that teachers who knew about and reflected on the individual backgrounds of students and the different home circumstances of students gave them an understanding of their students' individual needs that translated into use of teaching methods and strategies directed at accommodating those needs. Although this is not specific to just teachers who are parents (as all teachers are encouraged to understand the individual circumstances of the students they teach), these fathers felt more aware of their students' families and backgrounds as they reflected on their own.
Most of the fathers said they could generally relate to where students were "coming from" (an expression that several of the fathers used), especially if their students were of a similar age to their own children. One father's comment that he now viewed teenagers as still being children now that he had his own teenagers--a viewpoint he had not held before this time--clearly illustrates the influence that being a parent tended to have on these teachers. He said this understanding had led to him making allowances for these young people's attitudes and behavior in class, something he had not previously done. Feeling more caring towards their students, especially those with tough lives outside of school, and being more equipped to identify and meet their needs, was also a common feature of the teachers' comments.
Talk about school with my own kids so can see more of the issues that pupils can face out of school time. (Respondent No. 10, primary teacher, age 48, teacher before father)
Benefits for own children. One of the more surprising discoveries amongst the positive responses to the first question was the perception, voiced by most of the men, that being a teacher had benefits for their own children. This was surprising, as it did not feature in the literature. Several of the teachers said that in asking themselves how they would like their children to be treated by their teachers and whether they would want their own child in their class made them think about and look differently not only at their students but also their own children. These teachers indicated that, as fathers, they had a better appreciation of how their children might be perceived and treated by their teachers, and this perception influenced their parenting at home and what they hoped for and expected from their own children's teachers with respect to behavior management, levels of tolerance, and acceptance of background influences. Those who were fathers first, before they became teachers, demonstrated an understanding between what they did in the classroom to how their own children were experiencing schooling.
Can see students with poor behavior--and see why--don't want my children to end up like that. (Respondent No. 19, secondary teacher, age 34, father before teacher)
I am more interested now in my own children's teachers and school experiences. (Respondent No. 7, primary teacher, age 50, father before teacher)
Being a father brings patience. I can "roll with the punches"--and it brings a different sort of understanding. I feel better equipped to pick my battles. Reminds me to ask how would I like my child to be treated in the classroom? (Respondent No. 22, secondary teacher, age 52, father before teacher)
Appreciation of the benefits for their own children of being both a father and a teacher was also evident in several teachers' comments. A couple of these teachers said that this dual perspective had made them think about what was reasonable and realistic for their own children to be achieving at school relative to students of like age, and how their children should be behaving or could behave when compared with their peers. Several of the men expressed this thinking in "reverse" by stating that their own children's levels of achievement and behavior had provided them with a point of reference which to assess their expectations of students' learning and behavior in class. A couple had taught their own children in their classrooms with positive experiences. Several of the men said that being a father had highlighted for them the importance of teaching their children social responsibility. Those who had son, said they were particularly mindful of helping their boys become good men and confident in their abilities. Nearly all of the respondents said a positive spin-off of being both a dad and a teacher was being able to spend dedicated and regular time with their families.
Being "more real." According to several of the respondents, once students know their teacher is a parent, they are perhaps more likely to view their teacher as a "real person" and possibly behave more appropriately. A couple of these teachers said that they had found that sharing stories or relating experiences about their own children with their students had assisted with students acknowledging their teacher's "expertise" in matters relating to parenting and issues outside of the classroom. This raises discussion around the changing role of a teacher in today's society as they deal with the complexity of students and their lives. One father (Respondent No. 11, primary teacher) suggested that having one's own children as students in the classroom provided the same benefit. In like vein, another father (Respondent No. 23, secondary teacher) wrote that his children's occasional visits to the classroom had, he thought, led to better long-term behavior among his students. He attributed this development to the students being able to see him "as a dad" and therefore more than just their teacher.
The respondents also brought up, in their comments, the advantage, as they saw it, of their ability to provide a positive "dad role model" for students who had no father or other influential adult male at home. Given nearly all of the teachers made these comments, they obviously saw this role modeling as an advantage for children from the early childhood through to secondary levels of schooling. The following and the men's other comments on this matter reflect Hondagneu-Sotelo and Messner's (1997) account of male teachers showing students, through words and actions, all sorts of positive "dad" things in an effort to impart to students just how positive role modeling a father can play in a child's development.
Great when little girls put me in their games as the "dad." I can show them how to do all sorts of "dad" things. (Respondent No. 3, early childhood, age 40, teacher before father)
These were few in number and mainly related to the workload, time, and energy it takes to be a successful teacher in today's environment. The increasing amount of paperwork required, and time needed for professional development to keep up-to-date with the new initiatives, impacted on some of the fathers' ability to keep motivated and enthused. These demands, these men said, took their energy and time away from their families. An interesting position from a negative perspective was the comment from one of the men (Respondent No. 18, secondary teacher), who expressed dissatisfaction about teaching in secondary schools being based on and organized primarily around subject content. He argued that this focus needed to be balanced with a focus on the
overall wellbeing of students. When, he explained, a teacher teaches a student only a few times a week, in a specific subject content area, it is difficult to get to know the whole person. He said that, "as a father," he regarded this situation as a negative aspect of his role as a father who teaches. He knew spending more time with his students would build stronger relationships as he got to know them and their circumstances.
Question 2: Teachers as Fathers
Although the responses to the second question, which asked the teachers to consider the impact that being a teacher had on their fathering, produced responses that merged somewhat with answers to the first question, some distinctive themes did emerge in the men's comments on this matter. These were again highly positive in orientation; only a few comments expressed negativity. The positive aspects, in order of most to least mentioned, were: being better equipped to understand schools and learning, personal and professional qualities, and time available to spend with family.
Understanding schools and learning. For all the teachers, ability to promote and support their children's learning while encouraging them to do their best was the most positive consequence of being both teacher and father. The teachers observed that their knowledge of schools as organizations and understanding of learning meant that they felt relatively well equipped to encourage and guide their own children through their schooling experiences (see also McFarlin, 2007, in this regard). Nearly all of the men also said that working with young people all the time made them better fathers. In regard to this last response, many of the men specifically mentioned the advantages being a teacher had for them with respect to raising their sons, which is an interesting finding in itself, and one that warrants further exploration, especially within the present prominent "boys failing in education" discourse. Does this indicate that boys need fathers or father figures who understand and take an active interest in their education to help encourage the success of these boys at school?
Enables fathers to have an understanding of how schools work, how teachers work, and knowledge of the curriculum--all of which are of assistance in being a good father. (Respondent No. 15, secondary teacher, age 54, teacher before father)
Teacher training and professional development equips fathers to handle family situations with a broader knowledge base and bigger tool kit. (Respondent No. 12, primary teacher, age 45, father before teacher)
Has added to my knowledge about how to work with boys and given me more understanding of boys growing up in N.Z. (Respondent No. 18, secondary teacher, age 32, father before teacher)
Huge impact for me as a father of boys. P.E and Health [curriculum documents] ... [which have been] developed more holistically ... has helped me as a parent. (Respondent No. 23, secondary teacher, age 53, teacher before father)
As teachers, the men said they could draw on their understanding of the links between home and school, to advocate on their children's behalf to their teachers, and to advocate on those teachers' behalf to their children. They thus saw their dual roles as ones that allowed them to support both their children and their children's teachers.
I can support my children's progress as well as support their school. (Respondent No 4. early childhood teacher, 36, teacher before father)
Interestingly, one of the men (Respondent No. 6, primary teacher) said that he saw his two roles as teacher and father as separate except when it came to his child's education and choosing the fight school for him. His comment is the sort that would lend itself to further exploration, particularly through a probe interview, in my proposed broader program of research on teachers who are fathers.
Personal and professional qualities. Training to be, and the experiences of, being a teacher had positively equipped the 23 teachers for fathering. According to the men, being a more reflective parent, a strong communicator and experienced in dealing with all kinds of students, along with having confidence in the decisions they made all reflect the advantages of being both a teacher who is also a father. Several observed that being a good role model and mentor for students were skills that developed over time and experience but easily transferred from teaching to fathering. Most of the men said that learning to be more patient and dealing positively with undesirable behaviors were attributes that naturally crossed over from teaching to parenthood (see also Jones, 2006).
Being a teacher helped me become a better father. I've learnt to be more patient and appreciate how awesome my children are. (Respondent No. 19, secondary teacher, age 34, father before teacher)
Time for family. Nearly all of the men said that the hours of the school day (typically 8.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. in New Zealand) and the holidays between terms allowed them to spend more time with their families than men in other jobs typically do. They considered long periods of quality time with their children (especially over the long December through to late January/early February) and being involved with their own children after school if they chose to particularly advantageous perks of the job. Being available to be with children after school was particularly advantageous for the men with partners in paid employment, as it allowed them to share child-rearing and other household activities. The men also noted that having holidays at the same time as their school-age children helped them develop positive dad/child relationships. Several whose partners were also teachers commented that time to bring the whole family together were, as one teacher put it, a "highly cherished" aspect of his life as a teacher.
The holidays are long and enjoyable, and I can be home early to pick the children up from after school care if I want to. (Respondent No. 16, secondary teacher, age 50, teacher before father)
Some negative commentary arose from the responses, among them recognition that having a father for a teacher could have disadvantages for children--"What child wants a teacher for a parent?" (Respondent No. 21, secondary teacher). Such disadvantages tended to be implicitly rather than explicitly stated. Children reminded their fathers to stop being a teacher, and be a dad, and some fathers found it difficult not to bring the job home and not to "sound like a teacher" with their own children. Workload and the time and energy it took to be a teacher were again noted as a negative with respect to impact on the men's families.
Impacts on my free time and after hours work. Workload is significant to do a good job, and this impacts on my family. (Respondent No. 22, secondary teacher, age 52, father before teacher)
A couple of the men stated as negatives having higher expectations of the education their own children should receive. They also had high expectations of their children's teachers. These expectations, they said, were a consequence of being immersed in the education system, and of viewing their children's education from the perspectives of both a teacher and a father.
You can be more critical of teachers and the school's effort to meet your child's needs. (Respondent No. 11, primary teacher, age 37, teacher before father)
Expectations of teachers working with your child are extremely high, and you are easily disappointed when teaching moments are missed and opportunities for your child, as others' needs are higher. (Respondent No. 1, early childhood teacher, age 59, teacher before father)
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Teachers are public servants whose work serves not only the principle of education as a fundamental social good but also the interests of a vulnerable group in society (Verstappen, 2010). Ideally, then, the teacher body should reflect the diverse composition of that society (Johnson, 2008). Reasons commonly given in the media and academic literature for encouraging more men into teaching are located around this thinking (Thornton, 2001). The fathers in this study could thus be said to represent an important group of teachers in terms of bringing more gender-based and role-based (i.e., fathers) diversity into schools. As fathers, these teachers assumedly bring traits to their teaching that both reflect and contribute to the complex requirements of the teacher role.
The perceptions of the men who participated in this study about the impact their dual roles as fathers and teachers have on their teaching and fathering were, overall, positive. The men saw their two roles as complementing each other. For these men, the positives for teaching of being a father were that of having more empathy for the parents of their students, having a better understanding of their students, and being viewed by their students as more "real" people because of their status as fathers. Several of the men noted, in regard to the last benefit, that this perception by students had positive spin-offs with respect to students' classroom behavior and learning.
The positives in terms of fatherhood were feeling better equipped to understand their own children's schooling and learning (White, 2010), improvements to both their personal and professional qualities, which assisted with their roles as teachers, and enjoying valuable quality time with their own families during after-school hours and school holidays.
The few negative aspects shared focused on the amount of time and energy needed to be an effective teacher taking time and energy away from the men's own families. Sometimes knowing too much about teaching and education led to concern that their own children might not be getting the best teaching possible. Forgetting to leave the "teacher" behind when at home with families was also seen as a negative.
The overall positivity with which the men perceived their role as fathers having on their role as teachers suggest that fathers may be an important group among the "fight kind of men" to answer the call from society for more men in teaching. The benefits they perceived for their students, their own children and themselves, alongside their life experiences as fathers, presents the question--should we be targeting and recruiting more fathers into the teaching profession?
Specifically targeting and then recruiting significant numbers of fathers into large teacher education programs could help build a more genuine acceptance by both society, in general, and males, in particular, of teaching as a satisfactory and respected career option, particularly of young children. Building on organisations such as MenTeach (striving to provide information and support to those who are interested in teaching or willing to encourage others to work with children), Mizzou Men for Excellence in Elementary Teaching (inform and support male teachers at various stages in their careers), and Call me MISTER (recruitment organization promoting diversity in the teaching profession), could enhance the support for fathers who teach. Setting up similar organisations within different countries or offering global satellite networks of the above mentioned could help in promoting teaching as a viable career for fathers. Teacher education providers, education boards and government agencies could become even more proactive by developing means of offering incentives for fathers to apply and offering mentoring to those who are successful, matching them with fathers already teaching in classrooms. Offering appropriate and ongoing support and opportunity at both pre-service and in- service levels (Thornton, 2001) for teachers who are fathers may require a rethinking of recruitment, course delivery policies and practices. A public awareness campaign focused on sharing the stories of those fathers who see the positive connections between fatherhood and teaching is another important step in recruiting and retaining fathers who are thinking of teaching as a career.
I consider the time is fight to celebrate the skills, qualities, and attributes that many fathers could bring to teaching, and, from there, ensure that potential recruits are sought, mobilized, and inspired to join and then stay within the profession. Fathers may well be the males needed not only to inspire their students, their own children, the next generation of teachers, and society in general to value men as teachers of children, but also to answer the persistent call for more men in teaching.
Biddulph, S. (1995). Manhood. Sydney: Finch Publishing.
Boys "need male primary teachers." (2008, September 30). Sky News (website). Retrieved November 27, 2009, from http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/UK-News/Male-Primary-SchoolTeachers-Are- Vital-Role-Models-For-Boys/Article/200809415109841
Canadian Teachers' Federation. (2002). On teacher retention. Ottawa: Author.
Carrington, B., Tymms, P., & Merrell, C. (2008). Role models, school improvement and the "gender gap." Do men bring out the best in boys and women the best in girls? British Educational Research Journal, 34(3), 315-327.
Cole, M. (2002, October 14). Schooling overhaul to assist boy pupils. Courier Mail, p. 12.
Cunningham, B., & Watson, L. (2002). Recruiting male teachers. Young Children, 57(6), 10-15.
Cushman, P. (2007). The male teacher shortage: A synthesis of research and worldwide strategies for addressing the shortage. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 4(1), 79-98.
Cushman, P. (2008). So what exactly do they want? What principals mean when they say "male role model." Gender and Education, 20(2), 123-136.
Cushman, P. (2009). Three men teachers, three countries and three responses to the physical contact dilemma. International Journal of Education, 1 (1), 1-16.
Cushman, P. (2010). Male primary school teachers: Helping or hindering a move to gender equity? Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(5), 1211-1218.
De Corse, C., & Vogtle, S. (1997). In a complex voice: The contradictions of male elementary teachers' career choice and professional identity. Journal of Teacher Education, 48(1), 37-46.
Drudy, S. (2008). Gender balance/gender bias: The teaching profession and the impact of feminisation. Gender and Education, 20(4), 309-323.
Education Queensland. (2002). Male teachers' strategy: Strategic plan for the attraction, recruitment and retention of male teachers in Queensland state schools 2002-2005. Brisbane, Australia: State Government of Queensland.
Francis, B., Skelton, C., Carrington, B., Hutchings, M., Read, B., & Hall, I. (2008). A perfect match? Pupils' and teachers' views of the impact of matching educators and learners by gender. Research Papers in Education, 23(1), 21-36.
Galbraith, M. (1992). Understanding career choices of men in elementary education. Journal of Educational Research, 85(4), 246-253.
Hondagneu-Sotelo, P., & Messner, M.A. (1997). Gender displays and men's power: The "new man" and the Mexican immigrant man. In M.B. Zinn, P. Hondagneu-Sotelo, & M.A. Messner (Eds.), Through the prism of difference: Readings on sex and gender (pp. 58-69). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Hood, L. (2001). A city possessed. Dunedin, New Zealand: Longacre Press.
Jackson, D., & Salisbury, J. (1996). Why should secondary schools take working with boys seriously? Gender and Education, 8(1), 103-115.
Johnson, S. (2008). The status of male teachers in public education today. Education Policy Brief. Centre for Evaluation & Education Policy, 6(4), 1-12.
Jones, D. (2006). The "right kind of man": The ambiguities of regendering the key stage one environment. Sex Education, 6(1), 61-76.
Kessler, S., Ashenden, D.J., Connell, R.W., & Dowsett, G.W. (1985). Gender relations in secondary schooling. Sociology of Education, 58, 34-48.
Martino, W. (2008). Male teachers as role models: Addressing issues of masculinity, pedagogy, and the re-masculinization of schooling. Curriculum Inquiry, 38(2), 190-223.
McFarlin Jr, I. (2007). Do school teacher parents make a difference? Economics of Education Review, 26, 615-628.
Ministry of Education. (2008). State of education in New Zealand: 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2009, from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/Reseachers.aspx
Moyles, J., & Cavendish, S. (2001). Male students in primary ITT: A failure to thrive, strive or survive? Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association annual conference, University of Leeds, September 13-15, 2001. Available online at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/ educol/documents/00001908.htm
Mulholland, J., & Hansen, P. (2003). Men who become primary school teachers: An early portrait. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 31(3), 213-224.
Porter, G. (2008). The importance of male teachers in the classroom. Education Policy Brief. Centre for Evaluation & Education Policy, 6(4), 1-12.
Rice, C., & Goessling, D. (2005). Recruiting and retaining male special education teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6), 347-356
Sacks, G. (2002, June 9). The "boy parent dilemma." Los Angeles Daily News, p. 8.
Silverstein, L., & Auerbach, C. (1999). Deconstructing the essential father. American Psychologist, 54(6), 397-407.
Sokal, L., Katz, H., & Chaszewski, L. (2007). Good-bye Mr. Chips: Male teacher shortages and boys' reading achievement. Sex Roles, 56, 651-659.
Spowart, N. (1999, November 2). Should we put manhood on the national curriculum for boys? Scotsman, p. 6.
Strauss, A. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Teacher Training Agency. (2003). Corporate plan. London, UK: Author. Retrieved from http//www.tta.govt.uk/about/reports/corp-op-plan/index.htm
Thornton, M. (2001). Men, pre-service training and the implications for continuing professional development. Journal of In-Service Education to Professional Development in Education, 27(3), 477-490.
Verstappen, P. (2010). The NZ Curriculum: The changing paradigm. Lecture given to third-year teacher trainees, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, February 22, 2010.
White, S. (2010). Dads in classrooms: Fathers studying to be primary school teachers in New Zealand. Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning, 12(2), 54-70.
Stephanie White, School of Educational Studies and Human Development, University of Canterbury.
Correspondence concerning this article should be sent to Stephanie White, School of Educational Studies and Human Development, College of Education, University of Canterbury, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Gale Copyright:||Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.|