Cytotoxic activity on human cancer from Ruta graveolens.
Article Type: Brief article
Subject: Alkaloids (Dosage and administration)
Alkaloids (Research)
Cancer (Control)
Cancer (Research)
Rue (Health aspects)
Rue (Usage)
Rue (Research)
Author: Barnes, Cara
Pub Date: 03/22/2007
Publication: Name: Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism Publisher: National Herbalists Association of Australia Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Health Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2007 National Herbalists Association of Australia ISSN: 1033-8330
Issue: Date: Spring, 2007 Source Volume: 19 Source Issue: 1
Topic: Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic: Geographic Scope: Australia Geographic Code: 8AUST Australia
Accession Number: 174818457
Full Text: Rethy B, Zupko I, Minorics R, Hohmann J, Ocsovszki Iet al. 2007. Investigation of Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines of Arborinine and Furanoacridones Isolated from Ruta graveolens. Planta Med 73:41-8.

Nine acridone alkaloids (1: arborinine, 2: evoxanthine, 3: isogravacridone chlorine, 4: rutacridone, 5: gravacridonedio, 6: gravacridonetriol, 7: gravacridonediol monomethyl ether, 8: gravacridonetriol monoglycoside and 9: gravakidonediol monoglycoside) isolated from Rum graveolens were tested for their cytotoxic activity on human cancer cells.

The compounds were applied in vitro to three types of human cancer cells: MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma). Doxorubicin and cisplatin were used as positive controls. Arborine displayed the highest antiproliferative effects. Compounds 3, 4, 5 and 7 also displayed significant antiproliferative effects.

The effects of compounds 3, 4 and 7 were examined more closely. Staining of the cell cultures revealed that the application of the compounds to HeLa cells resulted in typical morphological features of apoptosis, including increased cell membrane permeability, cellular shrinkage and granulation in the nucleus.

When cell cultures were examined for the proportion of apoptotic cells, they were found to increase in a dose dependant manner. Compounds 3 and 7 increased apoptosis most significantly. The mRNA ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 (markers of apoptosis) was also dose dependently increased.

Researchers propose the use of these acridone alkaloids as starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.

Cara Barnes

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