The Classification and Geography of the Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons of the Class Angiospermae.
Author: THORNE, ROBERT F.
Pub Date: 10/01/2000
Publication: Name: The Botanical Review Publisher: New York Botanical Garden Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Biological sciences Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2000 New York Botanical Garden ISSN: 0006-8101
Issue: Date: Oct-Dec, 2000 Source Volume: 66 Source Issue: 4
Accession Number: 71360094
Full Text: (Subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae)

I. Abstract

This latest revision of my classification and geography of the Dicotyledons replaces my 1992 (Bot. Rev. [Lancaster] 58(3): 225-348) review and is necessitated by the plethora of new information that has become available about the classification of the Angiospermae, especially in the currently popular approaches of cladistic, particulate, and molecular taxonomy. This review attempts to bring up-to-date our knowledge of the dicotyledons, with emphasis on new information published in the last decade. Nearly 600 such recent books, monographs, and other botanical articles are cited in the introduction, listed primarily by the botanical discipline they represent, and in the explanation of the classification. More than 2,000 additional works are listed in the "Literature Cited" section. The numerous changes in the classification created by this new information are listed by subclass and superorder, with pertinent references. A new phylogenetic "shrub" replaces earlier versions and attempts to indicate visually relat ive sizes and relationships among the superorders, orders, and suborders, with all of these divided into 10 subclasses. One table includes a statistical summary of all known and generally accepted flowering-plant taxa: approximately 257,400 species in 13,678 genera, 389 subfamilies in 490 families, and 756 subfamilies and undivided families in 10 subclasses, 31 superorders, 73 orders, and 64 suborders of Angiospermae. Figures for the dicotyledons are 199,500 species in 10,900 genera, 307 subfamilies in 376 families, and 586 subfamilies and undivided families in 7 subclasses, 22 superorders, 49 orders, and 48 suborders. Three other tables summarize the known indigenous distribution of the families and subfamilies of dicotyledons around the world (the monocotyledons are treated elsewhere). The synopsis lists the dicotyledonous taxa from the subclass down to the subfamily (and in Asteraceac down to the tribe), with indications of the degree of confidence I place in the circumscription and placement of each categ ory above the subfamily, the best available estimates of the number of genera and species for each category, and the known indigenous distribution of each subfamily and family. Table V lists the geographical abbreviations used in the synopsis. The extensive bibliography of pertinent literature on which I have based my decisions should be helpful to persons interested in the classification of the dicotyledons.

Resumen

Esta nueva revision de mi clasificacion y geografia de las dicotiledoneas reemplaza mi anterior revision de 1992 (Bot. Rev. [Lancaster] 58(3):225-348). Esto es necesario debido ala enorme cantidad de nueva informacion acerca de la clasificacion de las plantas con flores, derivada especialmente de las nuevas metodologias en taxonomia cladistica, micromorfologia, y datos moleculares. Esta revision intenta actualizar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las dicotiledoneas con enfasis en la nueva informacion publicada en la ultima decada. En la introduccion y en la explicacion de la clasificacion, se citan alrededor de 600 trabajos botanicos recientes que incluyen libros, monografias, y articulos especializados, los cuales son listados de acuerdo a la disciplina botanica que representan. Ademas se citan mas de 2,000 obras en la seccion titulada "Literature Cited." Los numerosos cambios originados por esta nueva informacion son listados por subclases y superordenes, con sus referencias pertinentes. Un nuevo "arbusto" f iletico substituye las versiones recientes e intenta indicar visualmente las relaciones entre subclases, superordenes, ordenes, y subordenes, asi como sus tamabos relativos. Se presenta una tabla con un resumen de las estadisticas de todos los taxa conocidos y comunmente aceptados de las plantas con flores: alrededor de 257,400 especies en 13,678 generos, 389 subfamilias en 490 familias, y 756 subfamilias con familias no subdivididasen 10 subclases, 31 superordenes, 73 ordenes, y 64 subordenes de Angiospermas. Las figuras proporcionadas corresponden a 199,500 especies de dicotiledoneas en 10,900 generos, 307 subfamilias en 376 familias, y 586 subfamilias y familias no subdividadas en 7 subclases, 22 superordenes, 49 ordenes, y 48 subordenes. Otras tres tablas que se presentan en el trabajo muestran la distribucion autoctona de familias y subfamilias de las dicotiledoneas del mundo (las monocotiledoneas son tratadas aparte). Esta sinopsis lista los taxa incluidos en las dicotiledoneas desde subclase hasta subf amilia (en Asteraceae hasta tribu), indicando el grado de confianza que designe para la circunscripcion y la localizacion de cada categoria superior a la de subfamilia. Asi mismo incluyo las mejores estimaciones disponibles acerca del numero de generos y especies para cada categoria y la distribucion geografica conocida de cada subfamilia y familia. La tabla V lista alfabeticamente las abreviaciones geograficas usadas en esta sinopsis. La extensa revision bibliografia reciente incluida en este trabajo, y en la cual base mis decisiones, puede ser de utilidad para todo interasado en la clasificacion de las plantas con flores.

II. Introduction

Since the preparation of my 1992 review article on the "Classification and Geography of the Flowering Plants," published in the BotanicalReview, much new information has become available about the classification of the Angiospermae, especially in the currently popular fields of cladistic, micromorphological, and molecular taxonomy. This article is an effort to bring up-to-date our knowledge of the dicotyledons, with emphasis on new information published in the last decade, including the recent corresponding update of my monocotyledon classification (Thorne, 2000).

A. IMPORTANT LITERATURE SUBSEQUENT TO 1991

1. Inclusive Works for Phylogeny

Among the most informative longer publications pertinent to the better understanding of dicotyledon phylogeny are Vascular Plant Families and Genera, by Brummitt (1992); Advances in Labiate Science, edited by Harley and Reynolds (1992); Advances in Legume Systematics. Part 4. The Fossil Record, edited by Herendeen and Dileher (1992); Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms, by Johri et al. (1992); Willows: The Genus Salix, byNewsholme (1992); Erdtman's Handbook of Palynology, ed. 2, edited by Nilsson and Praglowski (1992); Seeds of Woody Plants of North America, rev. ed., by J. and C. Young (1992); Wood Anatomy oftheRosaceae, by S.-Y. Zhang (1 992b); The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Vol.2. Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons: Magnoliid, Hamamelid, and Caryophyllid Families, edited by Kubitzki et al. (1993); The Genera of the Umbelliferae: A Nomenclator, by Pimenov and Leonov (1993); Advances in Rubiaceae Macrosystematics, edited by Robbrecht (1993a); The Cruciferae of Continental North America, by Rollin s (1993); Asteraceae: Cladistics and Class ification, by K. Bremer (1994); Caryophyllales. Evolution and Systematics, edited by Behnke and Mabry (1994); Diversity and Evolutionary Biology of Tropical Flowers, by P. Endress (1994b); Maples ofthe World, by Gelderen et al. (1994); Systematics andEvolution of the Ranunculiflorae, edited by U. Jensen and Kadereit (1995); The Anther: Form, Function and Phylogeny, edited by D'Arcy and Keating (1996); Proceedings of the 2nd International Rubiaceae Conference, edited by Robbrecht et al. (1996); Flowering Plant Origin, Evolution and Phylogeny, edited by D. Taylor and Hickey (1996); Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings ofthe International Coinpositae Conference, Kew, 1994, Vol. 1, edited by Hind et a]. (1996); PlantAlkaloids: A Guide to Their Discovery and Distribution, by Raffauf (1996); The Plant -Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants, 2d ed., by Mabberley (1997); Evolution and Diversifi cation ofLand Plants, edited by K. Iwatsuki and Raven (1997); Diversit y and Classification of Flowering Plants, by Takhtajan (1997); SeedAnatomy, by Werker (1997); Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, andEvolution of Dormancy and Germination, by Baskin and Baskin (1998); Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (Exclusive ofAlaska and Hawaii), by Isely (1998); World Checklist and Bibliography ofFagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae) by Govaerts and Frodin (1998); and "The Classification and Geography of the Monocotyledon Subclasses Alismatidae, Liliidae, and Commelinidae," by Thome (2000).

2. Molecular Taxonomy

Certainly the biggest changes in my dicotyledon classification since 1992 are based upon the highly informative results produced by the molecular taxonomists through analyses of DNA sequence data from the chloroplast gene rbcL, such other plastid genes as matK, ndhF, rpoC2, rp116, rps4, and trnL-F, as well as chloroplast restriction analysis of the inverted repeat, including the ORF 2280 deletion, and nuclear rRNA sequencing, especially when combined with morphological and other data. Among the most instructive molecular articles on the dicotyledon orders and higher categories are: Albach et al. (1998), on Asteridae s.l.; Alverson et al. (1998, 1999), on Malvales; Backlund and Bremer (1997), on Asteridae s.s.; C. Bayer et al. (1998b), on Malvales; R. Bayer and Starr (1998), on Asteraceae; B. Bremer et al. (1994), on Gentianales [Rubiales]; Chase et al. (1993), on seed plants; Clement and Mabry (1996), on Caryophyllales; Conti et al. (1996, 1997), on Myrtales; Cosner et al. (1994), on Campanulales; Donoghue e t al. (1992), on Dipsacales; Gadek et al. (1996), on Sapindales; Giannasi et al. (1992), on Caryophyllales; Gustafsson et al. (1996), on Asterales; HibschJetter and Soltis (1996), on "Saxifragales"; Les et al. (1999), on Nymphaeales; Magallon et al. (1999), on "eudicots"; Manhart and Rettig (1994), on Caryophyllales; Manos et al. (1993), on Hamamelididae; Manos and Steele (1997), on higher Hamamelididae; Morgan and D. Soltis (1993), on Saxifragaceae s.l.; Morton et al. (1996b), on Ebenales [Sapotales]; Nickrent (1996), on Santalales and Rafflesiales; Nickrent and D. Soltis (1995), on angiosperms; Olmstead et al. (1992, 1993), on Asteridae; Olmstead and Reeves (1995) and Olmstead et al. (1998), on Scrophulariaceae s.l.; Oxelman et al. (1999), on Lamiales; Plunkett et al. (1996a, 1997), on Araliales; Price and Palmer (1993), on Geraniales; Qiu et al. (1993), on Magnoliidae; Qiu et al. (1998), on Hamamelididae; Qiu et al. (1999), on earliest angiosperms; Renner (1998b), on Laurales; Rettig et al. (1992), on Cary ophyllales; Rodman et al. (1993, 1996, 1998), on Capparales; Savolainen (1994, 1997), on Celastrales; D. Soltis and P. Soltis (1997) and D. Soltis et al. (1996), on Saxifragaceae s.l.; D. Soltis et al. (1997, 1998) and P. Soltis et al. (2000), on angiosperms; Swensen and Chase (1995), on Theales; Sytsma and Baum (1996), on angiosperms; Sytsma et al. (1996a), on Urticales; Sytsma et al. (1996b), on Myrtales; Vincent et al. (1996), on "eudicots"; and Xiang et al. (1998), on Cornales. Many additional informative molecular studies of dicotyledonous families and lesser categories are listed in the "Literature Cited" section.

However, one must not forget that the gene trees are mostly based on single genes, whether of chloroplast or nucleus chromosomes, and that most molecular trees based on sequence data, no matter how parsimonious, are single-character trees (J. Doyle, 1992; Rieseberg & Soltis, 1991). Stewart (1993) and earlier Felsenstein (1978) have discussed the pitfalls of parsimony. Frequently these trees are incongruent with one another (Kellogg et al., 1994; Mason et al., 1994). Only when the molecular data are congruent with one another and with macromolecular data can we accept the molecular approach as a powerful new tool for phylogeny. Wagenitz (1997) has reviewed how molecular methods have impacted angiosperm systematics. Isely (1986), Kruckeberg (1997), and Lammers (1999) have addressed the usual overemphasis on bandwagon taxonomy, especially molecular phylogenetics.

3. Cladistics

In an excellent article on the non-homology of vascular organization in monocotyledons and dicotyledons, Tomlinson (1995) listed the numerous characteristics that readily distinguish the two groups from each other. This must displease the doctrinaire cladists who would scrap the division between the two groups because it seems likely that the monocotyledons have arisen out of the magnolialian dicotyledons, thus making the latter group paraphyletic. Brummitt (1996, 1997), Brummitt and Sosef (1998), and Sosef(1997) have written tellingly on the excesses of the cladists in regard to paraphylesis (but see DeQueiroz and Gauthier [1992], and Freudenstein [1998]). Paraphyletic groups arc indeed thc inevitable result of evolution. Burger (1979) has written a strong critique of the Hennigian cladistics that so dominates modern-day taxonomy. Perhaps the best treatment to please all parties is to recognize the monophyletic angiosperms in a single series of ten subclasses of dicotyledons and monocotyledons, as Magnoliida e, Alismatidae, Liliidae, Commelinidae, Ranuculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae.

My own phylogenetic philosophy (and I was a phylogenist before the cladists appropriated and redefined the term) is that taxa should be monophyletic (that is, not polyphyletic) but that the size of the phyletic gap between families should be the major consideration in their possible recognition. The gaps among the Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Monotropaceae, Empetraceae, and Epacridaceae do not seem to be of family size; neither are those among Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, and Sterculiaceae; Sapindaceae, Aceraceae, and Hippocastanaceae; nor Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Periplocaceae. Thus these groups seem best treated as subfamilies in greatly expanded Ericaceae, Malvaceae, Sapindaceae, and Apocynaceae. Admittedly, gap measurement is rather subjective, but we must trust the competent botanists, especially the monographers. On the other hand, a number of widely accepted large families, like the Ranunculaceae, Theaceae, Saxifragaceae, Cornaceae, Loganiaceae, and Scrophulariaceae in their broadest sense, have been sho wn to be polyphyletic, with resultant spin-off of many new families. With all this new information available to us, the label of "lumper" or "splitter" is inappropriate. We are forced to be both.

Despite the shortcomings of Hennigian cladistics for angiosperm phylogeny and the irritations and excesses of the more zealous cladists, cladistic methods have become a most useful technical tool for clarifying intrafamilial relationships. Some of the more informative cladistic studies, other than those already cited in the molecular taxonomy section (in which cladistic methods are generally used to erect the gene trees), are here listed in alphabetical order: Albert and Stevenson (1996), on Nepenthales; Anderberg (1992), on Ericales; Anderberg and Stahl (1995), on Primulales; Caputo and Cozzolino (1994), on Dipsacaceae; Chappill (1995), on Leguminosae [Fabaceae]; M. Endress and Albert (1995), on Apocynaceae s.l.; S. Graham et al. (1993), on Lythraceae; Gustafsson and Brewer (1995), on Asterales; Hershkovitz (1993), on Portulacaceae; Hill and Jordan (1993), on Nothofagus; Hoch et al. (1993), on Onagraceae; Hufford (1992), on Rosidae; Hufford (1997), on Hydrangeaceae; Hufford and Dickison (1992), on Cunoniaceae; Judd and Kron (1993) and Judd et al. (1998), on Ericaceae; Judd and Manchester (1997), on Malvaceae; Judd et al. (1994), on family pairs; Kadereit et al. (1994, 1995), on Papaveraceae s.l.; Karis (1993a, 1996), on Asteroideae; Karis et al. (1992), on Cichorioideae; K.-J. Kim and Jansen (1998), on Oleaceae; Kron (1997), on Rhododendroideae; Lammers (1992), on Campanulales; Loconte et al. (1995), on Ranunculanae; Rodman (1994), on Caryophyllales; Schlaurer (19 97), on carnivorous families; Simmons and Hedin (1999), on Celastraceae; J. Smith (1996), on Gesneriaceae; Struwe and Albert (1996a, 1996b), on Gentianaceae; Struwe et al. (1995), on Gentianales (Rubiales); and Zavada and Kim (1996), on Ulmaceae/Celtidaceae. Other cladistic studies for lesser categories and other matters are listed in the "Literature Cited" section.

4. Morphology

Despite the valuable contributions of the molecular taxonomists, morphology in all its aspects--from micromorphology to embryology, palynology, seed, seedling, fruit, floral, stem and leaf anatomy--is still hugely important. With proper weighting, morphological characteristics remain perhaps the most valuable tools in the phylogenetic tool chest.

The significance of flower, leaf, and stem anatomy in phylogeny is already firmly established and needs no discussion here. However, certain recent treatments and monographs should be mentioned as examples of the use of anatomy and other supporting approaches. Among them are numerous recent articles by Carlquist, Dickison, P. Endress, Erbar, Erbar and Leins, and Ronse Decraene and Smets, as listed in the "Literature Cited." Other excellent examples of the use of morphology and anatomy not already mentioned in the molecular and cladistic sections are studies by Argus (1997), on New World Salix; Axelius (1996), on physaloid genera of Solanaceae; Baas (1997), on Boraginaceae; Backlund (1996), on Dipsacales; Bolli (1994), on Sambucus; Calderon de Rzedowski and J. Rzedowski (1997), on Velascoa of the Crossosomataceae; Clinckemaillie and Smets (1992), on Plumbaginaceae vs. Primulaceac; Cronquist and Thorne (1994), on Caryophyllales; Evans and Dickinson (1997), on Rosaceae; Hammel and Zamora (1993), on Ruptiliocarp on of Lepidobotryaceae; H. Hansen (1992), on Calyceraceae; H. Hansen (1997), on Goodeniaceae with Brunonia; Hiepko (1995), on Ranunculaceae; K. Hill and Johnson (1995), on Corymbia of Myrtaceae; D. Hou et al. (1996), on Caesalpiniaceae; Igersheim and P. Endress (1997), on Magnoliales; Piesschaert et al. (1997), on Dialypetalanthus; Renner et al. (1997), on Siparuna; Sheahan and Cutler (1993), on Zygophyllaceae; Simmons and Hedin (1999), on Celastraceae; Tobe and Hammel (1993), on Ruptiliocarpon of Lepidobotryaceae; and Tucker et al. (1993), on Saururaceae and Piperaceae.

a Floral Anatomy

The recent studies based primarily on floral anatomy are too numerous to list here but are evident in the "Literature Cited" section. The authors most active in this field are, as mentioned above, Dickison (with studies of Saruma of Aristolochiaceae [1992], Styracaceae [1993], and Sanango of the Gesneriaceae [1994]), P. Endress (primarily with members of the Magnoliales), Erbar, Erbar and Leins, and Leins and Erbar (mostly with members of the sympetalous families), Link (with studies of nectaries in Geraniales [1992, 1993]), and Ronse Decraene and Smets (primarily studies of the androecium of the Magnolianae and Ranunculanae).

b. Palynology

Palynological investigations remain popular. Monumental in palynology is Erdtman's Handbook of Palynology, the second edition edited by Nilsson and Praglowski in 1992. Especially informative pollen studies are those by Abu-Asab and Cantino (1992-1994), on members of the Lamiaceae s.l.; and Nowicke (1994-1996), on the order Caryophyllales and included families and on the Crotonoideae of the Euphorbiaceae.

Other taxa in which pollen studies have clarified their phylogenetic position include the Globularieae and Selagineae (Argue, 1993), Triplostegia of the Valerianaceae (Backlund & Nilsson, 1997), members of the Ranunculanae (Blackmore et al., 1995), early angiosperm pollen from the Cretaceous (Brenner & Bickoff, 1992; Brenner, 1996), Coris of the Primulaceae (Carrion et al., 1993), Phryma (Chadwell et al., 1992), Calyceraceae (Devore et al., 1997), Adoxaceae and Caprifoliaceae (Donoghue, 1985), Sophoreae and Caesalpinoideae/Papilionoideae (I. Ferguson et al., 1994), Goodeniaceae (Gustafsson et al., 1997), Daphniphyllum (Huang, 1996), Annonaceae (Le Thomas et al., 1994), Oldfieldioideae of Euphorbiaceae (Levin & Simpson, 1994a), Hymenocardia in Euphorbiaceae (Lobreau-Callen & Suarez Cervera, 1994), Nymphaeales (Meyer-Melikian & Diamandopulu, 1996), Styracaceae (Morton & Dickison, 1992), Apocynaceae/Periplocaceae (Nilsson et al., 1993), Gronovioideae of Loasaceae (Poston & Nowicke, 1993), Erothamneae, Gundeliea e, and Moquinieae of Aster aceae (Robinson, 1994), Eucommia (Rowley et al., 1992), Hortonia of Monimiaceae and Amborella (F. Sampson, 1993), and Lactoris (F. Sampson, 1995), Acanthaceae (Scotland, 1993), and North American Lamiaceae (Trudel & Morton, 1992).

c. Embryology

In addition to the two volumes of Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms, by Johri et al. (1992), numerous investigations of the embryology of dicotyledons have been most helpful in the proper placement of various taxa. Most prolific with embryological articles have been H. Tobe and associates, with studies on Suriana (Heo & Tobe, 1994); with Raven on Chrysobalanaceae (1984), Batis (1992), Acanthothamnus, Brexia, and Canotia in Celastrales (1993), Akania (1995), and Onagraceae (1996); with Hammel on Ruptiliocarpon (1993); with Suzuki on Coriaria (1993); on Lactoris (Tobe et al., 1993); and on Crotonoideae (Tokuoka & Tobe, 1998) and Drypeteae (Tokuoka & Tobe, 1999).

Other informative embryological studies were published by Heo et al. (1998), on Lauraceae; Kamelina (1997), on Lactoris and Fouquieria; Kapil and Bhatnagar (1994), on Euphorbiaceae; Svoma (1998), on Drimys of Winteraceae and some Annonaceae; Tang (1994), on Plagiopteron; Tsou (1996), on Camellioideae of Theaceae; Tsou (1994b), on Lecythidaceae; Tsou and Mori (1993), also on Lecythidaceae; Ya and Pan (1994), on Melhania of Sterculiaceae; and Z.-Y. Zhang et al. (1994), on Rhoiptelea.

d. Seed and Fruit Morphology

In seed anatomy (Corner, 1976; Martin, 1946; Martin & Barkley, 1961; Werker, 1997), ovule structure, with origin of the seed coat and its mechanical layers and its thickness, shape, and location of the embryo, presence of perisperm or other storage tissues, and micropylar organization, are all important. Baskin and Baskin (1998) have discussed the dormancy and germination of seeds in all their aspects, and Burger (1998) has discussed the question of cotyledon homology in angiosperms.

Relatively few recent investigations have involved seed and fruit morphology. Among them are studies by Anderberg (1994), on fruits of Empetraceae; Boesewinkel (1997), on seed structure in the Geraniales; Boesewinkel (1999), on ovules and seeds of Tremandraceae; Boesewinkel and Bouman (1997), on ovules and seeds of Dirachma, Dirachmaceae; Bouman and Meijer (1994), on ovules and seeds of Rafflesiaceae; Bruckner (1995), on seed structure in Ranunculanae; Chuang and Ornduff (1992), on seeds of Menyanthaceae; Endo and Ohashi (1998), on cotyledon areoles in Fabaceae; Knapp (1994), on exotesta ornamentation in Crassulaceae; Kravtsova (1995), on pericarp and seed-coat structure of Cecropiaceae; Mirle and Burnham (1999), on asymmetrically winged samaras from the Western Hemisphere; Nandi (1998a), on ovule and seed anatomy of Cistaceae and related Malvanae; Rohwer (1993e, 1994, 1996), on fruits and seeds of Oleaceae; Ryding (1994), on pericarp structure of Pogostemoideae of Lamiaceae; Setten and Koek-Noorman (1992), on fruits and seeds of Annonaceae; and Spjut (1994), on a systematic treatment of fruit types.

Seedling anatomy has received relatively little attention in the dicotyledons since Vogel's Seedlings of Dicotyledons (1980). Tillich (1995, 1998a, 1998b), however, has presented much useful information about character states in monocot seedlings, especially of the cotyledon, seedling axis, roots, and plumular leaves. This valuable tool needs much more exploitation in the dicotyledons. Very recently Hwang and Conran (2000) have published on the seedling characteristics in the Casuarinaceae.

e. Wood Anatomy

As indicated by his many pages of citations in the references cited, my former colleague Sherwin Carlquist is the most prolific wood anatomist now publishing. Among his most recent articles are the following, on: the wood anatomy of Lamiaceae (1992a), sympetalous dicotyledons (1992b), Cucurbitaceae (1992c), Chloranthaceae (1992d, 1992e), Eupomatia (1992f), stem anatomy of Aristolochiaceae (1993a), wood anatomy of Sabiaceae s.l. (1993b), Caryophyllaceae (1995a), Ranunculaceae (including Hydrastis), Glaucidiaceae (1995b), Berberidaceae (1995c), Ranunculanae (1995d), Menispermaceae (1996a), Akaniaceae and Bretschneideraceae (1996c), Pentaphragma (1997a), Buddlejaceae (1997b), Resedaceae (1998a), Portulacaceae and Hectorellaceae (1998b), Caricaceae (1998c), Petiveria and Rivina of Caryophyllales (1998d), Agdestis (1999a), Schisandraceae (1999b), Stegnosperma (1999c), Basellaceae (1999d), with Boggs on Plumbaginaceae (1996), with Dauer and Nishimura on stem anatomy of Saururaceae (1995), with DeVore on Calycerace ae (1998), with Donald on Limnanthaceae and Tropaeolaceae (1996), with Morrell and Manchester on Sabiaceae (1993), with Wilson on Drosophyllum (Droseraceae) (1995), and with Zona on Acanthaceae (1988a) and Papaveraceae (1988b). In addition are his articles (1992g) on pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of primitive dicotyledons and (1996b) on the wood anatomy of primitive angiosperms. Rejoined Schneider in the study of vessels in aquatic dicotyledons as Schneider and Carlquist (1995a), on vessels in Barclaya, (1995b) in Euryale and Victoria, (1996a) in Nelumbo, and (1996b) in Brasenia; (1996c), on absence of vessels in Ceratophyllum, (1996d) vessel origin in Cabomba, and (Schneider et al., 1995) vessels in Nymphaea, Nuphar, and Ondinea.

Other anatomists have published on the stem anatomy of Aphanopetalum (Dickison et al., 1994), Bonnetiaceae (Dickison & Weitzman, 1996), and Cactaceae (Gibson, 1994), vestures in Myrtales, Gentianales, and Fabales (S. Jansen et al., 1998), stem and leaf anatomy of Portulacaceae (Landrum & Mauseth, 1995, 1996), Ruptiliocarpon (Mennega, 1993), Cornaceae and allies (Noshiro & Baas, 1998), Zygophyllaceae (Sheahan & Cutler, 1993), wood of Platanus kerril (Wheeler, 1995), and of Rosaceae (S.-Y. Zhang, 1992a, 1992b).

f. Leaf Anatomy

Leaves seem to receive much less special attention than do stems, flowers, pollen, and embryology. However, several articles on trichomes, stomata, cuticles, and leaf architecture have been useful in helping to establish relationships. Among the recent articles cited are trichomes in the Saxifragaceae s.l. (Al-Shammary & Gornall, 1994); the epidermis of Austrobaileya (Baranova, 1992a); principles of comparative stromatographic studies of angiosperms (Baranova, 1992b); cuticular features in Lauraceae (Christophel et al., 1996); leaf architecture in Gunnera (Fuller, 1995); stomatal myrosin cells in Caricaceae (Jorgensen, 1995); leaf venation patterns in general and in Euphorbiaceae (Klucking, 1995, 1997); venation in Buxaceae and Simmondsiaceae (Kohler, 1993); leaves in Flacourtiaceae (Lemke & Angerstein, 1994); leaf anatomy of Pittosporaceae (Wilkinson, 1992); and leaf and twig anatomy of Pterostemonaceae (Wilkinson, 1994).

g. Karyomorphology

As now defined, karyomorphology involves more than just the number of chromosomes in a given plant; it also involves their size, morphology, and internal anatomy. Some of the more recent karyomorphological studies have involved the chromosomes of Alzateaceac (Almeda, 1997), chromosome numbers in Bombacaceae (Baum & Oginuma, 1994), karyosystematics of Sambucus and Viburnum [Adoxaceae] (Benki-Iseppon & Morawetz, 1993), chromosome numbers in Sonneratia and Duabanga (Lythraceae) (S. Graham et al., 1993), cytology of Nepenthes (Heubl & Wistuba, 1997), chromosome numbers of Lobelioideae of Campanulaceae (Lammers, 1993), karyological studies in Chloranthaceae (Okada, 1995), chromosome number in Ticodendron (Snow & Goldblatt, 1992), cytoevolution in Epacridaceae (Stace et al., 1997), and chromosome numbers in Caryophyllales (Turner, 1994).

h. Micromorphology

Among the most phylogenetically informative of the ultrastructural and micromorphological data are the epicuticular wax crystalloids studied by W. Barthlott and associates, the sieve-element plastids contributed by H.-D. Behnke and associates; and the ultraviolet fluorescence behavior of cell walls due to presence of bound ferulic, p-coumaric, and diferulic acids (Hartley & Harris, 1981).

Epicuticular wax micromorphology has been useful in studies of the Caryophyllales (Barthlott, 1984); Nelumbo and the Ranunculanae (Barthlott et al., 1996; Barthlott & Theisen, 1995); angiosperm classification generally (Barthlott et al., 1998); Dilleniales, Malvales, Theales, and Lecythidales (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994); Dilleniidae and Rosidae (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1997); Fabales (Ditsch et al., 1995); Gentianales, Rubiales, Dipsacales, and Calycerales (Theisen & Barthlott, 1994); and Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, and Hamamelididae (Hennig et al., 1994).

Sieve-element plastids have been featured in research by Behnke in the Caryophyllales (1993, 1994), Ranunculanae (1995a), Proteaceae and Elaeagnaceae (1995b), Nymphaea (1996), Sarcobatus, Sarcobataceae (1997), Triplareae and Coccolobeae, Polygonaceae (1998), and, with associates (1996), in Stylobasium. Other micromorphological studies have been published on the Myricaceae (D. Ferguson (1998); Fabaceae (Gottlieb et al., 1994); and Basella, Basellaceae (Nageshwar & Radhakrishnaiah, 1993).

5. Chemotaxonomy and Serology

Comparative biochemists have continued to present useful information for phylogenists. Among the more informative studies are those on: flavonoids in Greyia (Bohm & Chan, 1992); the phytochemistry of the Podostemaceae (Contreras et al., 1993), which showed no relationship with Hydrostachys; Plumbaginaceae (Dillon et al., 1996); galloyl esters in more primitive members of Hamamelididae, Dilleniidae, and Rosidae (Gottlieb et al., 1993a); chemosystematic overview of Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, and Hamamelididae (Gottlieb et al., 1993b); chemistry and micromolecular clues in the Fabaceae (Gottlieb et al., 1994) indicating a probable derivation from Sapindales [Sapindineae]; phytochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Boraginaceae (Hegnauer, 1997); distribution of iridoids and other compounds in Loganiaceae and other families of Asteridae (S. Jensen, 1992); chemotaxonomy of Sanango of Gesneriaceae (S. Jensen, 1994); secondary compounds of Ranunculanae (U. Jensen, 1995a); alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Ranun culaceae (Kosuge et al., 1995); phytochrome B and E in early angiosperms (Mathews, 1997); acylated spermidines and flavonoids in pollen of "higher" Hamamelididae (Meurer-Grimes, 1995); accumulation of 4-carboxy-iridoids in Verbenoideae (Poser et al., 1997); acteoside restricted to Lamiales (Scogin, 1992b), absent in Hydrostachys (Scogin, 1992a) but present in polypremurn (Scogin & Romo-Contreras, 1992); phytochemistry of Euphorbiaceae (Seigler, 1994); free amino and organic acids in Aizoaceae and Molluginaceac (Singh, 1992); and chemosystematic markers in Rubiaceae (M. Young et al., 1996).

Serological in estigations are fewer. U. Jensen et al. (1994) found that all taxa of high legumin similarity belong to Malvanae, Rutanae, and Violanae, with Euphorbiaceae closely allied with Urticales, Flacourtiaceae, and Passifloraceae but even more similar to Thymelaeaceae. U. Jensen (1995b) also found that legumin is the main seed-storage protein in Ranunculaceae, supporting the classification based on other molecular, morphological, and chemical data.

6. Paleobotany

Paleobotanical discoveries add much to the phylogeny and geography of the flowering plants. Primarily they can hint at the approximate time and place of the origin and rise of the angiosperms, their increasing diversity and spread throughout the terrestrial world, and often the direction of evolution in their characteristics. Two important books dealing with the origins and diversification of flowering plants are those edited by Taylor and Hickey (1996), on Flowering Plant Origin, Evolution and Phylogeny, and by Iwatsuki and Raven (1997) on the Evolution and Diversification of Land Plants.

Cornet and Habib (1992) described angiosperm-like pollen from the upper Jurassic (Oxfordian Formation) of France and speculated that the angiosperms separated from ancestors of Bennettitales and Gnetales before the Carnian age of the Triassic or the Permian. Crane et al. (1995) reported on the origin and major diversification of the angiosperms in the early Cretaceous between 130 and 90 million years B.P.

Cretaceous origins are now known for many extant families (Friis & Crepet, 1987; Friis et al., 1999). Among those recently discussed are Winteraceae, Chloranthaceae, and Platanaceae of the early Aptian (Archangeisky & Taylor, 1993); and Circaeaster-like Appomattoxia from early Cretaceous Potomac sequences of Virginia (E. Friis et al., 1995). Drinnan et al. (1993) discussed the early diversification of non-magnolialian "eudicots" from the middle Barremian (128 million years B.P.). Upchurch and Wolfe (1993), in their discussion of Cretaceous vegetation of western interior North America, have found by the middle Albian representation of Magnoliales, Hamamelidales, Rosales, Ranunculales, and Dilleniales sensu Thorne.

Reports of late Cretaceous families are more abundant, especially for the Turonian (ca. 90 million years B.P.) of New Jersey, studied thoroughly by botanists at Cornell University. Some of the dicotyledons represented by well-preserved flowers in Turonian deposits and reported by Crepet and Nixon are magnolialian Chloranth us- and Calycanthus-like flowers with wind dispersal of the seeds (1994); representatives of Magnoliales, Hamamelidales, Rosales, and Dilleniales sensu Thorne; Clusiaceae with flowers similar to extant Garcinia and Clusia (1998a); magnolialean flowers that share characteristics with cupulate taxa, including Winteraceae (1998b); and by Nixon and Crepet on caryophylloid (1993a), ericalean (1993b), and fagalean (1994) fossils. Other Turonian discoveries include flowers with affinity to Hamamelidaceae (Crepet et al., 1992); hydrangeoid Tylerianthus (Gandolfo et al., 1998a), and capparalean Dressiantha (Gandolfo et al., 1998b); and Chloranthus-like stamens with in situ pollen (Herendeen et al., 1993) and lauraceous flowers of the tribe Perseeae (Herendeen et al., 1994).

Van Boskirk (1997), in his study of the paleofloristics of the lower Campanian Eagle Formation of Wyoming and Montana, listed, in addition to conifers, ferns, and a cycadophyte, fossil members of Laurales, Platanaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Chloranthaceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Saxifragales, Sapindales, Berberidaceae, Menispermaceae, and putative relatives of Nymphaeaceae and Canellaceae.

Other middle and late Cretaceous finds include middle Cretaceous platanoid inflorescences with plesiomorphic features (Crane et al., 1995); magnoliaceous fruit from British Columbia, combining characteristics of Magnolia and Liriodendron (Delavoryas & Mickle, 1995); late Cretaceous chloranthaceous floral structure (Chloranthistemon) from Sweden (Eklund et al., 1997); legume fossil pollen and wood from the upper Cretaceous, with all three legume subfamilies represented by the early Eocene (Herendeen et al., 1992); Myriophyllum-like aquatic from the late Cretaceous Campanian of Sonora (Hernandez-Castillo & Cevallos-Feriz, 1997); phytolaccaceous infructescence from the Campanian of Coahuila (PerezHernandez et al., 1997); cercidiphyllaceous fossils from the upper Cretaceous Maastrichtian of Alberta (Serbet & Stockey, 1996); Parasaurauia near Saurauia from the early Campanian of central Georgia (Keller et al., 1996); hamamelid floral and seed fossils similar to extant Hamamelidoideae from Georgia (Magallon-Puebl a et al., 1995); and fossil flowers similar to extant Hydrangea from the Coniacian-Santonian, also from Georgia (Magallon-Puebla, 1997).

Even more abundant representation of extant dicotyledonous families are known from the Tertiary (Manchester, 1999). Some of these are Eucommia from the Eocene of British Columbia and Mississippi (Call & Dilcher, 1997); possible origin of Asteraceae in late Eocene of Gondwana (Devore & Stuessy, 1995); Nyssa at least by the Eocene of North America and Europe (Eyde, 1997); Trochodendraceae from the Paleocene of North America (Fields, 1996); as mentioned above, all three subfamilies of Fabaceae by the early Eocene (Herendeen et al., 1992); extinct malvalean Florissantia from the Eocene and Oligocene of western North America (Manchester, 1992); fossil bracts of Tilia from the late Eocene to the Miocene of western North America (Manchester, 1994b); menispermaceous fossil endocarps from the Paleocene of Wyoming and North Dakota, with peak of menisperm diversity representing twelve genera and three tribes from the middle Eocene of North America (Manchester, 1996); fossil fruits and seeds of Sargentodoxa of Lardizaba laceae from the probable Oligocene Brandon Lignite of Vermont (Tiffney, 1993); and mastixioid endocarps of Nyssaceae from late Paleocene-Eocene deposits of western North America (Tiffney & Haggard, 1995).

Most exciting to the biogeographer is the large number of angiospermous genera and families no longer indigenous in North America north of Mexico and mostly preserved in eastern Asia that are represented in the North American Tertiary fossil record (Manchester, 1994a, 1994c, 1999), including Actinidia, Ailanthus, Alangium, Anamirta, Castanopsis, Cercidiphyllum, Cleyera, Corylopsis, Craigia, Cyclocarya, Dipelta, Diplopanax, Dipteronia, Emmenopterys, Engelhardia, Eucommia, Euodia, Exbucklandia, Koelreuteria, Mastixia, Meliosma, Paliurus, Phellodendron, Platycarya, Sabia, Sargentodoxa, Sloanea, Tapiscia, Toricellia, Trapa, Trochodendron, Turpinia, trigonobalanoids, and members of the Icacinaceae tribes Phytocreneae and Iodeae, juglandaceous Engelhardieae, and monocotyledonous Ensete of the Musaceae, as well as several gymnospermous and pteridophyte genera. Other dicotyledonous genera and families with fossil records in North America north of Mexico but no longer indigenous there, as listed in Jarzen (1980), Kru tzsch (1989), and Thorne (1992b), include Chloranthaceae, Dilleniaceae, Eupomatia, Gunnera, Mesoneuron, Nypa, Proteaceae, Pterocarya, Winteraceae, and Zelkova.

7. Plant Geography

I have written elsewhere (Thorne, 1975, 1989a) of the value of plant geography in angiosperm phylogeny and more recently (1996b) have discussed some principles of biogeography. The fifth and final volume of the valuable Pacific Plant Areas series was published in 1993, edited by van Balgooy. The five volumes, with their detailed maps, extensive bibliography, and detailed chart tabulating the distribution of all indigenous Pacific phanerogam genera, have been enormously helpful in recording the distribution of angiosperms in the Pacific area. It would be most desirable for similar efforts to be made for Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas.

Although no new families have apparently been discovered since 1991, one new family, Setchellanthaceae, has been recognized from a species discovered in Oaxaca in 1909. Though monotypic, it has been thoroughly studied (Carlquist & Miller, 1999; Iltis, 1999; Karol et al., 1999; Tobe et al., 1999; Tomb, 1999) and appears to deserve family ranking in the Capparales. Several important new genera have been discovered to increase our knowledge of angiosperm distributions and in some cases clarify our knowledge of the families to which they belong. Among the more important new discoveries is the genus Velascoa of the western North American rosalean Crossosomataceae in the Sierra Madre Oriental of Queretaro, Mexico (Calderon de Rzedowski & Rzedowski, 1997). The new tree genus Ruptiliocarpon, cedro caracolito of Costa Rica and South America (Hammel & Zamora, 1993), of the Lepidobotryaceae, is a tropical American link to the African Lepidobotrys. The authors suggest that the family relates more closely to the Sapindal es [my Rutales] or Euphorbiaceae than to the Oxalidaceae. Other tropical American links to Africa are the fossil Hymenaea species (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae) from Dominican amber with African affinities (Poinar, 1991) and the new monotoid dipterocarp genus Pseudomonotes from Amazonian Colombia (Londono et al., 1995; Morton, 1995).

Many new species have been recorded. Some of the more significant additions have been: a new subspecies of Byblis from northwestern Australia (Conran & Lowrie, 1993); a new species of Griselinia from the coastal Atacama Desert of northern Chile (Dillon & MufiozSchick, 1993); anew species of Talauma (Magnoliaceae) from Bolivia (Nee, 1994); two new species of Sphenostemon in New Caledonia (Jeremie, 1996a); and a new species of Plerostemon from Guerrero, Mexico (Ramirez & Gordillo, 1997). In addition, Tirel (1996) reestablished the genus Periomphale (Alseuosmiaceae) of New Caledonia and recognized (Tirel et al., 1996) the New Caledonian Oceanopapaveras a species of Corchorus (Tiliaceae).

Other biogeographical articles have discussed the intercontinental disjunction in Styrax (Fritsch, 1996, 1999); the distribution of Malesherbia in South America (Gengler, 1997); the boreotropics hypothesis (Lavin & Luckow, 1993); the phylogeography of Podostemaceae (Les et al., 1998); the distribution and ecology of New World Podostemaceae (Philbrick & Novelo R., 1995); the phylogeography of Krarneria (Simpson & Helfgott, 1997); Barnadesioideae, Asteraceae (Stuessy et al., 1994); Nyssa (Wen & Stuessy, 1993); and Hamamelidaceae (Zhang & Lu, 1995).

8. Host-Parasite Relationships

A less common approach taken by phylogenists is the use of host plants and their predators or parasites (Thome, 1979). Among those recent studies I have found most useful for the dicotyledons are the hostplants of the nymphalid butterflies (Ackery, 1988) and hostplant utilization by African and Australian butterflies (Ackery, 1991). Swensen (1996) has found suggestions of multiple origins for actinorhizal symbiosis, although some groupings of actinorhizal taxa seem significant, including: Cowania, Purshia, Cercocarpus, and Dryas of the Rosaceae; Rhamnaceae and Elaeagnaceae of the Rhamnales; and Alnus of the Betulaceae with the Casuarinaceae and Myricaceae.

9. 1990s Monographs and Revisions

The family treatments in the splendid volume on The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Vol. 2. Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons: Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families, edited by Kubitzki et al. (1993), have been most helpful in the preparation of the following synopsis, especially for information on distribution and numbers of genera and species. Some of the other taxonomic monographs and revisions of the last ten years that I have found to be similarly helpful in the preparation of this review and synopsis include those on Sambucus, Adoxaceae (Bolli, 1994); Anthemideae (Bremer & Humphries, 1993) and Heliantheae (Karis, 1993b) of Asteraceae; genera of Apiaceae (Pimenov & Leonov, 1993); Asteraceae (K. Bremer, 1994; Hind et al., 1996) and tribes Gnaphalieae (Anderberg, 1991) and Tarchonantheae (Keeley & Jansen, 1991); Barbeya (Thulin et al., 1998); Biebersteinia (Bakker et al., 1998); Bonnetiaceae (Weitzman & Stevens, 1997); Boraginaceae of the southeastern United States (Al-Shebaz, 1991); Brassica ceae of North America (Rollins, 1993); Byblis (Lowrie & Conran, 1998); Cactaceae (Hunt & Taylor, 1990); Campanulales (Lammers, 1992); Cecropiaceae (Berg et al., 1990); Cucurbitaceae (Bates et al., 1990; Jeffrey, 1990); Coriaria (Duyjes, 1993); Cynomorium (Lye, 1991); Daphniphyllum (Huang, 1997); Dialypetalanthus (Piesschaert et al., 1997); Dipsacales (Backlund, 1996); Pseudomonotes, Dipterocarpaceae (Londono et al., 1995); Dirachma (Thulin et al., 1998); Eremosyne (Hibsch-Jetter et al., 1997); Euphorbiaceae (Webster, 1994); Fabaceae of the United States (Isely, 1998) and Caesalpinioideae of Malesia (Hou et al., 1996); Griselinia (Dillon & Munoz-Schick, 1993); Disanthus, Hamamelidaceae (Pan et al., 1991a); Hernandiaceae (Duyjes, 1996); Hydrastis (Keener, 1993); Illicium and Schisandraceae (Saunders, 1997); Irvingiaceae (Harris, 1999); Caryopteris, Lamiaceae (Cantino et al., 1999); Lauraceae (Werf & Richter, 1996); Lecythidaceae (Morton et al., 1998; Tsou, 1994b) and Lecythidoideae (Mori & Prance, 1990); Ruptil iocarpon, Lepidobotryaceae (Hammel & Zamora, 1993); Loranthaceae and Viscaceae (Barlow, 1997); Meliaceae of Malesia (Mabberley et al., 1995); Memecylaceae (Renner, 1993); Morina (Hofmann & Gottman, 1990); Muntingiaceae (Bayer et al., 1998a); Corymbia, Myrtaceae (K. Hill & L. Johnson, 1995); Nothofagus (R. Hill & J. Read, 1991; Ochnaceae (Amaral, 1991); Papaveraceae (Kadereit et al., 1994, 1995); Paracryphia (Jeremie, 1996b); Picramniaceae (Fernando & Quinn, 1995); Piperaceae (Bornstein, 1991); Polemoniaceae (Grant, 1998; Porter & Johnson, 2000); Portulacaceae (Nyananyo, 1990) and Calandrinia and Montiopsis (Hershkovitz, 1993); Australian Eidotheoideae (Douglas & Hyland, 1995) and Persoonioideae of Proteaceae (Weston, 1995); Ptaeroxylon (White, 1990); Mitrastema, Rafflesiaceae (Meijer & Veldkamp, 1993; Meijer, 1997); Ranunculaceae (Duncan & Keener, 1991; Fu, 1990; Hiepko, 1995; Hoot, 1991); Ranunculanae (U. Jensen & Kadereit, 1995); Endosteira, Rhizophoraceae (Dorr, 1994); Maloideac (K. Robertson et al., 1991) and Rubus, Rosaceae (Alice & Campbell, 1996); Ixoroideae, Rubiaceae (Andreasen & B. Bremer, 1996); Salix (Newsholme, 1992); Sapindaceae (Adema et al., 1994); Acer, Sapindaceae (Gelderen et al., 1994); Sapotaceae (Pennington, 1990, 1991); Sarcobatus (Behnke, 1997); Sarcolaena (Randrianasolo & Miller, 1999); Selagineae, Scrophulariaceae (I. Hartley & Balkwill, 1990); Setchellanthus (Iltis, 1999); Siparuna (Renner et al., 1997b); Sphaerosepalaceae (Schatz et al., 1999); Clavia, Theophrastaceae (Stahl, 1991); Ticodendron (Gomez-Laurito & Gomez P., 1991); Triplostegia, Valerianaceae (Hofmann & Gottman, 1990); and Tropaeolaceae (Sparre & Andersson, 1991).

III. Explanation of the Classification

A. CHANGES IN THE SYSTEM SINCE 1992

My 1992 classification of the Dicotyledoneae is now rather obsolescent, given the numerous advances made since then in our knowledge of angiosperm phylogeny. My philosophy of classification remains essentially the same, however (Thorne, 1992b). Unlike some of my peers in phylogeny, I have refused to elevate the class Angiospermae to divisional status as unacceptable taxonomic inflation. Also, I have modified considerably the subclasses of Cronquist and Takhtajan because of their polyphyletic nature. I have attempted here to divide the angiosperms into ten, hopefully monophyletic, subclasses. I continue to strive for monophylesis in my classification.

1. Magnoliidae

One considerable change in my classification of the dicotyledons is the split of my former Magnolianae into Magnolianae and Ranunculanae, with the former elevated to subclass Magnoliidae (with the addition of the Nymphaeanae and Rafflesianae) and the latter to subclass Ranunculidae. They are closely related and joined by that significant chemical synapomorphy, prevalence of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. However, the Ranunculanae lack the spherical secretory oil cells and the monosulcate pollen so characteristic of the Magnolianae. Their pollen is tricolpate or tricolpate derived. Some botanists consider this evolution of the pollen grain a very significant step and have erected the large group "eudicots" for all the remaining dicotyledons that lack monosulcate pollen. This grouping is probably polyphyletic, like the similarly informal group "paleherbs," many of which are not herbs at all. It is remarkable that these botanists seem so unconcerned about possible polyphylesis but become so exercised about paraph ylesis.

a. Magnolianae

Within the Magnolianae I have separated from the Laurineae the Chloranthineae for the Amborellaceae, Chloranthaceae, and Trimeniaceae, which seem closer to the Winterineae, with Winteraceae and Canellaceae, and Illiciineae than to the Laurineae. In the remaining Laurineae the Monimiaceae have been dismantled, with the segregation of the Atherospermataceae (Schodde, 1969, 1970) and the Siparunaceae (Renner, 1999; Renner et al., 1998). The Monimiaceae s.s. seem more closely related to the Calycanthaceae and the Atherospermataceae and Siparunaceae to the Lauraceae, Hernandiaceae, and Gomortegaceae. For the Juan Fernandez--endemic Lactoris, the recognition of the Lactoridineae calls attention to its differences from the Piperineae, in which I had originally included it. I still do not accept the tendency of many botanists to recognize my suborders as distinct orders because I do not consider the gaps among them of ordinal significance.

b. Nymphaeanae and Rafflesianae

Although many botanists continue to relate the Nymphaeanae closely to the Magnolianae, the two superorders are quite chemically distinct (Thorne, 1981). The Nymphaeanae lack the characteristic benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of the Magnolianae and Ranunculanae but have sesquiterpene alkaloids, ellagitannins, and myricetin, all lacking from the Magnolianae.

The only changes in the Nymphaeanae are the recognition of two subfamilies in the Cabombaceae, Cabomboideae and Hydropeltoideae, and Nuphar as the Nupharoideae, as distinct from the Nymphaeoideae in the Nymphaeaceae (Les et al., 1999). Schneider and Carlquist (1995a, 1995b, 1996b, 1996d) and Schneider et al. (1995) discussed vessels and their origins in both the Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae and the multiple origins of vessels from tracheids in the angiosperms.

In the Rafflesianae the two genera of the Cytineae appear to be different enough from the rest of the Rafflesiaceae to warrant a family of their own in the Rafflesiales (Nickrent & Duff, cited in Meijer, 1997).

2. Ranunculidae

a. Ranunculanae

The Ranunculanae, elevated now to the Ranunculidae, include the monogeneric Ceratophyllales and Nelumbonales, digeneric Paeoniales, and the very large Ranunculales (formerly my Berberidales), including both the Ranunculineae and Papaverineae. I now treat Sargentodoxa, discovered as a fossil in Vermont (Tiffney, 1993), as a subfamily of Lardizabalaceae rather than as a distinct family (Hoot et al., 1995b). In the Berberidaceae, Mahonia is included in Berberis and the subfamily name Podophylloideae has priority over Epimedioideae. In the Ranunculaceae, the subfamily Coptidoideae (Johansson, 1995) is recognized and Kingdonia (Hu et al., 1990) is transferred as the Kingdonioideae to the Circaeasteraceae. In the Papaverineae the Japanese monotypic Pteridophyllum is accepted as an independent family Pteridophyllaceae (Liden, 1993b); Platystemonoideae are included in Papveroideae; and the Chelidonioideae are recognized (Blattner & Kadereit, 1995).

3. Caryophyllidae

a. Caryophyllanae

The Caryophyllanae have been reorganized and the Polygonales and Plumbaginales (Lledo et al., 1998) added to the superorder and to the subclass Caryophyllidae, both on the basis of morphology (Behnke, 1998) and cladistic analysis of rbcL sequence data. In the well-defined Caryophyllales, the suborder Achatocarpineae is erected for the rather distinct Achatocarpaceae. In the Cactaceae of the Cactineae, the subfamily Maihuenioideae (Leuenberger, 1997; R. Wallace et al., 1995) is recognized as distinct from the Pereskioideae (R. Wallace, 1994).

In the Phytolaccaceae of Phytolaccineae, as recommended by Nowicke (1994a) based on her pollen studies of the group, Agdestis, Barbeuia, and the Rivineae are treated as subfamilies rather than as distinct families. Sarcobatus is removed from the Chenopodiaceae and placed near Nyctaginaceae as the Sarcobataceae (Behnke, 1997; Downie et al., 1997). In the Aizoaceae the subfamily name Mesembryanthemoideae has priority over Aptenioideae.

In the Chenopodiineae, Microteoideae and Polycnemoideae are recognized as new subfamilies in the Chenopodiaceae (Kuhn, 1993) and Sarcobatus has been removed, as mentioned above. In the Caryophyllineae, now placed last in the superorder, the name Illecebroideae has priority over Paronychioideae and Minuartioideae over Alsinoideae (Reveal, pers. comm.).

4. Dilleniidae

a. Dillenianae

With the recognition of the huge subclass Dilleniidae, the names Dillenianae and Dilleniales must be used in preference to Theanae and Theales (Reveal, 1993a). The name Delimoideae has priority over Tetraceroideae in the Dilleniaceae of Dilleniineae. In Theineae, Physena as Physenaceae has been added (Morton et al., 1997a). The Caryocaraceae have been removed to Ochnineae on the basis of cladistic analysis of rbcL sequence data (Swensen & Chase, 1995), and Chrysobalanaceae to the Geraniales on embryological and other morphological data (Tobe & Raven, 1984; Tokuoka & Tobe, 1999). Icacinaceae and Cardiopteridaceae are returned from the Cornales as Icacinineae to join Aquifoliaceae, Phellinaceae, and Sphenostemonaceae, again on the basis of rbcL nuclear data analysis (Spichiger et al., 1993).

Also based on rbcL sequence data and morphological similarities, the Styracaceae, formerly treated in the Styracales (now Sapotales), appear to belong near Clethraceae in the Clethrineae (Morton et al., 1996b). The Ericineae are so closely related to the Clethrineae that some botanists prefer to include the latter in the former as the Ericales. However, both suborders lack ordinal gaps between them or among the other Dillenianae. In my Ericineae I have recognized several additional subfamilies--the Enkianthoideae, Arbutoideae, and Phyllodocoideae--and reduced the Empetraceae and Epacridaceae to subfamily status, leaving just the Ericaceae s.l. in the suborder (see Cullings & Hileman, 1997; Judd & Kron, 1993; Judd et al., 1998; Kron, 1996, 1997; Kron & Chase, 1993; Kron & King, 1996; Kron et al., 1998).

With removal of the Scytopetalaceae to subfamily status in the Lecythidaceae (Morton et al., l997b, 1998), the former Scytopetalineae need a new name, Ochnineae. Ancistrocladaceae and Dioncophyllaceae have been removed to the Nepenthineae (now receiving the prior name Ancistrocladineae) and Caryocaraceae added to the Ochnineae (Swensen & Chase, 1995). The Ancistrocladineae (Nepenthineae), with addition of Ancistrocladaceae, Dioncophyllaceae, and Droseraceae, seem to form a distinct clade with a series of unusual synapomorphies, including sclerenchyma bundles in petioles, actinocytic stomata, peltate hairs, introrse anthers, and the presence of dioncophylline (Albert & Stevenson, 1996).

The Hypericineae remain unaltered, except that the name Chrysopioideae has priority over Moronoboideae. Also, the monofamilial Lecythidineae remain in place, with a few changes. The name Barringtonioideae takes precedence over Planchonioideae, and the name Asteranthoideae gives way to Scytopetaloideae when the former Scytopetalaceae joins Asteranthos in that subfamily, another link between Africa and South America.

The Fouquieriales, Polemoniales, and Diapensiales are a series of monofamilial orders quite distinct from one another but probably related (L. Johnson et al., 1996; Porter & Johnson, 1998). When I removed the Fouquieriaceae from the Solananae to the Theanae, I should have removed the Polemoniaceae with them, for earlier I had detected resemblances between the two (Thorne, 1977). The relationship of the Diapensiaceae to these two families is a more recent discovery (Johnson et al., 1996; Porter & Johnson, 1998). I had previously considered it a member of the Saxifragales s.l.

The Sapotales (Ebenales) are somewhat reduced with the transfer of the Styracaceae to the Clethrineae of the Dillenales, resulting in the elimination of the subordinal names Ebenineae and Styracineae. Likewise, the removal of the Plumbaginaceae from the Primulales to the Caryophyllanae as the Plumbaginales leaves the Primulales somewhat diminished and results in the elimination of the subordinal names Primulineae and Plumbaginineae. The numerous morphological and chemical similarities between the Primulaceae and Plumbaginaceae apparently are convergences (Giannasi et al., 1992).

b. Malvanae

To indicate their closer relationship to the Dillenianae, the Malvanae have changed places with the Celastranae. Within the Malvales, the Malvineae have been much revised. The Bombacaceae have been reduced to subfamily status, as Bombacoideae, in the Malvaceae, and much of the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae have been absorbed within the Malvoideae (Alverson et al., 1998, 1999; Bayer et al., 1998a), based on ndhF, atpb, and rbcL sequence data combined with morphological and biogeographical data The bouncing-ball history of Fremontodendron and Cheiranthodendron gives strong evidence for the closeness of relationships among the various taxa now combined into the Malvaceae sensu latissimo. The stripped-down former Sterculiaceae, with the loss of Sterculioideae to Malvaceae but with Grewieae taken from the Tiliaceae, now must be called Byttneriaceae. The similarly depleted Tiliaceae have lost the Brownlowieae, Grewieae, and Muntingia. These two families and the suborder Sterculiineae are absorbed into the Malvineae, along with the Huaceae, but the Elaeocarpaceae go to the Violanae. Alverson et al. (1997) and Bayer et al. (1998b) transfer the Neuradaceae, formerly retained in the Rosales, on the basis of molecular, morphological, and chemical evidence, to the Malvales. Alverson et al. (1998) would also place the thymelaealean clade in their expanded Malvales. Although they are surely related to the Malvales, like the rest of the Euphorbiales, I prefer to retain the Gonystylaceae and Thymelaeaceae in the Euphorbiales as closer relatives of the Euphorbiaceae. Also, I cannot accept, on evidence from the rbcL chioroplast gene alone, that the Malvales, Capparales, and Sapindales belong to their highly polyphyletic Rosidae (Alverson et al., 1997).

The Violanae, Violales, on the other hand, have lost the Cistineae, which fit much better into the expanded Malvales (Fay et al., 1998; Nandi, 1998a, 1998b; Swensen & Chase, 1995). To my former Cistineae have been added Diegodendraceae (Fay & Chase, 1996; Fay et al., 1997a; Nandi, 1998a), Muntingiaceae (Bayer et al., 1998a), and Dipterocarpaceae and Sarcolaenaceae from the former Sterculiineae (Nandi, 1998b). With the discovery of a monotoid dipterocarp from Amazonian Colombia (Londono et al., 1995; Morton, 1995), there seems no reason to elevate the Monotaceae to full family status. Hence, I am returning to my treatment of the Monotoideae and Pakaraimoideae with Dipterocarpoideae in the Dipterocarpaceae. The phyletic gaps among these taxa are not of family size.

The Urticales, Euphorbiales, and Rhamnales are closely related to the Malvales and have needed little change. In the Urticales some cladists, such as Judd et al. (1994), would prefer to sink the Moraceae, Cannabaceae, and Cecropiaceae into the Urticaceae. I consider these taxa well defined and the gaps among them of family size. In fact, the evidence now seems adequate to divide the Ulmaceae into Ulmaceae s.s. and Celtidaceae (Giannasi, 1978; Takahashi, 1989; Wiegrefe et al., 1998; Zavada, 1983; Zavada & Kim, 1996).

The Euphorbiales require little change other than the reduction of the Pandoideae into the Acalyphoideae of the Euphorbiaceae (Nowicke et al., 1998) and the removal of the Drypeteae from Phyllanthoideae as Putranjivaceae to the Geraniales s.l., on the basis of sequence and embryological data (Chase et al., 1993; Rodman et al., 1993; Tokuoka & Tobe, 1999; Wurdack & Chase, 1996). Fay et al. (1998) state that the molecular tree places Thymelaeaceae in the Malvales. However, the relationship of the thymelaeads to the euphorbs is very close, particularly in regard to pollen (Nowicke, 1994b) and chemistry (Seigler, 1994). For example, the tigliane, daphnane, and ingenane diterpenoids are found only in Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaceae (Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983) and are derived from complicated pathways (Seigler, 1994).

Two monotypic families, Dirachmaceae and Barbeyaceae, that have long worried phylogenists now join the closely related Rhamnaceae and Elaeagnaceae. Molecular data from rbcL and trnL-F sequences (Sytsma et al., 1996a; Thulin et al., 1998), are backed by ovule and seed morphology (Boesewinkel & Bouman, 1997) and by the occurrence of Dirachma and Barbeya in the Horn of Africa region.

c. Celastranae

The true relationships of the Celastranae and Santalanae have long mystified me, although I have suspected a relationship to the Rhamnales. According to Seigler (1994), the Celastraceae and Rhamnaceae have peptide and maytansanoid alkaloids similar to those in several euphorbiaceous genera. These chemical similarities, in addition to various morphological ones, have caused me to move the Celastranae immediately after the Rhamnales of the Malvanae.

My Celastrales have been somewhat enlarged with the addition of the Brexiaceae, Parnassiaceae, and Lepuropetalaceae, on the basis of embryological, floral morphological, chemical, and molecular evidence (Koontz & Soltis, 1996; Morgan & Soltis, 1993; Tobe & Raven, 1993). Within the Celastraceae, the name Elaeodendroideae has priority over Cassinoideae and Hippocrateoideae, the latter not only not a distinct family Hippocrateaceae or subfamily but included in the Elaeodendroideae (Clevinger & Panero, 1998). According to Simmons and Hedin (1999), Plagiopteron, which I had treated as a family in the Malvales, is nested in the tribe Hippocrateae, and Siphonodon should be excluded from the Celastraceae s.s., here treated as Siphonodontaceae.

d. Santalanae and Balanophoranae

The parasitic Santalanae seem to have no close relatives (Kuijt, 1969; Nickrent, 1996), including the Balanophoranae and the Rafflesianae, near which Takhtajan (1997) places them. For want of a better position, I treat the Santalanae and Balanophoranae in this sequence near the Celastranae. Both superorders need much investigation, especially by molecular taxonomists, to determine their proper position in the Dicotyledoneae. Within the Santalales, the various parasitic families do share fairly close relationships, with the Olacaceae presumably the least specialized family (Kuijt, 1968, 1969, 1982, 1988).

There also seems no question about the close relationship among the subfamilies of the Balanophoraceae. In the other family of the Balanophorales, Cynomoriaceae, the peculiar red parasite Cynomorium, with only one or two species, is highly reduced but seems fairly close to the Balanophoraceae (Juel, 1910; Kuijt, 1969).

e. Violanae

The Violales have been changed somewhat, with the transfer of the Cistineae to the Malvales and the Caricaceae to the Capparales and with the addition of the Elaeocarpaceae (Takhtajan, 1997) as the Elaeocarpineae between the Violineae and Tamaricineae. Within the Violineae, the lacistemoids have been reduced back from family status to being accepted as the subfamily Lacistemoideae in the Flacourtiaceae (Chase et al., 1996). Several tribes--Erythrospermeae, Oncobeae, and Pangieae--have been split from the Flacourtiaceae as the related Kiggelariaceae, on the basis of sequence and morphological studies (Bernhard & Endress, 1998). Abatia has been returned to the Flacourtiaceae from the Passifloraceae (Bernhard, 1999). In the Begoniineae the subfamily name Nhandiroboideae has priority over Zanonioideae of the Cucurbitaceae.

f. Capparanae

The Capparales (my former Brassicales) have been much expanded to Dahlgrenian dimensions (Dahlgren, 1983), based primarily on possession of the mustard oil / myrosin cell syndrome, nucleotide sequences, and morphology (Rodman et al., 1993, 1996, 1998). With the exclusion of the unrelated Drypetes (usually placed in the Euphorbiaceae) this major clade of glucosinolate biosynthesizers seems to be monophyletic. Setchellanthus has been removed from the Capparaceae and recognized as the distinct family Setchellanthaceae (Carlquist & Miller, 1999; Iltis, 1999; Karol et al., 1999; Tobe et al., 1999; Tomb, 1999) and placed before the Capparaceae. Also, the monotypic Emblingia has been added to the Capparaceae as the Emblingioideae. From the Geraniales Limnanthaceae and Tropaeolaceae, from the Sapindineae of the Rutales Akaniaceae, Bretschneideraceae, and Moringaceae, and from the Violales the Caricaceae have been transferred to the Capparales.

g. Rutanae

The very large Rutanae, closely related to the Violanae and Geranianae, have suffered considerable changes. The basal Rutoideae, Rutaceae, have absorbed the Flindersioideae and Luvunga; and the subfamily name Limonioideae has priority over Citroideae. Added to the Simaroubaceae is the monotypic Leitneria, but removed from the family are Kirkia as Kirkiaceae and Picramnia and Alvaradoa as Picramnioideae and Alvaridoideae of Picramniaceae (Fernando & Quinn, 1995). Also transferred out of the Simaroubaceae are the Irvingioideae as Irvingiaceae to the Geraniales (Fernando et al., 1995). Added to the Rutineae from the Geraniaceae are the monogeneric Biebersteiniaceae (Bakker et al., 1998) and from the related Zygophyllaceae the also monogeneric Peganaceae and Nitrariaceae (Sheahan & Cutler, 1993; Sheahan & Chase, 1994). In the Anacardiaceae the subfamilies Anacardioideae, Spondioideae, and Dobineoideae are recognized (Takhtajan, 1997; Terrazas & Chase, 1996).

The Sapindineae has lost Stylobasium to the Surianaceae (Fernando et al., 1993) and Emblingia, Akania, Bretschneidera, and Moringa to the Capparales (Rodman et al., 1996). The Fabineae are little changed, except for the inclusion of the Swartzioideae as Swartzieae in the Faboideae and Recchia and Stylobasium in the Surianaceae (Crayn et al., 1995; Fernando et al., 1993).

h. Proteanae

Despite the suggestions of some molecular taxonomists (Sytsma & Baum, 1996) that the Proteaceae belong with the Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae, I have long been impressed with the morphological similarities of the Proteaceae to the Fabaceae, especially the monocarpic flowers and the follicle/legume fruit; hence my placement of this ancient family immediately following the Fabineae of the Rutales. Added to the subfamilies of the Proteaceae have been the monotypic Bellendenoideae (Weston, 1995) and Eiodotheoideae (Douglas & Hyland, 1995).

i. Geranianae

The Geraniales are much changed, with Linales and Rhizophorales included in the Geraniales and Irvingioideae transferred as Irvingiaceae from the Simaroubaceae to the order. The Zygophyllaceae are also transformed, with Augeoideae, Chitonioideae, and Neoluederitzioideae included in Zygophylloideae (Sheahan & Cutler, 1993), Peganoideae and Nitrarioideae transferred as Peganaceae and Nitrariaceae to the Rutales, as indicated above, and the monogeneric Balanitaceae included in Zygophyllaceae as Balanitoideae (Sarma & Rao, 1991). The Geraniaceae are severely pruned (Price & Palmer, 1993), with the loss of Biebersteinia to the Rutales, Dirachma to the Rhamnales, and the Vivianoideae and Ledocarpoideae to the closely related Ledocarpaceae, where they are joined by the Rhynchothecoideae. With the loss of all these subfamilies, the subfamily name Geranioideae is no longer relevant. Also from the Geraniales, the glucosinolate-containing Tropaeolaceae and Limnanthaceae are transferred to the Capparales (Carlquist & Do nald, 1996). Boesewinkel (1999) has found that the Australian endemic family Tremandraceae has ovule and seed characteristics that remove it from the Pittosporales and that show many resemblances to the Linaceae, Oxalidaceae, Crossostylis of the Rhizoporaceae, and Trigonia of the Geranianae.

The closely related Polygalales have suffered the loss only of the Vochysiaceae, which have proved to be rather closely related to the Myrtaceae of Myrtales, according to Conti et al. (1996, 1997), and the addition of the Euphroniaceae (Lift & Chase, 1999).

5. Rosidae

a. Rosanae

My Rosanae, basal in the Rosidae, continue to include the Hamamelidanae because of the lack of a supraordinal gap between the two groups (Nixon, 1989). A few changes have been made in the Hamamelidineae, with Liquidambaroideae removed from the Hamamelidaceae and elevated to family status as Altingiaceae (Li et al., 1997), intermediate between the Platanaceae and the Hamamelidaceae. Also, Disanthus is removed as Disanthoideae from the Exbucklandioideae and Rhodoleia added to it, causing the elimination of the subfamily name Rhodoleioideae (Li et al., 1997).

The Casuarinales, Balanopales, and Bruniales remain as before, but in the Juglandaceae, Juglandales, three subfamilies--Platycaryoideae, Engelhardioideae, and Juglandoideae--are recognized, on the basis of DNA restriction site variation and morphology (Smith & J. Doyle, 1995). The Betulales are reorganized, with two subfamilies, Quercoideae and Trigonobalanoideae, added to the Fagaceae (Takhtajan, 1997).

The Rosaceae of Rosales have been reorganized on the basis of rbcL sequence variation and karyology (Morgan et al., 1994), with removal of Quillaja to the Fabineae and Kageneckia to Pyroideae (with name priority over Maloideae) from the former Quillajoideae. Also, Vauquelinia and Lindleya are removed from Spiraeoideae to Pyroideae and Cercocarpus, Cowania, and Pursizia (x = 9), Dryas and Kerrieae from Rosoideae to Spiraeoideae. There is considerable controversy over the position of the Neuradaceae, but Alverson et al. (1997) place them in the Malvales on the basis of rbcL sequence data. The Anisophylleaceae, also dubious in their relationships, arc however, retained here. Both families might better be placed in taxa incertae sedis.

The Saxifragales s.s. have been pruned even more severely (Morgan & D. Soltis, 1993; Soltis & Soltis, 1997). The Crassulaceae have been reduced to two subfamilies (Ham & t'Hart, 1998), with the Cotyledonoideae included in the Sempervivoideae (with name priority over Sedoideae). The Cephalotaceae have been transferred to the Cunoniales; Eremosynaceae, Francoaceae, Greyiaceae, and Vahliaceae to the Hydrangeales near the Escalloniaceae; Pamassiaceae and Lepuropetalaceae with Brexia to the Celastrales; Donatiaceae and Stylidiaceae to the Campanulales; Droseraceae to the Ancistrocladineae of Dilleniales; and Diapensiaceae as Diapensiales near the Polemoniales and Fouquieriales. On the other hand, various families have been added to the Saxifragales: Aphanopetalaceae (Dickison et al., 1994), Iteaceae, Pterostemonaceae, and Haloragidaceae (Soltis & Soltis, 1997), and Alseuosmiaceae (Dickison, 1989d).

The Podostemales remain as before, but the Cunoniales have gained the Cephalotaceae from the Saxifragales (Morgan & D. Soltis, 1993; Soltis & Soltis, 1997). The American Brunellia has been removed as the independent family Brunelliaceae from the Cunoniaceae, whereas the east Australian Davidsonia has been treated as the subfamily Davidsonioideae in the largely Southern Hemisphere Cunoniaceae (Bradford, 1999).

b. Myrtanae

The very well defined Myrtales are little changed from the treatment by Dahlgren and Thome (1984), except for the addition of Vochysiaceae (Conti et al., 1996). Conti et al. (1997), on the basis of rbcL data, recognize two major clades--the Melastomatineae and sister Myrtineae clade; and the Lythrineae clade, including the Combretaceae and Onagraceae--with the expanded Lythraceae. In the newly recognized Melastomatineae the Memecylaceae are accepted as a family distinct from the Melastomataceae (Renner, 1993). In the Myrtineae the Vochysiaceae are treated as sister to the Myrtaceae (Conti et al., 1996, 1997). In the Lythraceae, Lythrineae, the Trapaceae are added as the subfamily Trapoideae (Conti et al., 1997). With the addition of the Onagraceae to the Lythrineae, the subordinal name Onagrineae is discarded.

6. Asteridae

a. Cornanae

The Cornanae are here treated as the basic superorder of the subclass Asteridae. The Hydrangeales and Cornales of the Cornanae have suffered many gains and losses. In the Hydrangeales the monotypic oriental Kirengeshoma is included in Philadelphoideae (D. Soltis et al., 1995). The enigmatic Loasaceae, which had been removed from the Violales to superordinal status Loasanae, between the Solananae and Myrtanae, have now found a home as sister to the Hydrangeaceae (Roels et al., 1997; D. Soltis et al., 1995), on the basis of floral ontogeny and rbcL sequence data.

The Escalloniaceae have lost Itea and Pterostemon to the Saxifragales and Phyllonoma to the Araliales (Morgan & D. Soltis, 1993). Also lost from the Hydrangeales are Griselinia to the Araliales, Alseuosmiaceae to the Saxifragales, and Brexia to the Celastrales (Ixerba and Roussea have found a home in the Escallonioideae). However, as indicated above, the Eremosynaceae, Francoaceae, Greyiaceae, and Vahliaceae have been transferred from the Saxifragales to the Hydrangeales.

The Cornales have lost the Haloragidaceae to the Saxifragales (with the consequent elimination of the subordinal name Haloragineae), the monogeneric Garryaceae, Aucubaceae, Aralidiaceae, and Eucommiaceae to the Araliales (Noshiro & Baas, 1998; Qiu et al., 1998), and Icacinaceae and Cardiopteridaceae back to the Dillenianae (Theanae). Also, the Cornaceae are trimmed further with the removal of Davidioideae, Nyssoideae, and Mastixioideae to the separate but closely related family Nyssaceae (Chao, 1954; Hohn & Meinschein, 1976).

b. Aralianae

Because the Cornanae and Aralianae are rather closely related (that is, have relatively recent common ancestry), the transfer of Phyllonoma, Griselinia, Garrya, Aucuba, and Eucommia from the Cornanae to the Araliales to join Heiwingia, Torricellia, and Aralidium as monogeneric families in the Araliales is not too surprising. Somewhat more striking is the transfer of many Hydrocotyloideae, including the type genus Hydrocotyle, to the Araliaceae from the Apiaceae (Plunkett et al., 1996a, 1996b, 1997). The largely Australasian Pittosporales remain the sister order to the Araliales but, as noted above, have been pruned of the Tremandraceae, removed to the Geraniales s.l. (Boesewinkel, 1999). The also closely related Dipsacales are little changed. In the Adoxaceae the subfamily name Opuloideae has name priority aver Viburnoideae, and Triplostegia is reduced from family status to subfamily Triplostegioideae in Valerianaceae (Backlund, 1996; Backlund & Bremer, 1997, 1998; Backlund & Nilsson, 1997).

c. Asteranae

The sister orders Campanulales and Asterales have changed positions, and the Menyanthaceae and Goodeniaceae have been moved from Campanulales to Asterales (Downie & Palmer, 1992). The Chilean Cyphocarpoideae and North American Nemacladoideae are recognized as distinct from the Lobelioideae in the Campanulaceae (Haberle & Ayers, 1997; Thulin, 1978). Transferred from the Saxifragales are the Donatiaceae and Stylidiaceae (Erbar, 1992; Rapson, 1953). The monotypic Brunonia was inadvertently omitted from my 1992 treatment but is here reinstated as the Brunonioideae of the Goodeniaceae (Carolin, 1978).

Because the Asteraceae are such a large family and the many tribes so much larger than most subfamilies of other dicotyledonous families, I continue to include them in my treatment of this family. The relatively primitive Barnadesieae, with close relationships to the similarly South American Calyceraceae (Pesacreta & Stuessy, 1996; Pesacreta et al., 1994; Stuessy et al., 1994; Zhaoi et al., 1998), deserve subfamily ranking as Barnadesioideae (K. Bremer & Jansen, 1992). For the second subfamily the name Carduoideae has priority over Lactucoideae, and the tribal name Cichorieae similarly is prior to Lactuceae. The tribe Eremothamneae (Karis, 1992; Robinson, 1992) has been recognized in the Carduoideae. And in the Asteroideae the tribes Gnaphalieae (Anderberg, 1991) and Plucheae and Helenieae (K. Bremer) are recognized.

7. Lamiidae

a. Solananae

The Lamiidae consist of the Solanineae and Boraginineae of the Solananae and the Rubiales and Lamiales of the Lamianae. The Solananae have lost the Polemoniineae with the transfer of the Polemoniales to the Dillenianae near the Fouquieriales (L. A. Johnson et al., 1996; Porter & L. A. Johnson, 1998). However, the Solanaceae have been expanded with the absorption of Nolana into the Solanoideae and the addition as subfamilies of the Goetzeoideae and Duckeodendroideae (Hunziker, 1979; Olmstead & Palmer, 1992; Santiago & Olmstead, 1996). The subfamilial name Browallioideae has priority over the name Cestroideae. The superorder name Loasanae has been deleted with the move of the Loasaceae to the Cornanae near the Hydrangeaceae (Roels et al., 1997; D. E. Soltis et al., 1995).

The Hydrophyllaceae, Boraginineae, have been relieved of Codon and Hydrolea (Constance, 1963; D. M. Ferguson, 1999). The South African enigmatic genus Codon is moved to taxa incertae sedis to await further study, and Hydrolea is treated as the largely aquatic Hydroleaceae adjacent to the Hydrophyllaceae. The rest of the Boraginineae remain unchanged except for the transfer of Tetrachondraceae (Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997) to the Lamiales.

b. Lamianae

The huge superorder Lamianae, which has name priority over Gentiananae, has undergone much modification. The Rubiales, which is a prior name to Gentianales, have seen the necessary disintegration of the polyphyletic Loganiaceae, with recognition of the related Gelsemiaceae, Strychnaceae, and Geniostomaceae (Struwe et al., 1995), transfer of the Potalioideae to the Gentianaceae (S. R. Jensen, 1992; Struwe & Albert, 1996), and removal of Plocosperma to the Lamiales (S. R. Jensen, 1992; M. B. Endress et al., 1996).

In the Rubiaceae the Antirrheoideae are included in the Cinchonoideae (B. Bremer et al., 1995). The subfamily Rauvolfioideae has name priority over Plumerioideae in the Apocynaceae/Asclepiadaceae. As indicated above, the Potalioideae are transferred from the Loganiaceae to the Gentianaceae, requiring the recognition of Gentianoideae. The saccate-leaved Saccifolium of the tropical Guayana Highlands is subsumed within the Gentianoideae as sister to Andean Gentiana species (Struwe et al., 1998) based on trnL intron sequences.

My division of the Lamiales, with name priority over Scrophulariales, into Scrophulariineae and Lamiineae, admittedly very closely related, has not held up to molecular scrutiny (Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997) and is eliminated here. In the Lamiales Tetrachondra, Tetrachondraceae (Skottsberg, 1912) has been gained from the Boraginineae (Oxelman et al., 1999) and Plocosperma, Plocospermataceae, from the Rubiales, as indicated above. Although I have not been able to accept treatment of Polypremum as a member of Tetrachondraceae (Oxelman et al., 1999), the two groups may well be related.

The highly polyphyletic Scrophulariaceae have been disintegrated on the basis of rbcL, ndhF, and rps2 chloroplast gene sequences (Olmstead & Reeves, 1995; Olmstead et al., 1998) into five families in several clades: Scrophulariaceae s.s., Veronicaceae, Paulowniaceae (Vujicic et al., 1993), Orobanchaceae (with name priority over Rhinanthaceae), and Schlegeliaceae (Armstrong, 1985). Closely related to the Veronicaceae are the Globulariaceae, Plantaginaceae, Hippuridaceae, and Callitrichaceae (Oxelman et al., 1999). Less close are the Verbenaceae, Acanthaceae, and Gesneriaceae. In the Gesneriaceae, the subfamily name Didymocarpoideae has priority over the name Cyrtandroideae. The Buddlejaceae, on the other hand, are subsumed under the Scrophulariaceae s.s., according to Oxelman et al. (1999), with the exception of Androya, which is transferred to the Myoporaceae, and Nuxia, which is transferred to the Stilbaceae. Nuxia seems best treated as a subfamily Nuxioideae with Retzioideae and Stilboideae in the Stilbace ae. Apparently related to the Scrophulariaceae s.s. are the Phrymaceae and Stilbaceae.

Wagstaff and Olmstead (1997) found that Petrea, Petreaceae (Petreae of former Verbenaceae), is sister to the Bignoniaceae and Cyclocheilon, Cyclocheilaceae (separated from the Nesogenaceae) (Marais, 1981). The Cyclocheilaceae are sister to the Lentibulariaceae. Also clustered with the Bignoniaceae are the Martyniaceae, Paulowniaceae, Schlegeliaceae, Myoporaceae, and Pedaliaceae (Oxelman et al., 1999). Trapella seems distinct enough from Pedaliaceae to warrant treatment as a monogeneric family (Takhtajan, 1997).

In the former Lamiineae, the Symphoremataceae are reduced to subfamily status, Symphorematoideae, in the Lamiaceae (Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997), and the Nesogenaceae are stripped of Asepalum and Cyclocheilon, which are placed in Cyclocheilaceae, as mentioned above. In the Lamiaceae the Teucrioideae are now subsumed under the Ajugoideae (Wagstaff et al., 1998).

The Taxa Incertae Sedis are a temporary holding area for taxa that cannot be reasonably placed in this system of classification. They are listed here to bring attention to them in hopes that they will soon receive adequate attention to allow them to be properly placed.

B. EXPLANATION OF THE SYNOPSIS AND PHYLETIC SHRUB

1. Philosophy of Classification

In the following synopsis of my classification of the dicotyledons I have continued to carry the hierarchy of the subclasses down to the subfamily level where appropriate and to the tribe in the Asteraceae. Subfamilies are important, for they display intrafamilial divergence as well as their common recent ancestry with other subfamilies in the same family. In the huge family Asteraceae the tribes, many of them larger than most dicot families, are equally important for the same reasons.

Despite my somewhat narrowed family and ordinal gap concept, I still prefer not to multiply taxa unnecessarily where common recent ancestry seems evident. Thus I would rather not break up such well-defined, if very large, families as the Papaveraceae, Rafflesiaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Ericaceae, Capparaceae, Fabaceae, and Campanulaceae, whose subfamilies are closely tied by their characteristics and by intermediate taxa. Similarly, I have seen no need to break up such large natural orders as the Magnoliales, Dilleniales (Theales), Rutales, Geraniales, Bruniales, and Rubiales (Gentianales). In each case, the gaps among their constituent families are not of ordinal size in my philosophy of classification.

Anyone interested in my philosophy of classification can find it outlined in my Evolutionary Biology article (Thorne, 1976) and earlier publications (Thorne, 1958, 1963, 1975). It has not changed greatly over the years, although I have, as already mentioned, seen fit to narrow somewhat my ordinal and family gap concepts, leading to my acceptance of somewhat more narrowly defined orders and families.

I have not attempted here to give my reasons for the circumscriptions and alignments accepted in this classification. However, in the synopsis I have listed for each taxon the authors of those revisions, monographs, and molecular and other studies that have been most instructive in my efforts to define each group and to work out its probable relationships, its number of genera and species, and its distribution. As a result, the bibliography for the dicotyledons is rather extensive.

2. Phylogenetic Shrub

Figure 1 is an attempt to present visually the relationships of the angiosperm subclasses, superorders, orders, and suborders, arising as a phyletic shrub from their extinct protoangio-sperm ancestors. Broken lines separate the subclasses. The positions of the superordinal stem cross-sections of the angiosperm phyletic shrub indicate as closely as possible my interpretation of their interrelationships and their relative degree of specialization from their more archaic, presumably dicotyledonous, ancestors. Those nearest the center of the diagram are the least specialized; those farthest from the center, the most specialized. The size of the superordinal balloons and the contained orders and suborders indicate approximately the number of species accepted for each major taxon, although the size of some of the smallest superorders has been exaggerated to make them more visible. Within the superordinal balloons the orders are shown as entire ellipses; the suborders, as connected branches.

This phyletic shrub replaces the angiospermous phyletic shrub published in my earlier Botanical Review classification (Thorne, 1992). This diagram was drawn and lettered by Marianne Wallace of Monrovia, California. Any errors are my own, and any divergences from my classification are due to the voluminous publications rapidly expanding our knowledge of the Dicotyledoneae.

3. Nomenclature

Names used for the various taxa in the synopsis are according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code) (Greuter et al., 1994), although I have extended the principle of priority to all categories up to the class. Professor James Reveal has kept me informed in matters of priority for the names used here. His University of Maryland Web site, [less than]http://www.inform.umd.edu/PBIO/fam/thorneangiosp99.html[greater than], contains the updated synopsis of my classification of the Angiospermae, along with the authorities and dates of publication and validly published synonyms. Here synonyms or additional included or excluded taxa are listed usually only where names or treatment of taxa deviate considerably from those in current use. Subfamilial treatment is based largely upon those authorities that I regard as best informed and phylogenetically most realistic in their classification.

4. Symbols and Numbers

Because the reader deserves some indication of the degree of confidence I place in the alignment used, hierarchical level assigned, circumscription accepted, or all of these, I have used in the synopsis for each category above the subfamily a simple A, B, C scale to indicate degree of confidence. A, as used with Ceratophyllales, Chrysobalanaceae, Balanophoranae, Rhabdodendraceae, and so forth, represents limited confidence in the position of all four taxa. Any less confidence would condemn a taxon to taxa incertae sedis. B, as used in Chloranthineac, Paeoniales, Pteridophyllaceae, and so forth, suggests that there is some evidence that the alignment, hierarchical ranking, and circumscription are probably correct. C, used generally throughout the synopsis, implies considerable confidence that accumulated data have allowed a realistic placement and circumscription.

The numerals following most of the taxa listed are the number of genera and species (8/72 indicating 8 genera and 72 species) accepted for that taxon. Many were taken from the treatments in volume 2 of The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, edited by K. Kubitzki et al. (1998). Some were taken from the second edition of Mabberley's The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants (1997) or from recent reliable monographs and revisions. For the higher categories, the larger numbers of species have been rounded off to the nearest five or ten to avoid spurious exactitude. Where a family or subfamily has fewer than four or five genera recognized, the genera are usually listed.

5. Distribution of Taxa

For each family and subfamily in the synopsis the known distribution is listed, mostly in greatly abbreviated form, for the more widespread taxa. The abbreviations used are explained in Table V. The distributional information has been gleaned from herbaria and recent revisions, monographs, floras, plant geographical studies, and notes on range extensions too numerous to list here.

For both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres I have attempted to list the northernmost and southernmost limits of most ranges, preceded usually by a short dash (-), as N(-Green), indicating occurrence north to Greenland in North America, and Au(-Tas), indicating occurrence south in Australia to Tasmania. Lack of a short dash, as At(Ber, Mad), proclaims that the taxon is reported only from Bermuda and Madeira of the Atlantic islands. Presence of a short dash, as Me(-Fiji), states that the taxon is known to reach eastward in Malesia at least to the Fiji Islands; P(-Marq), that the taxon is known to reach eastward in the Pacific to the Marquesas Islands; or P(-Bon, Gal), that the taxon is known in the Pacific only eastward to the Bonin Islands and westward to the Galapagos Islands. The entire distributional pattern for each taxon should clarify the abbreviated listing. The geographical abbreviations n, ne, s, sw, e, w, c, and so forth should, of course, be interpreted as north, northeast, south, southwest, east , west, central, and so forth. Geographical abbreviations do not have an initial capital unless they are part of the country, state, or provincial name.

6. Arrangement of Taxa in the Synopsis

Each superorder in the synopsis is merely one line of evolution within the numerous-stemmed, many-branched complex phylogenetic shrub. A phylogenetic tree, given our still limited paleobotanical record, is not realistic. A phylogenetic "hedge," despite its double-entendre appeal, is also not realistic, because I do believe in the monophyletic origin of the Angiospermae, as well as most of the lesser-ranked taxa. One hopes that most of the polyphyletic groupings have been removed from the classification, but surely some remain to be eliminated.

As each superorder, order, or suborder terminates, the classification drops back down the evolutionary ladder to the beginning of the next major line of ascent. By placement in the synopsis I have tried to indicate closeness of relationship and increasing specialization. A linear sequence cannot, however, approximate the probable branchings nor indicate the numerous interrelationships among the subclasses, superorders, and lesser taxa.

A count and recount of all the dicotyledonous taxa included in the synopsis gave the following results: 7 subclasses, 22 superorders, 49 orders, 48 suborders, 376 families, 307 subfamilies, 586 subfamilies and undivided families, 10,900 genera, and 199,500 species. These numbers are subject to rather rapid change (Donoghue & Alverson, 2000; Ertter, 2000; Shevock & Taylor, 1987). For example, in the 20-year period from 1975 through 1994, 5 new genera and 559 species were described from the relatively well botanized North America north of Mexico and the West Indies (Hartman & Nelson, 1998). The yearly average for the continent so circumscribed (including Greenland) was 30.2 species. In the last two decades one botanist, Arnold Tiehm, alone has discovered 19 new angiosperm species in Nevada My latest count for all named and accepted angiosperm species is about 257,400, but probably about 50,000 species remain undiscovered and unnamed, mostly in the Tropics. Also, new monographs and other revisions tend to place many species and some genera and larger categories into synonymy, thus lowering the numbers.

C. DISCUSSION OF TABLES

To make more readily available the large amount of data accumulated in developing this synopsis, I have summarized it in four tables. Table I presents a statistical summary of the various angiosperm taxa in the 10 subclasses: species, genera, subfamilies, families, suborders, orders, and superorders. The best estimate I could obtain for number of species in the angiosperms was approximately 257,400, give or take a few thousand, with the dicots about three and a half times more numerous than the monocots. In genera the monocots are slightly less than one-quarter of the approximately 13,678 angiosperm genera, and in families they are about one-quarter of the 490 that I currently accept as valid. Because some of my fellow generalists, especially Armen Takhtajan, accept many of my subfamilies as valid families, I have chosen to use subfamilies and undivided families as the most significant units. Thus the Angiospermae consist of 756 subfamilies and undivided families or 490 families and 266 additional subfamilie s; that is, subfamilies other than the typical subfamilies.

For those who consider me too conservative in my recognition of families, I have counted the oligogeneric and oligotypic families listed in the synopsis: 164 of the former and 254 of the latter. Evolution and heavy extinction over perhaps 130 million years of angiosperm history may account for the large numbers of monotypic families and subfamilies: 50 of the former and 37 of the latter, for a total of 87. Although such extinctions have broken up the near phylogenetic continuum, at least they have made it possible to develop our classifications, largely based upon phyletic gaps.

Table II, also drawn from the synopsis, summarizes the distribution around the world in the major regions of those families and additional subfamilies believed to be indigenous in each. They are listed in order of their phylogenetic richness. Asia, even excluding Malesia, is by for the richest region phyletically, partly because of its latitudinal width from the Arctic nearly to the equator, partly because it is the crossroads between Africa, Europe, and the Americas and partly because of its easy access to Australasia through immediately adjacent Malesia. Also, because its varied topography preserved many taxa extinguished elsewhere by multiple glaciations and other climatic catastrophes, Asia is essentially a living museum for its biota (Thorne, 1999b).

It is also significant that the sometime insular continent of South America is second richest in families and subfamilies because of it latitudinal stretch from the Antarctic to north of the equator, its varied topography from the low-elevation equatorial rain forests along the Amazon to the snowfields of the highest Andes, and its relatively recent junction with North America through the Panamanian Isthmus and earlier contacts with that continent via Antil-lean and Central American island stepping-stones. Former connections with Africa before the origin of the South Atlantic and with Australasia via Antarctica are certainly also involved in its floristic richness. The relative floristic paucity of the larger continent of Africa must be due to extinctions caused by climatic catastrophes (Raven & Axelrod, 1974), as well as to the earlier tectonic loss of India, Madagascar, and Arabia.

The surprising floristic richness of Central America, here including Mexico, and Malesia must be due to their critical intercontinental and tropical positions and varied topography. That of Australia and the large continental islands of Madagascar and New Caledonia must, on the other hand, be due to their long isolation following the Mesozoic separation of Australia and Madagascar from Africa and New Caledonia from Australia. Later separation of Australia from Antarctica and South America came early in the Tertiary. The floristic poverty of oceanic islands surely is due to isolation from large continental masses, small size, and relative recentness of volcanic origin.

More or less consistent with the relative floristic richness of these regions is the relative degree of familial and subfamilial endemism recorded in Table III. Here, however, other than Asia the rather isolated continents of Africa and South America surpass the other areas in endemism. African endemism seems even more striking if we add those taxa endemic to Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands and four families shared only between Africa and Madagascar--a total of 52 families and additional subfamilies. Even larger figures would ensue for South America if we added those 15 essentially South American families and 21 additional subfamilies that have invaded the West Indies, often north to southern Florida, and Central America north to Panama, Costa Rica, or even southern Mexico. Adding the 11 essentially South American families barely represented across the South Atlantic in Africa could enhance that total of 68 further. It appears that South America and adjacent tropical regions to the north are the riche st repository on earth for major angiosperm taxa restricted completely or largely to one continent.

Table IV summarizes the world distribution of angiosperm families and subfamilies. The largest number of major angiospermous taxa, 254, belong to the subcosmoplitan, pantropical, and those missing from only one continent. Next are the narrower disjuncts between continents and/or oceanic regions: 289 taxa. Finally, those major taxa restricted to one continent or archipelago number 206, to total, with the preceding numbers and the 6 largely Southern Hemisphere taxa, 755 subfamilies and undivided families.

Table V supplies the abbreviations for the geographical areas listed in the following synopsis.

IV. Classification of the Class Angiospermae (Dicot Subclasses)

GENERAL REFERENCES

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Friis et al., 1987, 1991, 1999; Fryns-Clacssens & Cotthem, 1973; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Giannasi, 1988; Gibbs, 1945, 1954; Gornall et al., 1979; Gottlieb et al., 1993a, 1993b; Grant, 1950b; Gregory & Baas, 1989; Greuter et al., 1994; Gunn & Ritchie, 1988; Hallier, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1911, 1912, 1923; Harborne, 1966, 1969, 1988; Harborne & Turner, 1984; Harland et al., 1982; Hart, 1988; Hartley & Harris, 1981; Hawkes, 1968; Hedberg, 1979; Hegnauer, 1959, 1960, 1962-1992, 1966, 1969, 1971, 1977, 1978a, 1988; Hennig et al., 1994; Heywood et al., 1978; Hickey, 1973, 1979; Hickey & Taylor, 1996; Hickey & Wolfe, 1976; Hilu et al., 2000; Hoogland & Reveal, 1993; Hoot et al., 1999; Huber, 1990; Hufford, 1990, 1992; Hummel & Staesche, 1962; Humphries & Chappell, 1988; Humphries & Richardson, 1980; Hutchinson, 1973; Inamdar et al., 1986a; Isely, 1986; Iwatsuki & Raven, 1997; Jansen et al., 1998; S. R. Jensen, 1992; S. R. Jensen et al., 1975; U. Jensen, 1991; U. 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Smith, 1972; D. Soltis et al., 1997, 2000; P. Soltis et al., 1999; Soo, 1967; Spichiger & Savolainen, 1997; Spjut, 1994; Sporne, 1956, 1977; Stebbins, 1950, 1951, 1974; Stevens & Martin, 1978; Stewart, 1993; Swamy & Periasamy, 1964; Swensen, 1996; Symon, 1980; Sytsma & Baum, 1996; Takhtajan, 1974, 1986, 1991, 1997; Tamamshyan, 1951; D. Taylor, 1990 , 1991; D. Taylor & Hickey, 1996; D. Taylor & Kirchner, 1996; Teichman & van Wyk, 1991; Theisen & Barthlott, 1994; Thorne, 1958, 1963, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978a, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1989a, 1992a, 1992b, 1996a, 1996b, 1998, 1999a, 1999b, 2000; Tiffney, 1985; Tomlinson, 1986, 1995; Upchurch & Wolfe, 1993; Van Boskirk, 1997; Vincent et al., 1996; E. F. Vogel, 1980; Wagenitz, 1975, 1992, 1997; Walker, 1976b; Walker & Doyle, 1976; Walker & Walker, 1984; Werker, 1997; Wettstein, 1935; Willaman & Schubert, 1961; J. A. Wolfe et al., 1976; Wood, 1974; Wunderlich, 1959, 1967; D. Young, 1981; D. Young & Seigler, 1981; J. Young & C. Young, 1992; Zomlefer, 1994.

In the following synopsis of the Dicotyledons, the hierarchy consists in descending order of subclasses (-idae), superorders (-anae), orders (-ales), suborders (-ineae), families (-aceae), subfamilies (-oideae), and tribes (-eae). An example in the dicotyledons is:

Subclass: Ranunculidae

Superorder: Ranunculanae

Order: Ranunculales

Suborder: Ranunculineae

Family: Ranunculaceae

Subfamily: Ranunculoideae

Tribe: -eae (only used in Asteraceae)

This example is presented to eliminate the need to list in every case the hierarchical ranks preceding the respective taxa. The names of all hierarchical ranks are based on the principle of priority. The numerals in parentheses as (8/72) indicate 8 genera, 72 species.

Magnoliidae (C; 307/9,100) (Igersheim & Endress, 1998)

Magnolianae (Annonanae) (C; 289/8,960) (Behnke, 1971, 1988a; Canright, 1963; Crepet & Nixon, 1994, 1998b; Endress, 1990, 1994a; Endress & Hufford, 1989; Fairbrothers & Petersen, 1983; Friis et al., 1991, 1995; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Giannasi, 1988; Gottlieb et al., 1989; U. Jensen & Greven, 1984; Kubitzki et al., 1993; Loconte & Stevenson, 1991; Phillipson et al., 1985; Qiu et al., 1993, Raven et al., 1971; Rezende et al., 1975; Seigler, 1977; Soltis et al., 1997; Thorne, 1974c; Walker, 1976a, 1976b; West, 1969)

Magnoliales (incl. Annonales, Laurales, Piperales, etc.) (C; 289/8,960) (Baranova, 1972; Behnke & Barthlott, 1983; Corner, 1976; Crepet & Nixon, 1994, 1998b; Ehrlich & Raven, 1964; Gershenzon & Maby, 1983; Hegnauer, 1978a; Hennig et al., 1994; McLaughlin, 1933; Metcalfe, 1987; Morawetz, 1986a; Nishida, 1985; Seigler, 1977; Swamy & Periasamy, 1964; Thorne, 1978b; Whitaker, 1933; Wood, 1958)

Winterineae (C; 14/105) (Igersheim & Endress, 1997)

Winteraceae (C; 8/90) TropMont--cool temp Au(nQld--Tas) C(--Mex) G nMa Me (Phil--Sol) P(Fern) S(--Fuegia) Z (Bailey, 1944; Bailey & Nast, 1943--1945a; Behnke, 1988a; Behnke & Kiritsis, 1983; Carlquist, 1983a, 1983b, 1989a; Coetzee & Praglowski, 1988; Doyle et al., 1990; Igersheim & Endress, 1997; Nast, 1944; Smith, 1943a, 1943b, 1945; Straka, 1963; Suh et al., 1993; Svoma, 1998; Thorne, 1978b; Vink, 1993; Walker et al., 1983)

Canellaceae (C; 6/16) Trop Mex, sFla & WInd--seBraz; eAf; Ma (Kubitzki, 1993c; Parameswaran, 1962; Wilson, 1960, 1965)

Illiciineae (C; 3/90) (Bailey & Nast, 1948; Behnke, 1988a; Hennig et al., 1994; Igersheim & Endress, 1997)

Illiciaceae (C; 1/42) (Illicium) TropMont--temp se, eAs--Born, Phil; seUSA; eMex; WInd (Carlquist, 1982a; Keng, 1993a; Liu & Yang, 1989; Saunders, 1997; Smith, 1947; Stone & Freeman, 1968; Tiffney & Barghoorn, 1979)

Schisandraceae (C; 2/49) (Kadsura, Schisandra) TropMont--temp se, eAs--Born, Phil; seUSA (Carlquist, 1999b; Kapil & Jalan, 1964; Keng, 1993b; Manchester, 1994a, 1994c; Saunders, 1997; Smith, 1947; Stone, 1968)

Chloranthineae (B; 7/85)

Amborellaceae (C; 1/1) (Amborella) TropMont NCal (Bailey, 1957; Bailey & Swamy, 1948; Borsch et al., 2000; Okada, 1995; Philipson, 1993a; Sampson, 1993)

Chloranthaceae (C; 4/75) TropMont--warm temp e, seAs--Fiji, NCal; Marq; Ma; sMex & WInd--Par (Balthazar & Endress, 1999; Carlquist, 1987e, 1990d, 1992d, 1992e; J. Chapman, 1987; Crane, 1989a; Eklund et al., 1997; Endress, 1987; E. Friis et al., 1986; Herendeen et al., 1993; Kuprianova, 1967; Money et al., 1950; Okada, 1995; Swamy, 1953a; Takahashi & Tamura, 1990; Todzia, 1993a; Verdcourt, 1986; Vijayaraghavan, 1964)

Trimeniaceae (C; 1/6) (Trimenia, incl. Piptocalyx) TropMont eAu G Me(Sul--Fiji) P(--Sam, Marq) (Carlquist, 1984g; Endress & Sampson, 1983; Goldblatt, 1979b; Morat & McKee, 1977; Okada, 1995; Philipson, 1986b, 1993d; Rodenburg, 1971; Sampson, 1987; Sampson & Endress, 1984; Swamy, 1953a; Wagner & Lorence, 1999)

Austrobaileyaceae (C; 1/1) (Austrobaileya) TropMont neQld (Bailey & Swamy, 1949; Baranova, 1992a; Behnke, 1986b, 1988a; Endress, 1980b, 1993a; Igersheim & Endress, 1997; Morawetz, 1986b, 1988; Rudenberg, 1967; Thorne, 1983)

Magnoliineae (Annonineae) (C; 163/3,255) (Behnke, 1988a, 1991a; Endress, 1977; Igersheim & Endress, 1997; Morawetz, 1988)

Magnoliaceae (C; 7/182) TropMont--temp se, eAs--NGu; Mex--seBraz, Bol; Ver & SOnt--WInd (Baranova, 1972; Canright, 1952-1960; Delevoryas & Mickle, 1995; Johnson & Fairbrothers, 1965; Nee, 1994; Nooteboom, 1986, 1993; Spongberg, 1976)

Magnolioideae (6/180) TrapMont--temp se, eAs--NGu; Mex-seBraz & Peru; Mass & sOnt--WInd

Liriodendroideae (1/2) (Liriodendron) Temp eAs; Ver & Michigan--Fla & La (Bouman, 1977; Morawetz, 1981)

Degeneriaceae (C; 1/2) (Degeneria) Trap Fiji Is (Bailey & Smith, 1942; Carlquist, 1989c; Dahl & Rowley, 1965; Kubitzki, 1993f; J. M. Miller, 1988, 1989; Swamy, 1949a)

Himantandraceae (C; 1/2) (Galbulimima) TrapMont Mal--Bis; neQld (Bailey et al., 1943; Endress, 1977, 1993f; Morawetz, 1988; Prakash et al., 1984; van Royen, 1962; Sauer & Ehrendorfer, 1970)

Eupomatiaceae (C; 1/2) (Eupomatia) TrapMont--temp eAu--NGu (Bergstrom et al., 1991; Carlquist, 1992f; Endress, 1977, 1993c; Hotchkiss, 1958; Morawetz, 1988; Woodland & Garlick, 1982; Woodland & Prakash, 1993)

Annonaceae (C; 128/2,300) Trap--warm temp Af(--CapeP) seAs nAu C(--Mex) I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) eN(NY, Ont--Fla, Neb) P(--Soc, Gal) S(--Urug) WInd (Deroin, 1997; Doyle & LeThomas, 1996a, 1996b; Hesse et al., 1985; Heusden, 1992; Kessler, 1993a; Koek-Noorman et al., 1997; Leins & Erbar, 1996; LeThomas, 1980; LeThomas et al., 1994; Morawetz, 1986a, 1988; Samuelsson, 1914; Setten & Koek-Noorman, 1992; Walker, 1971, 1972a, 1973b; van de Wyk & Canright, 1956)

Aristolochiaceae (C; 7/400) Trap--temp Af(--Zim) As At(Mac) Au(neQld) C E G Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Sam, Rev) S(--Chile) WInd (Cariquist, 1993a; Erbar, 1988; Erbar & Leins, 1994; Gonzalez, 1997; Hegnauer, 1988, 1989; Hou, 1984; Huber, 1985, 1993; Kelly, 1997a; Morawetz, 1985; Nair & Narayanan, 1962; Neinhuis et al., 2000; Samuelsson, 1914)

Asaroideae (2/71) (Asarum, incl. Hexastylis; Saruma) Temp Euras; Que & BrC--Fla & La (Dickison, 1992; Kelly, 1997b; Leins & Erbar, 1995; Tucker & Dauglas, 1996)

Aristolochioideae (5/330) Trop--temp Af(--Zim) As At(Mac) Au(neQld) C E G Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--NE, Cal) P(--Sam, Rev) S(--Chile) WInd

Myristicaceae (C; 18/370) Trop Af seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) Ma Me(--Fiji) P (--Car, Tonga) S(--seBraz, Bol) WInd (Behnke, 1991c; Garratt, 1933a, 1933b; Joshi, 1946; Kuhn & Kubitzki, 1993; Wilson & Maculans, 1967)

Laurineae (C; 92/3,405) (Behnke, 1988a; Endress, 1972; Endress & Igersheim, 1997b; Morawetz, 1986b, 1988; Renner, 1998b)

Calycanthaceae (C; 4/8) Trap--temp eAs; neQld; Cal; eUSA (Grant, 1950a; Kubitzki, 1993b; Nicely, 1965)

Idiospermoideae (1/1) (Idiospermum) Trap neQld (Ablett et al., 1997; Blake, 1972; Foreman, 1987; Sterner & Young, 1980; Thorne, 1974; Wilson, 1976, 1979)

Calycanthoideae (3/7) (Calycanthus, Chimonanthus, Sinocalycanthus) Temp eAs; Cal; Penn & Ohio--Fla & Miss (Grant, 1950a; Nicely, 1965)

Monimiaceae (C; 23/165) Trap--warm temp Af(CapeP) seAs eAu(neQld) C G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Endress, 1992; Garratt, 1934; Lorence et al., 1984; Money et al., 1950; Philipson, 1986a, 1987b, 1988, 1993c; Renner, 1998a, 1999; Schodde, 1970)

Hortonioideae (1/3) (Hortonia) Trop SriL (Endress, 1980a; Sampson, 1993)

Monimioideae (3/18) (Monimia, Palmeria, Peumus) Trop seAs Au(neQld) I (--Masc) Me(--Bis) S(Chile)

Mollinedioideae (incl. Xymalos) (19/145) Trop Af(--CapeP) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) G I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) S(--Urug) Z (Goldblatt, 1979b; Verdcourt, 1968)

Lauraceae (C; 50/3,000) Trap--temp Af(--Cape) As At(Mac) Au C E(Med) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Maine, Ont) P(--Poly) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Christophel et al., 1996; Drinnan et al., 1990; Heo et al., 1998; Herendeen et al., 1994; Kostermans, 1957; Merwe et al., 1988; Rahwer, 1993a, 2000; Sastri, 1963; Stern, 1954; Werf & Richter, 1996)

Lauroideae (49/2,980) Trop-temp Af(--Cape) As At(Mac) Au C E(Med) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Me, Ont) P(--Tonga, Coco) S(--Chile) WInd Z

Cassythoideae (1/20) (Cassytha) Trop Af(--CapeP) seAs Au C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(Fla) P(--Poly) S(--Braz) WInd Z

Hernandiaceae (C; 5/65) Trop Af(-Zim) e, seAs Au(eQld) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Marq) nS(Sur--Bol) WInd (Duyjes, 1996; Kubitzki, 1938, 1993j)

Hernandioideae (3/43) (Hassimalania, Hernandia, Illigera) Trop Af(--Ang) e, seAs Au(eQld) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Bonin, Marq) nS(Sur--Ecu) WInd (Ablett et al., 1997; Shutts, 1960)

Gyrocarpoideae (1/7) (Gyrocarpus) Trop Af(--Zim) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) G I(--Seyc) Me(--Phil, Fiji) P(--Soc) nS(--Col, Ven) WInd (Mohana Rao, 1986; Shutts, 1960)

Sparattanthelioideae (1/15) (Sparattanthelium) Trap nS(--Col, Ven); WInd (Mohana Rao, 1986; Shutts, 1960)

Atherospermataceae (7/14) TropMont--warm temp NGu--Tas; NCal--NZ; Peru--Pat (Behnke, 1988a; Renner, 1999; Renner & Foreman, 1998; Sampson & Foreman, 1988; Schodde, 1969, 1970)

Gomortegaceae (C; 1/1) (Gomortega) Temp cChile (Goldblatt, 1976b; Kubitzki, 1993i; Reiche, 1896; Stern, 1955)

Siparunaceae (C; 2/150) Trap wAf; WInd; sMex-seBraz & Bol (Renner, 1999; Renner et al., 1997; Schodde, 1970)

Siparunoideae (1/150) (Siparuna) Trop America( WInd. & sMex-seBraz & Bol)

Glossocalycoideae (1/1) (Glossocalyx) Trop wAf (Thorne, 1976)

Lactoridineae (C; 1/1)

Lactoridaceae (C; 1/1) (Lactoris) Cool temp Mas a Tierra of Fern (Bernardello et al., 1999; Carlquist, 1964a, 1990a; Crawford et al., 1986; Kamelina, 1997; Kubitzki, 1993k; Lammers et al., 1986; Sampson, 1995; Tobe et al., 1993; Tucker & Douglas, 1996; Zavada & Benson, 1987; Zavada & Taylor, 1986)

Piperineae (C; 9/2,020) (Corner, 1976; Okada, 1986)

Saururaceae (C; 4/6) (excl. Zippelia) Trop--temp se, eAs--Japan & Phil; NE & Minn--Fla & Tex; Cal & Nev; Mex (Carlquist et al., 1995; Liang & Tucker, 1989; Okada, 1986; Quibell, 1941; Raju, 1961; Tucker et al., 1993; Wood, 1971; Wu & Kubitzki, 1993d)

Piperaceae (C; 5/2,015) Trap--subtr Af(--Cape) As At eAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(sFla) P(--Marq, Fern) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Bornstein, 1991; Han-Xing & Tucker, 1995; Okada, 1986; Tebb, 1993; Yuncker, 1958)

Piperoideae (4/1,015) Trop--subtr Af(--CapeP) se, eAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Marq) S(--Par) WInd Z (Liang & Tucker, 1995)

Peperomioideae (1/1,000) (Peperomia) Trop--subtr Af(--Cape) se, eAs At(Mac) eAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(sFla) P(Marq, Fern) S(--Chile) WInd Z

Nymphaeanae (C; 8/75) (Walker, 1976a)

Nymphaeales (C; 8/75) (Ito, 1987; Kubitzki & Gottlieb, 1984; Les et al., 1999; Li, 1955; Meyer-Melikian & Diamandopulu, 1996a)

Cabombaceae (C; 2/6) (Brasenia, Cabomba) Trap--cool temp Af e, sAs(--Japan) eAu CN(--Alas) S(--Pat) WInd (Carlquist & Schneider, 1996; Osborn et al., 1991; Williamson & Schneider, 1993a)

Hydropeltoideae (1/11) (Brasenia) Trop--cool temp Af s, eAs(--Japan) eAu C (Mex) N(--Alas, Que) S(--Pat) WInd (Clarke & Jones, 1981; F. Richardson, 1969; Schneider & Carlquist, 1996b)

Cabomboideae (1/5) (Cabomba) Trap--temp C(Mex--CRica) N(NY--Fla, Tex) S(--Braz) WInd (Carlquist & Schneider, 1996; Inamdar & Aleykutty, 1979; Schneider & Carlquist, 1996d; Tucker & Douglas, 1996)

Nymphaeaceae (C; 6/67) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Amur) Au C E I(--Maur) Ma Me (--Bis) N(--Alas) S(--Arg) WInd (Moseley et al., 1993; Schneider & Williamson, 1993a; Schneider et al., 1995)

Nupharoideae (C; 1/ca. 20) (Nuphar) Temp--bar As(--Amur) E(--Finl) N(Fla, Cal--Alas, Que) WInd (Beal, 1956; Les et al., 1999)

Barclayoideae (1/4) (Barclaya) Trap Born--NGu (Les et al., 1999; Schneider & Carlquist, 1995a; Schneider & Williamson, 1993b; Williamson & Schneider, 1994a)

Nymphaeoideae (2/40) (Nymphaea, Ondinea) Subcasm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) Au C E I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Bis) N(--Alas) S(--Arg) WInd (Behnke, 1996; Conard, 1905; Williamson & Schneider, 1994b)

Euryaloideae (2/3) (Euryale, Victoria) Trop--warm temp se, eAs; Amaz(--Par) (Schneider & Carlquist, 1995b)

Rafflesianae (C; 10/65)

Rafflesiales (C; 10/65)

Hydnoracaee (C; 2/8) (Hydnora, Prosopanche) Trap--temp Eth--CapeP; Ma & Reunion; Pat--sBraz & Peru; CRica (Coccucci, 1965, 1975, 1983; Meijer, 1993a; Musselman & Visser, 1989; Takhtajan et al., 1979)

Rafflesiaceae (C; 5/45) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) sAs At(Can) swAu C(--Mex) E(nAf) Ma Me(--NGu) swNS(--Pat) WInd(Jam) (Bouman & Meijer, 1987, 1994; Meijer, 1993b, 1997; Takhtajan et al., 1985)

Apodanthoideae (2/25) (Apodanthes, Pilostyles) Trop--temp Af(--Zim) swAs (Syr--Iran) swAu C N(sCal--Tex) S(--Pat) WInd(Jam) (Rutherford, 1970)

Rafflesioideae (3/20) (Rafflesia, Rhizanthes, Sapria) Trap As(Assam, Yunnan)--Me(Sum, Born, Java)

Cytinaceae (2/10) (Bdallophyton, Cytinus) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) swAs(--Cauc) At(Can) C(Mex-Salv) E(nAf) Ma (Heinricher, 1934)

Mitrastemaceae (1/2) (Mitrastema) TrapMont-temp China-Japan; Sum-NGu; Mex-Guat; wCol (Meijer & Veldkamp, 1993)

Ranunculidae (C; 209/4,530)

Ranunculanae (C; 209/4,530) (Barthlott & Theisen, 1995; Behnke, 1971, 1995a; Blackmore et al., 1995; Bruckner, 1995; Carlquist, 1995d; Endress, 1995; Hennig et al., 1994; Hoot & Crane, 1995; U. Jensen, 1995a, 1995b; U. Jensen & Kadereit, 1995; Kubitzki, 1995; Loconte et al., 1995; Phillipson et al., 1985; Ronse Decraene & Smets, 1995; Thorne, 1974c; Walker, 1976)

Ceratophyllales (A; 1/6)

Ceratophyllaceae (C; 1/6) (Ceratophyllum) Subcosm Af(-CapeP) As(-Japan) At (Az) n, seAu C E G H Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Alas) P(Mar, Sam, Gal) S(-Pat) WInd Z (Gottlieb et al., 1989; Herendeen et al., 1990; Les, 1986, 1988a, 1988b, 1989, 1993; Muenscher, 1940; Schneider & Carlquist, 1996c; Wilmot-Dear, 1985; Wood, 1959)

Nelumbonales (C; 1/2) (Barthlott et al., 1996, 1998; Ito, 1986; Moseley & Uhl, 1985; Moseley et al., 1993; Williamson & Schneider, 1993b)

Nelumbonaceae (C; 1/2) (Nelumbo) Trop-temp se, eAs-Phil, NGu; nAu; Mass & eNebr-Fla & eMex; WInd-nCol (Moseley & Uhl, 1985; Qiu et al., 1998; Schneider & Carlquist, 1996a; Simon, 1970-1971; Williamson & Schneider, 1993b)

Paeoniales (B; 2/34) (Melville, 1983; Thorne, 1981, 1983)

Paeoniaceae (C; 1/33) (Paeonia) Temp Euras(-nAf); N(BrC & -BCal) (Cave et al., 1961; Keefe & Moseley, 1978; Leins & Erbar, 1991, 1994a; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979; Nowicke et al., 1986; S. Stern, 1946; Yu & Xiao, 1987)

Glaucidiaceae (C; 1/1) (Glaucidium) Temp Japan (Eyde, 1976; Kumazawa, 1930; Tamura, 1972; Tobe, 1981)

Ranunculales (C; 205/4,485) (Hoot et al., 1997)

Ranunculineae (C; 154/3,655) (Loconte, 1987; Loconte & Estes, 1989a; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979)

Lardizabalaceae (C; 9/38) Trop-warm temp se, eAs; cChile-Pat (Carlquist, 1984f; Ernst, 1964; Hoot et al., 1995a, 1995b)

Sargentodoxoideae (C; 1/1) (Sargentodoxa) Trop-warm temp China, seAs (Stapf, 1926; Tiffney, 1993)

Decaisneoideae (C; 1/2) (Decaisnea) Warm temp China, Him (Swamy, 1953c)

Lardizabaloideae (C; 7/35) (excl. Sargentodoxa) Subtr-temp Him-China, nLaos & Vietnam-Kor; cChile & Pat (Hoot et al., 1995a; Nickol, 1996; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1982; Qin, 1989; Wu & Kubitzki, 1993b)

Menispermaceae (C; 71/450) Trop-temp Af(CapeP-Sinai) As(-Kor) nAu C G H I(-Maur) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Que) P(-Marq) S(-Arg) WInd (Carlquist, 1996a; Ernst, 1964; Forman, 1986; Kessler, 1993b; Manchester, 1996; Thanikaimoni, 1986; Thornber, 1970; Wilkinson, 1989)

Berberidaceae (C; 13/660) TropMont-temp eAf(-Mal) As At(Mad) C E(-nAf) wMe N(-Que) P(Fern) S(-Fuegia) (Carlquist, 1995c; M. Chapman, 1936; Ehdaie & Russell, 1985; Ernst, 1964; Y.-D. Kim & Jansen, 1995, 1996, 1998; Kumizawa, 1938; Loconte, 1993; Meacham, 1980; Nickol, 1995; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1981; Sastri, 1969; Terabayashi, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983b, 1983c, 1985)

Nandinoideae (C; 1/1) (Nandina) Temp China, Japan (Carlquist, 1995c; Y.-D. Kim & Jansen, 1995; Nickol, 1995; Shen, 1954; Terabayashi, 1983c)

Berberidoideae (2/600) (Berberis incl. Mahonia, Ranzania) TropMont--cool temp eAf(--Malawi) As At(Mad) C E(--nAf) wMe(Born, Phil) N(--Va, BrC) P(Fern) S(--Fuegia) (Ahrendt, 1961; Kaute, 1963; Y.-D. Kim & Jansen, 1995; Terabayashi, 1977, 1978)

Leonticoideae (3/10) (Caulophyllum, Gymnospermium, Leontice) Temp seE-eAs; eN (Loconte & Estes, 1989b; Stearn, 1938; Terabayashi, 1983a)

Podophylloideae (incl. Epimedioideae) (7/50) Temp Euras(--nAf); Que & Man --Fla & Tex; BrC--Cal (Y.-D. Kim & Jansen, 1995; Terabayashi, 1979, 1983b)

Hydrastidaceae (C; 1/1) (Hydrastis) Temp eN(NE, sOnt & Minn--Ga & eKan) (Carlquist, 1995b; Hoot, 1995; Johansson, 1995; Johansson & Jensen, 1993; Keener, 1993; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979; Tobe & Keating, 1985)

Ranunculaceae (C; 58/2,505) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As At(--Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(Bonin) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Carlquist, 1995b; Duncan & Keener, 1991; Gregory, 1941; Hammond, 1955; Hiepko, 1995; Hoot, 1991, 1995; U. Jensen, 1967, 1968, 1995a, 1995b; U. Jensen et al., 1995; Johansson, 1995; Johansson & Jansen, 1993; Kosuge et al., 1995; Kumazawa, 1938; Okada & Tamura, 1979; Tamura, 1993, 1995; Ziman & Keener, 1989)

Coptidoideae (2/11) (Coptis, Xanthorhiza) nTemp-Arct Euras; N(Green-Alas --Fla) (U. Jensen et al., 1995; Kosuge et al., 1995)

Isopyroideae (incl. Thalictrum) (10/205) Trop--bor Af(--Eth) As(Iran--Sib) C E Me(NGu) N(Green--Fla & Cal) S(Andes-Arg) (Fu, 1990; Tamura & Kosuge, 1989)

Ranunculoideae (incl. Helleboroideae but excl. Kingdonia) (46/2,290) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(--Mac) Au(--Tas) C E G H I(--Masc) Ma Me (--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(Bonin) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Hoot & Reznicek, 1994; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1983a)

Circaeasteraceae (C; 2/2) (Circaeaster, Kingdonia) TempMont China, Him (Hoot et al., 1995c; Hu, 1987; Hu & Tian, 1985; Kosuge et al., 1989; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1982; Oxelman & Liden, 1995; Wu & Kubitzki, 1993a)

Circaeasteroideae (1/1) (Circaeaster) TempMont China, Him (Foster, 1963; Hu et al., 1990; Junell, 1931)

Kingdonioideae (1/1) (Kingdonia) TempMont China, Him (Foster, 1961; Hu & Tian, 1985; Kosuge et al., 1989)

Papaverineae (C; 51/830)

Pteridophyllaceae (B; 1/1) (Pteridophyllum) Temp Japan (Bruckner, 1985; Liden, 1993b; Hoot et al., 1997)

Papaveraceae (C; 50/830) Subtr--Arct Af(--Cape) As At(Mac) S Au C E(--nAf) H N(--Green) P(Bonin) S(Andes--Pat) WInd (Carlquist & Zona, 1988b; Ernst, 1962; U. Jensen, 1967; Kadereit, 1993; Kadereit et al., 1994, 1995; Liden, 1986; Loconte et al., 1995; Swartzbach et al., 1995)

Papaveroideae (incl. Platystemonoideae) (23/260) Subtr-Arct As(--Kam) At (Mac) C E(--nAf) H N(--Green) S(Andes--Pat) WInd (Ernst, 1967; Hoot et al., 1997)

Eschscholzioideae (3/15) (Dendromecon, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia) Temp N(Wash & Utah--nwMex)

Chelidonioideae (excl. Dicranostigma, Glaucium) (7/25) Subtr--subArct As C (Mex) E eN nS WInd (Blattner & Kadereit, 1995)

Hypecoideae (1/17) (Hypecoum) Temp Euras(--nAf) (Dahl, 1987; Hoot et al., 1997b)

Fumarioideae (16/515) SubtrMont--bor Af(--Cape) As--(Kam) At(Mac) C(nwMex) E(--nAf) N(--Green) P(Bonin) (Corner, 1976; Ernst, 1962; Liden, 1986, 1993a; Ronse Decraine & Smets, 1992b)

Caryophyllidae (C; 671/11,505)

Caryophyllanae (Chenopodianae, Centrospermae) (C; 671/11,505) (Behnke, 1998)

Caryophyllales (Chenopodiales) (C; 594/9,760) (Barthlott, 1994; Beackstrom--Sternberg, 1988; Behnke, 1976c, 1976d, 1978, 1993, 1994; Behnke & Barthlott, 1983; Behnke & Mabry, 1994; Behnke et al., 1983b; Bittrich, 1993a; Clement & Mabry, 1996; Corner, 1946; Cronquist & Thorne, 1994; Downie & Palmer, 1994a, 1994b; Downie et at., 1997; Eckardt, 1976; Ehrendorfer, 1976a, 1976b; Engel & Barthlott, 1988; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Giannasi et al., 1992; Gibson, 1994; Hartley & Harris, 1981; Hershkovitz, 1989; Hofmann, 1994; Kubitzki, 1994; Kubitzki et al., 1993; Leins & Erbar, 1994b; Manhart & Rettig, 1994; Moeliono, 1966; Nowicke, 1994a; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979; Patterson & Xu, 1990; Rettig et al., 1990, 1992; Richardson, 1978; Rodman, 1990, 1994; Rodman et al., 1984; Savile, 1979; Skvarla & Nowicke, 1976; Turner, 1994)

Achatocarpineae (C; 2/10)

Achatocarpaceae (C; 2/10) (Achatocarpus, Phaulothamnus) Trop--subtr America(sTex--Arg) (Bittrich, 1993b; Skvarla & Nowicke, 1982)

Cactineae (Portulacineae) (C; 137/1,920) (Carolin, 1987; Hershkovitz, 1993; Hershkovitz & Zimmer, 1994; Nowicke, 1996)

Portulacaceae (C; 29/450) Subcosm Af(--CapeP) As(--Kam) At Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(Phil--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Behnke et al., 1975; Bogle, 1969; Carlquist, 1998b; Carolin, 1987, 1993; Hershkovitz, 1993; Hershkovitz & Zimmer, 1994; Landrum & Mauseth, 1995, 1996; Nowicke, 1996; Nyananyo, 1988, 1990; Ravn, 1987)

Hectorellaceae (C; 2/2) (Hectorella, Lyallia) Cool temp sNZ; Kerguelen (Behnke, 1975a, 1977a; Carlquist, 1998b; Lourteig, 1994; Mabry et al., 1978; Ng et al., 1975; Philipson, 1993b; Yoong et al., 1975)

Basellaceae (C; 4/50) Trop--warm temp Af seAs C(--Mex) G Ma Me(NGu) N(Tex) P(Gal) S(--Arg) WInd (Bogle, 1969; Carlquist, 1999d; Nageshwar & Radhakrishnaiah, 1993; Nowicke, 1996; Sperling & Bittrich, 1993)

Didiereaceae (C; 4/11) Trop arid sw Ma (Applequist & Wallace, 1997; Behnke, 1978; Erdtman, 1948; Hegnauer, 1988; Kubitzki, 1933g; Nowicke, 1996; Rauh, 1965; Scholch, 1963; R. Wallace et al., 1995)

Cactaceae (C; 98/1,405) Trop--temp Af As(SriL) At(Ber) C I(Masc, Seyc) Ma N P(Gal) S(--Pat) WInd (Barthlott, 1988; Barthlott & Hunt, 1993; Buxbaum, 1948; Hegnauer, 1988; Hershkovitz & Zimmer, 1997; Hunt & Taylor, 1990; R. Wallace et al., 1995)

Pereskioideae (1/18) (Pereskia) Trop--temp Mex & WInd--Pat (R. Wallace, 1994)

Maihuenioideae (1/5) (Maihuenia) Pat(Arg--Chile) (Gibson, 1977b; Leuenberger, 1997; R. Wallace et al., 1995)

Opuntioideae (5/250) Trap--temp America(NE & BrC-Pat; Ber; WInd; Gal) (Dickie & Wallace, 1996; Gibson, 1978)

Cactoideae (91/1,130) Trop--temp Af(Natal) As(SriL) C I(Masc, Seyc) Ma(--Minn, Alta) P(Gal) S(--Pat) WInd (Gibson, 1977a; Gibson & Horak, 1978)

Phytolaccineae (C; 191/3,100)

Stegnospermataceae (C; 1/3) (Stegnosperma) Trop--subtr N(wMex-CRica; WInd) (Bedell, 1980; Carlquist, 1999c; Hofmann, 1977; Narayana & Narayana, 1986; Rohwer, 1993d; Satyanarayana & Narayana, 1985)

Phytolaccaceae (C; 17/70) Trap-temp Af(--Cape) s, eAs(--Japan) Au C H I Ma Me N(--Maine, Ont) P(Coca, Gal) S(--Pat) WInd (Brown & Varadarajan, 1985; Carlquist, 2000b; Nowicke, 1968, 1994a; Perez-Hernandez et al., 1997; Rogers, 1985; Rohwer, 1993c; Thieret, 1966)

Phytolaccoideae (incl. Lophiocarpus) (5/43) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) s, eAs (--Japan) C H Me N(--Maine, Ont) P(Coca, Gal) S(--Pat) WInd (Behnke, 1974a)

Gisekioideae (1/5) (Gisekia) Trop Old World(Af--sAs; Mad & Masc) (Joshi & Rao, 1936; Narayana & Narayana, 1988)

Petiverioideae (Rivinaceae) (C; 9/20) Trap--subtr Af(--CapeP) seAs Au(eQld) Me(NHeb) sN(Fla-Ariz) S(--Arg) WInd (Behnke et al., 1974; Carlquist, 1998d; Nowicke, 1994a; Ronse Decraene & Smets, 1991c; Volgin, 1988)

Agdestidoideae (C; 1/1) (Agdestis) Trap--warm temp Mex--Guat (Behnke et al., 1974; Carlquist, 1999a)

Barbeuioideae (C; 1/1) (Barbeuia) Trop Ma (Nowicke, 1994a)

Nyctaginaceae (C; 31/400) Trop--temp Af(--Nam) sAs nAu C E(wMed--Egypt) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--BrC, Wisc) P(--Marq) S(--Pat) WInd Z (Bittrich & Kuhn, 1993; Bogle, 1974)

Sarcobataceae (B; 1/2) (Sarcobatus) Temp arid wUSA (Behnke, 1997; Carlquist, 2000a; Dawnie et al., 1997)

Aizoaceae (C; 127/2,505) Trap--temp Af(--Cape) seAs(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E(Med) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN P(--Poly) S(--Pat) WInd Z (Bittrich & Hartmann, 1988; Bogle, 1970b; Buxbaum, 1948; Hartmann, 1993; Singh, 1992; Thieret, 1966; R. Wallace, 1998)

Aizooideae (6/52) Trap--warm temp EHemisphere: Af(--Cape) sAs At(Mac) Au E(Med) I(Socot)

Sesuvioideae (4/36) Trop--temp Af seAs nAu C G H I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--.NY, Cal) P(--Poly) S(--Pat) WInd

Tetragonioideae (2/86) (Tetragonia, Tribulocarpus) Trap--temp Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--Japan) sAu G H P(--Poly) S(Chile) Z (Prakash, 1967)

Mesembryanthemoideae (Aptenioideae) (9/80) warm temp Af(--Cape) [At(Mac) E(Med)--naturalized?] (Bittrich & Struck, 1989)

Ruschioideae (incl. Hymenogynaideae) (106/2,250) Trop--warm temp Af (--Cape) Au [C N(--Ore) S(--Chile) Z--naturalized?]

Molluginaceae (incl. Macarthuria, excl. Limeum) (B; 13/120) Trop--temp Af (--Cape) As At(--Az) Au C G I(Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN(Tex--Cal) P(--Mic, Gal) S(--Arg, Chile) WInd (Behnke et al., 1983a; Bogle, 1970b; M. Endress & Bittrich, 1993; Rettig et al., 1990; Singh, 1992; Thieret, 1966)

Halophytaceae (C; 1/1) (Halophytum) Temp arid Arg (Bittrich, 1993d; Di Fulvio, 1975; Gibson, 1978; Hunziker et al., 1974; Soriano, 1946)

Chenopodiineae (C; 168/2,315)

Chenopodiaceae (C; 99/1,315) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(-Az, Ber) Au C E G H I(Socot) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Green) O P(Bonin, Gal) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Hu & Yang, 1944; Judd & Ferguson, 1999; Kuhn, 1993)

Chenopodioideae (incl. Dysphania; excl. Sarcobatus) (44/785) Subcosm Af (-Cape) As(-Kam) At(-Az, Ber) Au C E(Ice-nAf) G H I(Socot) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Green) O P(Bonin, Gal) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z

Microteoideae (1/10) (Microtea) Trop America(Guat & WInd-Braz) (Behnke, 1993)

Salicornioideae (14/80) Trop-temp Af(-Cape) eAs(-Japan) At(Ber) sAu C E G I(Sacot) Ma N(-Alas) P(Fern) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z

Salsoloideae (37/420) Trop-temp Af As(-Japan) At(Mac) E(-nAf) Ma

Polycnemoideae (3/18) (Hemichroa, Nitrophila, Polycnemum) Temp As Au E(-nAf) wN

Amaranthaceae (C; 69/1,000) Subcosm Af(-CapeP) As At(Mac) Au C E G H I(Masc) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Maine) P(-Marq) S(-Pat) WInd (Eliasson, 1988; Townsend, 1993; Volgin, 1987)

Amaranthoideae (55/630) Subcosm Af(-CapeP) As At(Mac) Au C E G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Maine) P(-Marq) S(-Pat) WInd

Gomphrenoideae (14/370) Trop-warm temp Af As At Au C E G I(-Masc) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Md) P(Gal) S(-Pat) WInd

Caryophyllineae (C; 96/2,415)

Caryophyllaceae (incl. Geocarpon) (C; 96/2,415) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(-Mac) Au C E(-Ice) G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Green) O P S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Behnke, 1976b, 1982b; Behnke et al., 1983b; Bittrich, 1993c; Carlquist, 1995a; Downie et al., 1997; Nixon & Crepet, 1993b; Rabeler & Bittrich, 1993)

Illecebroideae (Paronychioideae) (34/365) Trop-cool temp Af(-Cape) As At (Mac) Au C B I Ma Me N(-Maine) P(Fern) S(-Pat) WInd Z (Downie et al., 1997; Rohweder, 1970)

Minuartioideae (Alsioideae) (38/700) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At (-Mac) Au C E(-Ice) G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Green) O P(Gal) S WInd Z (Rahweder, 1970)

Caryophylloideae (24/1,350) Trop-Arct Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(-Ice) H Ma Me N(-Green) S(-Fuegia)

Polygonales (C; 49/1,095) (Bate-Smith, 1974; Wolfe et al., 1989)

Polygonaceae (C; 49/1,095) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(-Ice) G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Green) O P(-Paly) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Behnke, 1998; Brandbyge, 1993; Graham & Wood, 1965; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1977)

Eriogonoideae (17/316) Temp America(Alas-Mex; sSAmer[Chile, Arg Pat]) (Reveal, 1978)

Polygonoideae (24/550) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(-Ice) G H I(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Green) O P(-Poly) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Haraldson, 1978)

Coccoloboideae (8/230) Trop-subtr Af As At(Ber) Au C(-Mex) G Me(NGu-Sol) N(Fla) O S(-Pat) WInd Z

Plumbaginales (C; 28/650) (Bate-Smith, 1974; Harborne, 1967; Lledo et al., 1998)

Plumbaginaceae (C; 28/650) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As At(Ber)n, eAu CE(--Ice) G H I(Socot) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd (Carlquist & Boggs, 1996; Corner, 1976; Dillon et al., 1996; Harborne, 1967; Kubitzki, 1993o; Lledo et al., 1998; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979; Wolfe et al., 1989)

Plumbaginoideae (4/35) Trop-temp Af(-CapeP) As Au C E G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N P(-Marq) S(-Chile) WInd

Aegialitidoideae (1/2) (Aegialitis) Indomalesia--Au (Baker, 1948; Lledo et al., 1998)

Staticoideae (23/615) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(--Ice) G I Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Green) P(Bonin) S(--Fuegia) Wind

Dilleniidae (B; 3,755/73,765)

Dillenianae (Theanae) (C; 539/12,275) (John & Kolbe, 1980; Thorne, 1983)

Dilleniales (Ericales, Theales) (C; 396/8,190) (Corner, 1946, 1976; Crepet & Nixon, 1996; Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Kolbe, 1980; Leins & Erbar, 1991)

Dilleniineae (C; 9/400) (Dickison et al., 1982; Thorne, 1976)

Dilleniaceae (C; 9/400) Trop--warm temp Af seAs Au C(--Mex) G I(Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) S(--seBraz, Bol) WInd (Crepet, 1978; Dickison, 1967--1971a; Dickison et al., 1982; Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Hoogland, 1952; Kubitzki, 1968; Sastri, 1958)

Dillenioideae (5/280) Trop--temp EHemisphere: seAs Au G I(Seyc) Ma Me (--Fiji) (Endress, 1997a; C. Wilson, 1965, 1974)

Delimoideae (Tetraceroideae) (4/120) Trop Af seAs neAu C(--Mex) G Ma Me(--Bis) S(--seBraz, Bol) WInd

Theineae (C; 38/1,475) (Crepet & Nixon, 1996; Thorne, 1983)

Actinidiaceae (C; 3/350) TropMont--temp se, eAs--Fiji; neQld; Mex--Bol (Dickison, 1972b; Dickison et al., 1982; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979; Schmid, 1979a, 1979b. Zhang, 1987)

Actinidioideae (1/40) (Actinidia) TropMont--temp eAs(--Amur) (Schmid, 1979a; Vijayaraghavan, 1965)

Saurauioideae (1/300) (Saurauia) TropMont--subtr se, eAs--Fiji; neQld; sMex --Bol (Keller et al., 1996; Manchester, 1994c; Soejarto, 1980)

Clematoclethroideae (1/10) (Clematoclethra) Temp China

Paracryphiaceae (B; 1/1) (Paracryphia) TropMont NCal (Airy Shaw, 1965; Dickison & Baas, 1977; Jeremie, 1996b; Schmid, 1979b; Steenis, 1950)

Stachyuraceae (C; 1/10) (Stachyurus) TropMont--temp eAs(--Japan); Bonin (Beauvisage, 1920; Corner, 1976; Kolbe & John, 1980; Matthew & Chapekar, 1977)

Theaceae (C; 21/500) TropMont-warm temp Af As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) H Me(--Fiji) seNP(--East) S(--Arg) WInd (Beauvisage, 1920; Erbar, 1988; Keng, 1962; Liang & Baas, 1990; Spichiger et al., 1993; Tsou, 1996, 1997)

Ternstroemioideae (11/200) TropMont Af se, eAs(--Japan) At(Mac) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) H Me(--Fiji) P(--East) S(--Arg) WInd

Theoideae (Camelliodeae) (9/300) TropMont--warm temp As(--Japan) Au C (--Mex) Me(--Bis) seN(--Va) P(Bonin) S(--seBraz) WInd (Prince & Parks, 1998; Tsou, 1997)

Sladenioideae (1/1) (Sladenia) Trop seAs (Kobuski, 1951b)

Asteropeiaceae (B; 1/8) (Asteropeia) Trop Ma (Morton et al., 1997; Schatz et al., 1999b)

Physenaceae (B; 1/2) (Physena) Trap Ma (Morton et al., 1997a; Schatz et al., 1999; Takhtajan, 1997)

Tetrameristaceae (B; 2/2) (Pentamerista, Tetramerista) Trap wMe; nS(GuayH) (Maguire et al., 1972)

Pellicieraceae (C; 1/1) (Pelliciera) Trop America(Pacific coasts of CRica-Ecu; Caribbean coasts of Nic--Col) (Graham, 1977; Kobuski, 1951 a; Roth & Grijalva, 1991; Wijmstra, 1968)

Symplocaceae (C; 1/500) (Symplocos) TropMont-warm temp As(--Japan) Au (eQld) C(--Mex) G Me(--Fiji) seN(--Va) P(Bonin, Car) S(--Arg) WInd (Corner, 1976; Nooteboom, 1975)

Marcgraviaceae (C; 5/100) Trop America(Mex, Coca & WInd-seBraz, Bol) (DeBuhr, 1975, 1977; Mauritzon, l939a; de Roan, 1967)

Oncothecaceae (B; 1/2) (Oncotheca) TrapMont NCal (Baas, 1975; Carpenter & Dickisan, 1976; Dickison, 1982, 1986b; McPherson et al., 1982)

Icacinineae (B; 60/720) (Lobreau--Callen, 1980)

Aquifoliaceae (C; 1/400) (Ilex, incl. Nemopanthus) TrapMont-bar Af(-Cape) As(-Japan) At(Mac) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) E G H Ma Me(--Fiji) eN(--Nf, Minn) P(--Marq) S(--Arg) WInd (Baas, 1973, 1975, 1984; Cuenoud et al., 2000; Savolainen et al., 1994; Spichiger et al., 1993; Thorne, 1977)

Phellinaceae (C; 1/10) (Phelline) Trop NCa1 (Baas, 1975)

Icacinaceae (incl. Metteniusa) (B; 56/300) Trap-warm temp Af(--Cape) se, eAs (--Japan) eAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) S (--Chile) WInd Z (Baas, 1974; Bailey & Howard, 1941; Dahl, 1952; Kaplan et al., 1991; Lozano--C. & de Lozano, 1988; Manchester, 1994c; Manchester & Tiffney, 1993; Sleumer, 1969, 1971; Spichiger et al., 1993)

Cardiopteridaceae (B; 1/2) (Peripterygium) Trop Assam-Bis; neQld (Lobreau--Callen, 1982; Sleumer, 1971)

Sphenostemonaceae (B; 1/10) (Sphenostemon) TrapMont Sul-Bis; neQld; NCal (Baas, 1975; Jeremie, 1996a; metcalfe, 1956a; Steenis, 1955, 1986a)

Sarraceniineae (C; 3/15) (Thore, 1976)

Sarraceniaceae (C; 3/15) TrapMont GuayH(--Ven) (Heliamphora); temp--bor N (Ore-Cal) (Darlingtonia); (Lab & Sask--Fla & Tex) (Sarracenia) (Adams & Smith, 1977; R. Bayer et al., 1996; Bell, 1949; DeBuhr, 1973, 1975, 1977; Thorne, 1977; Wood, 1960)

Clethrineae (C; 15/230) (Thorne, 1976, 1983)

Pentaphylacaceae (C; 1/2) (Pentaphylax) Trop--subtr As(sChina-seAs) & Sum (Beauvisage, 1920; Carlquist, 1984c; Steenis, 1956)

Clethraceae (C; 1/64) (Clethra) TrapMont-temp e, seAs-NGu; Mad; Maine --WInd; Mex-Arg (Giebel & Dickison, 1976; Sleumer, 1967, 1971; Thomas, 1961)

Styracaceae (B; 10/150) TrapMont-temp eAs(--Japan) C E(Med) Me(--Sol) sN (--Va) P(Car) S(--Arg) WInd (Dickisan, 1993; Dickison & Pfend, 1985; Fritsch, 1996, 1999; Li & Yu, 1985; Morawetz, 1991; Morton & Dickison, 1992; Morton et al., 1996b)

Cyrillaceae (C; 3/14) (Cliftonia, Cyrilla, Purdiaea) TrapMont-warm temp Va --WInd-Braz; sMex-Nic (Copeland, 1953; Thomas, 1960, 1961; Vijayaraghavan & Dhar, 1978)

Ericineae (C; 134/2,975) (Samuelsson, 1913)

Ericaceae (C; 134/2,975) TropMont--Arct Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(--Az) eAu C E G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Cullings & Hileman, 1997; Harborne & Williams, 1973; Judd & Kron, 1993; Judd et al., 1998; Kron, 1996; Kron & Chase, 1993; Kron & Judd, 1990; Kron et al., 1998; Luteyn, 1992; Nixon & Crepet, 1993b; Palser, 1961; Stevens, 1971; Wallace, 1975, 1976; Watson, 1964; Wood, 1961)

Enkianthoideae (1/10) (Enkianthus) Temp As(Him--Japan) (Judd et al., 1998; Kron et al., 1998)

Arbutoideae (5/90) TropMont--Arct As(--Kam) At(Mac) C(--Pan) E(Med--Ice) N(--Green) (Cullings & Hileman, 1997; Thorne, 1968)

Pyroloideae (4/45) (Chimaphila, Moneses, Orthilia, Pyrola) SubtrMont--Arct As(--Kam) C E(--Ice) N(--Green) S(--Ven) WInd (Copeland, 1947; Cullings & Hileman, 1997; Freudenstein, 1997, 1999; Nowicke, 1966)

Monotropoideae (10/12) SubtrMont--cool temp e, sAs C E(--Ice) Me(Sum) N (--Alas) S(--Col) (Bohm & Averett, 1989; Cullings & Bruns, 1992; Cullings & Hileman, 1997; Kron & Johnson, 1997; Nowicke, 1966; Takahashi, 1987, 1988; Wallace, 1975, 1976)

Ericoideae (incl. Calluna, Daboecia) (17/865) TropMont--temp Af(--Cape) At (Mac) E(Ice--nAf) I(--Masc) Ma (Oliver, 1989)

Phyllodocoideae (11/65) TropMont--Arct As(Kam--AsMin) C E(Ice--Alps, Turk) N(Green--Alas--Fla, Cal) S(Guy, Andes, Urug) WInd(Cuba) (Kron, 1997)

Rhododendroideae (4/860) TropMont--Arct As(Kam --Him, AsMin) Au(neQld) E(Ice--Port) Me(--Sol) N(Green--Fla, Cal) P(Bonin) (Kron, 1997; Kron & Judd, 1990; Kron & King, 1996)

Empetroideae (C; 3/6) (Ceratiola, Corema, Empetrum) Temp--Arct As(--Kam) At(--Az, Tris) E(--Ice) N(Green --Fla, Cal) O P(Fern) S(Pat, Fuegia) (Anderberg, 1994; Carlquist, 1989d; K. H. Kim et al., 1988; Kron, 1996; Kron & Chase, 1993; Moore et al., 1970; Wood & Channell, 1959)

Epacridoideae (incl. Prionotes, Cosmelieae, Richeeae, Styphelieae; excl. Lebetanthus, Wittsteinia) (30/ca. 450) Trop--cool temp EHemisphere: seAs Au(--Tas) G H Me(Phil--Fiji) O P(--Marq) Z (Anderberg, 1992; Crayn et al., 1996; Kron & Chase, 1993; Kron et al., 1999; Paterson, 1961; Powell et al., 1996; Stace et al., 1997)

Vaccinioideae (incl. Cassiope) (49/570) TropMont--Arct Af(--Transv) As (--Kam) eAu(--Tas) C E(--Ice) G H I Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green--Alas) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Cullings & Hileman, 1997; Hileman et al., 1994; Kron & Judd, 1997; Kron et al., 1999)

Ochnineae (C; 48/675) (Fay & Chase, 1996; Swensen & Chase, 1995)

Ochnaceae (C; 40/600) Trop--subtr Af(--CapeP) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) S(--Par) WInd (Amaral, 1991; Fay & Chase, 1996; Guedes & Sastre, 1981; Narayana, 1975)

Ochnoideae (incl. Lophira) (33/525) Trop--subtr Af(--CapeP) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) S(--Par) WInd

Sauvagesioideae (7/75) Trop Af seAs C(--Mex) Ma Me(Mol--NGu) S(--Par) WInd (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994)

Quiinaceae (C; 4/50) Trop America: Jam; Bel--sBraz & Bol (Gottwald & Parameswaran, 1967)

Medusagynaceae (C; 1/1) (Medusagyne) Trop Seyc(Mahe) (Dickison, 1990a, 1990b; Fay et al., 1997b; Robertson et al., 1989)

Caryocaraceae (C; 2/23) (Anthodiscus, Caryocar) Trop America(CRica & Sur --Par) (Blank, 1939; Dickison, 1990c; Ehrendorfer et al., 1984; Prance & Silva, 1973)

Strasburgeriaceae (B; 1/1) (Strasburgeria) TropMont NCal (Dickison, 1981a; van Tieghem, 1903)

Ancistrocladineae (Nepenthineae) (C; 9/205) (Albert et al., 1992; Albert & Stevenson, 1996; Cameron et al., 1995; Hegnauer, 1988, 1989; Schlauer, 1997; Thorne, 1976, 1977)

Ancistrocladaceae (C; 1/20) (Ancistrocladus) Trop Af; SriL & sChina--Me (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Gottwald & Parameswaran, 1968; Keng, 1967)

Dioncophyllaceae (C; 3/3) (Dioncophyllum, Habropetalum, Triphyophyllum) Trop wAf (Airy Shaw, 1952; Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Erdtman, 1954b, 1958; Gottwald & Parameswaran, 1968; Marburger, 1979; Metcalfe, 1951; Schmid, 1964)

Droseraceae (C; 4/110) (Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) Au C E(--Ice) G H Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Green) O P(Car) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Boesewinkel, 1989; Carlquist & Wilson, 1995; Chanda, 1965; Heubl & Wistuba, 1997; Williams et al., 1994; Wood, 1960)

Nepenthaceae (C; 1/70) (Nepenthes) Trap EHemisphere: sChina--NGu; Car & neQld; Seyc--Ma (Basak & Subramanyam, 1966; Carlquist, 1981b; Heubl & Wistuba, 1997)

Hypericineae (C; 50/1,065) (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994)

Bonnetiaceae (C; 3/22) (Archytaea, Bonnetia, Ploiarium) TropMont seAs--NGu; Wind--Braz & Peru (Dickison & Weitzman, 1996; Kobuski, 1948, 1950; Kubitzki, 1978; Kubitzki et al., 1978; Maguire, 1972; Prakash & Lau, 1976; Robson & Stevens, 1987; Weitzman & Stevens, 1997)

Clusiaceae (incl. Hypericaceae) (C; 45/1,010) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(--Az) Au C E G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Nf) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Leins & Erbar, 1991)

Kielmeyeroideae (7/47) Trap America(Bel--Par; WInd)

Calophylloideae Trap Af seAs neAu C G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P (--Marq) S(--seBraz) Wind

Clusioideae Trap Af seAs neAu C G Ma Me(--Fiji) N(sFla) P(--Tonga, Coco) S(--seBraz) WInd (Crepet & Nixon, 1998a)

Chrysopioideae (Moronoboideae) (6/36) Trop Af seAs neAu C(--Bel) G Ma S WInd

Elatinaceae (C; 2/35) (Bergia, Elatine) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(--Az) Au C E G Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Nf) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Carlquist, 1984b; Corner, 1976; Dathan & Singh, 1971; Tucker, 1986)

Hypericoideae (9/540) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Nf) P(Rev, Gal) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Gibson, 1980; Robson, 1981; Vestal, 1937)

Lecythidineae (C; 30/430) (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Morton et al., 1997b, 1998)

Lecythidaceae (C; 30/430) Trop Af seAs nAu C(--Bel) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Soc) S(--Par) WInd(Jam) (Corner, 1976; Morton et al., 1997b, 1998; Muller, 1972; Prance & Mori, 1978, 1983; Tsou, 1994b)

Barringtonioideae (Planchonioideae) (6/59) Trop EHemisphere: Af(--Natal) As nAu G I(--Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Sac) (Tsou, 1994a)

Foetidioideae (1/5) (Foetidia) Trap I(Pemba--Ma--Masc)

Lecythidoideae (15/325) Trap America(Jam; Bel--Par) (Mori & Prance, 1990; Mori et al., 1978; Prance & Mori, 1978, 1979; Tsou & Mori, 1993)

Napoleonoideae (2/11) (Crateranthus, Napoleonaea) Trap Af (Swensen & Chase, 1995)

Scytopetaloideae (incl. Asteranthos, Scytopetalaceae) (6/28) Trap wAf; Amaz (Carlquist, 1988b; Kowal, 1989; Morton et al., 1998; Prance & Mori, 1979)

Fouquieriales (C; 1/11) (Kamelina, 1997; Thorne, 1992)

Fouquieriaceae (C; 1/11) (Fouquieria, (incl. Idria) Subtr--warm temp arid N(Cal--Tex & Mex) (Dahlgren, 1977b; Dahlgren et al., 1976; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Henricksan, 1967, 1972, 1973; Schultheis & Baldwin, 1999; Scogin, 1977, 1978; Thorne, 1976, 1977)

Polemoniales (C; 20/360)

Polemoniaceae (C; 20/360) TropMont--Arct nEuras(Ice--Kam); Green & Alas--Andes & Fuegia; WInd (Carlquist et al., 1984; Corner, 1976; Grant, 1959, 1998; Grant & K. A. Grant, 1965; Johnson & Soltis, 1995; Johnson et al., 1995, 1996, 1998; J. M. Porter, 1997; J. M. Porter & Johnson, 1998, 2000; Prather et al., 1996; Prather & Jansen, 1998; Steele & Vilgalys, 1994; Thorne, 1976, 1977)

Acanthogilioideae (1/1) (Acanthogilia) Warm temp BCal (Day & Moran, 1986; Grant, 1998; J. M. Porter & Johnson, 2000)

Cobaeoideae (3/18) (Bonplandia, Cantua, Cobaea) TropMant America(Mex--Andes) (Grant, 1998; J. M. Porter & Johnson, 2000)

Polemonioideae (16/340) TrapMant--Arct nEuras(Ice--Kam); Green & Alas--Fuegia (Grant, 1998; J. M. Porter & Johnson, 2000)

Diapensiales (B; 6/20)

Diapensiaceae (excl. Diplarche) (C; 6/20) Temp--Arct--alpEuras(Ice--Kam--Him); N(Green--Ga) (Palser, 1963; Samuelssan, 1913; Savile, 1979; Scatt & Day, 1983; Wood & Channell, 1959; Xi & Tang, 1990)

Sapotales (Ebenales) (C; 57/1,600) (Morton et al., 1996b; Wood & Channell, 1960)

Ebenaceae (C; 3/500) (Diospyros, Euclea, Royena) Trap--temp Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--Japan) neAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Conn) P(--Mic, Tanga) S(--Urug) WInd (B. White, 1956a, 1956b, 1957, 1962, 1963)

Lissocarpaceae (C; 1/2) (Lissocarpa) Trop S(Guy--Bol) (Dickison & Pfend, 1985; Oliver, 1895a; F. Vihite, 1981)

Sapotaceae (incl. Sarcosperma) (C; 53/1,100) Trap--warm temp Af(--Cape) seAs At(Can, Mad) neAu C E(nAf) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) sN(--Va) P(Mic, Poly) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Harley, 1986, 1991a, 1991b; Johnson, 1991; Ng, 1991; Pennington, 1990, 1991; Waterman & Mahmoud, 1991)

Primulales (C; 59/2,095) (Anderberg & Stahl, 1995; Anderberg et al., 2000; Carlquist, 1992b; Channell & Wood, 1959; Clinckemaillie & Smets, 1992; K. Dahlgren, 1916; Frohne & John, 1978; Morton et al., 1996b; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1977)

Maesaceae (1/100) (Maesa) Trap EHemisphere: Af(--CapeP) e, seAs(--Japan) Au (neQld) G Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) (Anderberg et al., 2000)

Theaphrastaceae (C; 6/95) Trop-subtr America(sFla, Mex, & Wind--Par) (Stah1, 1987, 1991)

Myrsinaceae (incl. Aegiceras) (C; 32/900) Trap--warm temp Af(--Cape) As (--Japan) At(--Mac) eAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Me(--Fiji) N(sFla) O P(--Marq) S(--Arg) WInd Z (E. H. Walker, 1940)

Primulaceae (incl. Coris) (C; 20/1,000) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(--Mac) seAu C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--NHeb) N(--Green) O P(--East) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Anderberg & Stahl, 1995; Anderberg et al., 1997, 1998; Carrion et al., 1993; Moeliana, 1966)

Malvanae (C; 840/17,545) (Thorne, 1981, 1983, 1992a, 1992b)

Malvales (C; 307/5,595)(Alverson et al., 1998, 1999; Bayer et al., 1998b; Dehay, 1938; Fay et al., 1998; Jansen et al., 2000; Nandi, 1998a)

Malvineae (incl. Sterculiineae) (C; 265/4,765)

Malvaceae (incl. Bombacaceae, Brownlawieae, Cheirantodendron, Dambeyeae, Fremontodendron, Sterculioideae) (B; 162/2,860) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As (--Japan) At(Ber) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Mass) P(--Mic, Marq, Coco) S(--Pat) WInd Z (Baum & Oginuma, 1994; C. Bayer, 1998a, 1998b; Brizicky, 1966; Christensen, 1986; Erdtman, 1954b; Fryxell & LaDuke, 1994; Judd & Manchester, 1997; LaDuke & Doebley, 1995; Manchester, 1992, 1994a; Nilsson & Rabyns, 1986; Sharma, 1970; Ya & Pan, 1994)

Bambacoideae (incl. Bombacaceae, Cheiranthodendron, Fremontodendron) (28/255) Trap Af seAs nwAu C(--Mex) Ma Me(--Sol) N(Cal) P(Coco) S(--Arg) WInd

Malvoideae (incl. Brownlowieae, Dambeyeae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaideae) (134/2,605) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Ber) Au C E(--nAf) GH I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Mass) P(--Marq) S(--Pat) WInd Z

Byttneriaceae (incl. Grewieae, Hermannieae, Lasiopetaleae, Theobromeae) (B; 67/1,500) Trap--warm temp Af seAs At(Ber) Au C G I(--Masc) Ma Me (--Fiji) sN(--NC, Cal) P(--Poly) S(--Chile) WInd (Whitlock et al., 1996, 2000)

Tiliaceae (exci. Brawnlowieae, Grewieae, Muntingia; incl. Goethalsia, Oceanopapaver sub. Corchorus) (B; 31/392) Trap--temp Af(--CapeP) As(--Japan) At (Ber) nAu C(--Mex) E(--nAf) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) eN(--Que) P(--Poly) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Brizicky, 1965b; Manchester, 1994b; Tirel et al., 1996)

Huaceae (B; 2/3) (Afrostyrax, Hua) Trap wAf(Ghana--Congo) (Baas, 1972; Beijersbergen, 1972; Chevalier, 1947; Dehay, 1951)

Neuradaceae (A; 3/10) (Grielum, Neurada, Neuradopsis) Subtr--temp EHemisphere: Af(Nam--Cape); nAf & Arab--India & Afgh (Alverson et al., 1998; Murbeck, 1916; Ronse Decraene, 1996)

Cistineae (C; 42/830) (Corner, 1976; Dathan & Singh, 1972; Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Nandi, 1998a; Swensen & Chase, 1995)

Bixaceae (C; 1/4) (Bixa) Trop America (WInd & Mex--Arg) (Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Fay et al., 1998; Keating, 1976; Tieghem, 1900)

Diegodendraceae (B; 1/1) (Diegodendron) Trop Ma (Capuron, 1963; Dickison, 1988; Fay & Chase, 1996; Fay et al., 1997a, 1998; Straka & Albers, 1978)

Cochlospermaceae (C; 2/20) (Amoreuxia, Cochlospermum) Trop-warm temp Af seAs nAu C Me(Mal, Sum) swN(Tex--Ariz) S(--Par) WInd (Ronse Decraene, 1989; Keating, 1969, 1972, 1976; Tieghem, 1900)

Cistaceae (C; 8/200) Subtr--temp Af(Sam) As(--sChina) At(Mac) C(Mex--Pan) E-nAf) N(--Nf) S(Braz--Chile) WInd (Brizicky, 1964a; Nandi, l998a, 1998b,)

Muntingiaceae (B; 3/3) (Dicrapidia, Muntingia, Neotessmannia) Trop America (Mex & WInd-Peru) (C. Bayer et al., 1998a)

Dipterocarpaccac (C; 17/550) Trop Af seAs I(Sey) Ma Me(NGu) S(Guy--Col) (Dayanandan et al., 1999; Gottwald & Parameswaran, 1966; Kostermans, 1985; Londono et al., 1995; Morton, 1995; Nandi, 1998b)

Pakaramaeoideae (1/1) (Pakaramaea) TropMont GuayH(Guy--Ven) (Giannasi & Niklas, 1977; Kostermans, 1978, 1985; Maguire, 1977; Maguire & Ashton, 1977, 1980; de Zeeuw, 1977)

Monotoideae (3/20) (Marquesia, Monotes, Pseudomonotes) Trap Af; Ma; Col (Bancroft, 1935; Londono et al., 1995; Morton, 1995)

Dipterocarpoideae (13/530) Trop seAs--NGu; Seyc (Ashton, 1979, 1982; Gattwald & Parameswaran, 1966; Maury et al., 1975)

Sarcolaenaceae (C; 8--10/34) Trap eMa (Ashton, 1982; Capuron, 1970; Carlquist, 1964b; Goldblatt, 1986; Hegnaur, 1989; Lowry et al., 1999; Nandi, 1998b; Outer & Schutz, 1981; Outer & Vooren 1980; Randrianolo & J. S. Miller, 1999)

Sphaerosepalaceae (Rhopalocarpaceae) (B; 2/17) (Dialyceras, Rhopalocarpus) Trop Ma (Boureau, 1958; Capuron, 1962; Huard, 1965; Outer & Schutz, 1981; Outer & Voaren, 1980; Schatz et al., 1999a; Swensen & Chase, 1995: Tieghem, 1900)

Urticales (C; 100/2,410) (Behnke, 1973; Berg, 1977, 1989, 1990; Collinson, 1989; Dehay, 1938; Evans & Campbell, 2000a; Gandgadhara & Inamdar, 1977; Gregory & Baas, 1989; Sytsma et al., 1996a, 2000; Thorne, 1973, 1974, 1976; Wolfe, 1989; Zavada & Kim, 1996; Zhou & Jiang, 1990)

Ulmaceae (incl. Ampelocera, Zelkova) (C; 7/40) TrapMont--temp Euras(--Kam); Nf--Pan (Giannasi, 1978; Manchester, 1989b, 1989c; Takahashi, 1989; Todzia, 1993b; Tobe, 1987; Wiegrefe et al., 1998; Zavada, 1983; Zavada & Kim, 1996)

Celtidaceae (incl. Aphananthe) (C; 9/185) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At (Ber) nAu C E G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Marq) S(--Arg) WInd (Giannasi, 1978; Manchester, 1989b; Takahashi, 1989; Wiegrefe et al., 1998; Zavada, 1983; Zavada & Kim, 1996)

Maraceae (C; 37/1,100) Trop--temp Af(--CapeP) As(--Japan) n, eAu C seE G H I(Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Vt) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Arg) WInd Z (Berg, 1973, 1977; Corner, 1962; Humphries & Blackmore, 1989; Punt & Eetnerink, 1982; Rohwer, 1993b)

Cecropiaceae (C; 5/260) Trap Af seAs C(--Mex) Me(--Sol) P(Coco) S(--seBraz) Wind (Berg, 1978; Berg et al., 1990; Kravtsova, 1995; Kubitzki, 1993e)

Urticaceae (incl. Poikilospermum) (C; 39/820) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac, Ber) Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N (--Green) 0 P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (I. Friis, 1989a, 1993b; Kravtsova, 1995)

Cannabaceae (C; 3/3) (Cannabis, Humulus, Humulopsis) Temp Euras (--nAf); NS & Montana--NC & Cal (Grudzinskaya, 1988; Kubitzki, 1993d; Miller, 1970; Mohan Ram & Nath, 1964)

Rhamnales (C; 58/925) (Behnke, 1974b; Corner, 1976; Evans & Campbell, 2000a; Qiu et al., 1998; Swensen, 1996; Sytsma et al., 1996a; Thorne, 1976, 1979; Wiegrefe et al., 1998)

Rhamnaceae (C; 53/875) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Nf, BrC) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Brizicky, 1964b; Richardson et al., 1997)

Elaeagnaceae (C; 3/50) (Elaeagnus, Hippophae, Shepherdia) Trop--bor As(--Japan) Au(neQld) nE(--Finl) Me(--Bis) N(--Alas) P(Bonin) (Behnke, 1995b; S. Graham, 1964b; Veldkamp, 1986)

Dirachmaceae (B; 1/1) (Dirachma) Arid Socot (Boesewinkel & Bouman, 1997; Link, 1991; Thulin et al., 1998)

Barbeyaceae (B; 1/1) (Barbeya) Subtr Eth--Arab (Boesewinkel & Bouman, 1997; Dickison & Sweitzer, 1970; I. Friis, 1993a; Rendle, 1916; Sytsma et al., 1996a; Tobe & Takahashi, 1990; Thulin et al., 1998)

Euphorbiales (C; 375/8,615) (Corner, 1976; Dehay, 1938; Thorne, 1976)

Euphorbiaceae (incl. Bischofia) (C; 321/7,770) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Ber) Au C E G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (U. Jensen et al., 1994; Kapil & Bhatnagar, 1994; Punt, 1987; Seigler, 1994; C. Vogel, 1986; Webster, 1967, 1987a, 1987b, 1994; Wurdack & Chase, 1996)

Phyllanthoideae (excl. Drypeteae) Trop--temp Af As(--Japan) At(CapeV) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN(--Penn) P(--Marq) S(--Arg) Wind (Klucking, 1997; Levin, 1986; Levin & Simpson, 1994b; Mennega, 1987; Tokuoka & Tobe, 1999)

Oldfieldioideae (incl. Androstachys, Hymenocardia, Picrodendron) Trop--warm temp Af As Au C(--Mex) Ma Me sN(Cal) sWInd(Bah--Jam) (Hakki, 1985; Hayden, 1977, 1987, 1994; Hayden & Brandt, 1984; Klucking, 1997; Levin & Simpson, 1994a; van Wyk in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Lobreau--Callen & Suarez Cervera, 1994)

Acalyphoideae (incl. Panda) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At Au C E G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Soc) S(--Arg) WInd (Kapil & Bhatnagar, 1994; Nowicke, 1984; Nowicke et al., 1998; Seigler, 1994; Vaughan & Rest, 1969)

Crotonoideae Trop--temp Af(--Cape) As At(Ber) Au C E G I(--Masc) Ma Me (--Fiji) N(--ND) P(--Tonga) S(--Chile) WInd Z(Nowicke, 1994b; Tokuoka & Tobe, 1998)

Euphorbioideae Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Poly) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Gilbert, 1994)

Gonystylaceae (C; 3/23) (Aetoxylon, Amyxa, Gonystylus) Trop seAs--Fiji (Nowicke et al., 1985)

Thymelaeaceae (C; 47/695) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(Socot) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Corner, 1976; Domke, 1934; Evans & Soper, 1978; Fay et al., 1997a; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Nowicke, 1994b; Ourisson, 1974; Schmidt, 1987; Seigler, 1994)

Aquilarioideae (5/40) Trop EHemisphere: Af seAs Au(neQld) G Ma Me(--NHeb)

Gilgiodaphnoideae (1/1) (Synandrodaphne) Trop wAf

Thymelaeoideae (41/655) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H I Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z

Simmondsiaceae (C; 1/1) (Simmondsia) warm temp N(Cal--nwMex) (Behnke, 1982a; Carlquist, 1982b; Gentry, 1958; Kakkar, 1973; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1984; Scogin, 1980; Thorne, 1981, 1985)

Dichapetalaceae (B; 3/125) (Dichapetalum, Stephanopodium, Tapura) Trop Af seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) S(--Braz, Peru) WInd (Prance, 1972b; Punt, 1975, 1976)

Celastranae (B; 64/1,035)

Celastrales (C; 64/1,035) (Record, 1938; Savolainen et al., 1994, 1997; Simmons & Hedin, 1999)

Celastraceae (incl. Acanthothamnus, Canotia, Hippocrateoideae, Plagiopteron) (C; 54/950) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac, Ber) Au C E G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd (Baas et al., 1979; Brizicky, 1964c; Clevinger & Panero, 1998; Erdtman, 1954b; Gibson, 1979; Hartog & Baas, 1978; Simmons & Hedin, 1999; Simmons et al., 2000; Tobe & Raven, 1993)

Celastroideae (25/?) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd

Tripterygioideae (5/34) Trop--temp eAs(--Japan) Au C(--Mex) Ma S(--Arg)

Elaeodendroideae (Cassinoideae, Hippocrateoideae) (24/?) Trop--subtr Af (--Cape) seAs At(Ber) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(sFla) P(Car) sWInd (Clevinger & Panero, 1998)

Siphonodontaceae (1/5) (Siphonodon) Trop seAs--Bis; neQld (Croizat, 1947a; Hartog & Baas, 1978)

Goupiaceae (B; 2/8) (Bhesa, Goupia) Trop Indomalesia; S(Braz, Guy, Sur) (Hartog & Baas, 1978; Miers, 1862)

Brexiaceae (B; 1/1) (Brexia) Trop eAf--Ma, Seyc (Bensel & Palser, 1975; Kamelina, 1988; Koontz & Soltis, 1996; Morgan & Soltis, 1993; Tobe & Raven, 1993)

Lophopyxidaceae (B; 1/2) (Lophopyxis) Trop Mal--Sol, Palau (Pfeiffer, 1951; Sleumer, 1968)

Stackhousiaceae (B; 3/16) Trop--temp P: Au Me(Sum--NGu) P(Car) Z (W. Barker, 1984; Carlquist, 1987b; Mauritzon, 1936b; Narang, 1953; Stant, 1952)

Macgregorioideae (1/1) (Macgregoria) Temp Au

Stackhousioideae (2/15) (Stackhousia, Tripterococcus) Trop--temp P: Au--Tas; Z; Sum & Phil--NGu; Car (Barker, 1984)

Lepuropetalaceae (B; 1/1) (Lepuropetalon) Subtr--temp America(NC--Ga & Tex; Mex; Urug--Chile) (Gastony & Soltis, 1977)

Parnassiaceae (B; 1/50) (Parnassia) Temp--Arct Euras(Ice--nAf--Japan); Green--Mex (Bensel & Palser, 1975; Gastony & Soltis, 1977; Savolainen et al., 1997)

Santalanae (B; 145/1,985) (Kuijt, 1968, 1969; Nickrent, 1996; Record, 1938)

Santalales (C; 145/1,985) (Fagerlind, 1947, 1948; Fineran, 1991; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Johri & Bhatnagar, 1960; Lobreau--Callen, 1980, 1982; Sleumer, 1984; Stauffer, 1961)

Olacaceae (C; 29/180) Trop--warm temp Af seAs(--sJapan) Au(--Tas) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(Fla) P(--Soc) S(--Pat) WInd (Baas et al., 1982; Fagerlind, 1947; Reed, 1955; Sleumer, 1980, 1984)

Olacoideae (27/170) Trap--warm temp Af seAs(--sJapan) Au(--Tas) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(Fla) P(--Soc) S(--Pat) WInd

Octoknemoideae (1/6) (Octoknema) Trop Af(Reed, 1955)

Erythropaloideae (1/2) (Erythropalum) Trap seAs--Java, Sul (Fagerlind, 1946)

Opiliaceae (C; 9/30) Trap Af seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) Ma Me(--Bis) S(--Arg) (Hiepko, 1979, 1984; Hiepko & Lobreau--Callen, 1987; Reed, 1955)

Medusandraceae (C; 1/2) (Medusandra) Trap wAf (Brenan, 1952; Metcalfe, 1952) Santalaceae (incl. Okoubaka) (C; 30/400) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan)At(Can) Au C E G H I(Socot) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Alas) P(--Marq, Fern) S(--Fuegia) Z (Swamy, 1949b)

Misodendraceae (C; 1/11) (Misodendrum) Cool temp S(--Fuegia) (Carlquist, 1985e; Feuer, 1981)

Loranthaceae (C; 65/950) Trap--temp Af As(--Japan) Au C(--Mex) sE(--nAf) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Marq) S(--Pat, Chile) Wind Z (Barlow, 1964, 1983, 1997; Barlow & Weins, 1971; Calder & Bernhardt, 1983; Kuijt, 1982)

Eremolepidaceae (C; 3/12) (Antidaphne incl. Eremolepis, Eubrachion, Lepidoceras) TrapMont--warm temp America( WInd & Mex--Arg) (Kuijt, 1982, 1988; Wiens & Barlow, 1971)

Viscaceae (C; 7/400) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Alas, Nf) P(--Marq) S(sBraz, Par) WInd Z (Barlow, 1964, 1983, 1997; Calder & Bernhardt, 1983; Wiens & Barlow, 1971)

Balanophoranae (A; 19/48) (Takhtajan, 1997)

Balanophorales (C; 19/48) (Kuijt, 1969; Visser, 1981)

Balanophoraceae (C; 18/46) Trap--warm temp seAf seAs(--China) neAu C(--Mex) G Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--East) S(--seBraz) WInd Z (Hansen, 1972, 1975, 1980, 1986; Hansen & Engell, 1978)

Mystropetaloideae (1/1) (Mystropetalon) Trap--warm temp Af(CapeP) (Harvey--Gibson, 1913)

Dactylanthoideae (2/2) (Dactylanthus, Hachettea) Trap NCal; subtr NZ

Sarcaphytoideae (2/3) (Chiamydophytum, Sarcophyte) Trop--warm temp Af (--CapeP)

Helosidoideae (Scybalioideae) (6/15) Trap seAs--Mol; Ma; Mex--seBraz; WInd (Hansen & Engell, 1978)

Lophophytoideae (4/8) Trap--subtr S(--Chile); Gal (Hansen & Engell, 1978)

Violales (C; 283/5,150) (Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Kolbe & John, 1979; Mauritzon, 1936a; Spencer, 1987)

Balanophoroideae (3/17) (Balanophora, Langsdorffia, Thonningia) Trop Af seAs(--China) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) G Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--East) S(--seBraz) (Fagerlind, 1945; Hansen & Engell, 1978)

Cynomoriaceae (B; 1/1 or 2) (Cynomorium) warm temp EHemisphere: Can--Egypt; Som & Palestine-----Mong, China) (Juel, 1910; Lye, 1991; Weddell, 1860)

Violanae (C; 283/5,150)

Violineae (incl. Salicineae) (C; 141/2,945)

Violaceae (C; 23/900) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(--Az) Au(--Tas) C B (--Ice) G H Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) P(--Tonga, Sam) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Brizicky, 1961b; Hekking, 1988; Hodges et al., 1995; Melchior, 1925)

Violoideae (21/890) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au(--Tas) C E (--Ice) G H Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) P(--Tonga, Sam) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z

Leonioideae (1/6) (Leonia) Trop S(--Braz & Peru)

Fusispermoideae (1/3) (Fusispermum) Trop America(Pan, Cal, & Peru)

Flacourtiaceae (incl. Flacourtieae, Homalieae, Scolopieae, Casearieae, Bembicieae, Abatia, Neopringlea, Oncoba, Prockia but excl. Alzatea, Berberidopsis, Paropsiae) (C; 56/ca. 745) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--Japan) eAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(seTex) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd (Behnke, 1998; Bernhard, 1999; Bernhard & Endress, 1999; Chase et al., 1996; Heel, 1979; Keating, 1973, 1976; Lemke, 1987b, 1988; Lemke & Angerstein, 1994; Meeuse, 1975; Miller, 1975; Morawetz, 1981)

Flacourtioideae (incl. Abatia) (54/ca. 730) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--Japan) eAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(seTex) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) Wind (Lemke, 1987a)

Lacistematoideae (2/14) (Lacistema, Lozania) Trop America(Mex--Arg; WInd) (Burger, 1977; Chirtoiu, 1918; Morawetz, 1981)

Kiggelariaceae (B; 27/ca. 150) (Erythrospermeae, Kiggelarieae incl. Pangium) Trop Af(--Cape) s, seAs(--Hainan) I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Sam, Yap) S (Bernhard & Endress, 1999; Nandi et al., 1998)

Salicaceae (C; 2/485) (Populus, Salix incl. Chosenia) Trop--Arct Af(--Cape) As (--Kam) At(Mac) C E(Ice--nAf) Ma Me(--Java, Barn, Phil) N(--Green) S(--Pat, Chile) Wind (Argus, 1997; Fisher, 1928; Hang & Chen, 1987; Leskinen & Alstrom-Rapaport, 1999; Meeuse, 1975; Newsholme, 1992; Thorne, 1983)

Achariaceae (C; 3/3) (Acharia, Ceratiosicyos, Guthriea) Warm temp sAf(CapeP) (Chase et al., 1996; van Wyk in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988)

Scyphostegiaceae (C; 1/1) (Scyphostegia) TropMont Sum (Chase et al., 1996; Heel, 1967; Hou, 1972; Metcalfe, 1956b; Swamy, 1953b)

Dipentodontaceae (C; 1/1) (Dipentodon) Subtr--warm temp As(neIndia, Burma --swChina) (Lobreau-Callen, 1982; Merrill, 1941)

Peridiscaceae (B; 2/2) (Peridiscus, Whittonia) Trop S(Braz, Ven) (Metcalfe, 1962; Oliver, 1895b)

Passifloraceae (incl. Paropsieae) (C; 17/520) Trop-warm temp Af(--CapeP) seAs At(Ber) n, eAu C G I(Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Penn) P(--Tonga, Gal) S(--Arg) WInd Z (Brizicky, 1961a; Spencer, 1987)

Turneraceae (C; 8/110) Trop-warm temp swAf At(Ber) C(--Mex) I(--Masc) Ma seN(--SC) S(--Arg) WInd (Brizicky, 1961a; Mauritzon, 1933b; Vijayaraghavan & Kaur, 1966)

Malesherbiaceae (C; 1/29) (Malesherbia) Andean S(Peru-nChile & wArg) (Carlquist, 1984d; Gengler, 1997; Ricardi, 1967; Spencer & Seigler, 1985)

Elaeocarpineae (B; 9/350)

Elaeocarpaceae (excl. Muntingia) (C; 9/350) Trop--temp se, eAs(--Japan) eAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Poly) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Brizicky, 1965b; Corner, 1976; Ditsch & Barthlott, 1994; Mauritzon, 1934a; C. E. Smith, 1954; Takhtajan, 1997)

Tamaricineae (C; 7/170) (Campbell & Thomson, 1976; Corner, 1976)

Tamaricaceae (incl. Hololachna, Myrtama) (C; 5/78) Subtr--temp EHemisphere: CapeP--nAf & Mac; Euras(Norway--Japan) (Baum, 1966; Baum et al., 1971; Crins, 1989; John & Kak, 1954)

Frankeniaceae (C; 2/90) (Frankenia, Hypericopsis) Trop--cool temp Af(--Cape) wAs(--China) At(--Mac, SHel) Au C sE(--nAf) swN(Cal) P(Desv) S(--Pat, Fuegia) (Corner, 1976; Mauritzon, 1933b; Walia & Kapil, 1965; Whalen, 1987a, 1987b)

Beganiineae (incl. Cucurbitineae) (C; 126/1,685) (Swensen et al., 1994)

Cucurbitaceae (C; 118/760) Subcasm Af(--CapeP) sw, eAs(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Soc) S(--Chile) Wind Z (Bates et al., 1990; Carlquist, 1992c; Jeffrey, 1990; Jobst et al., 1998; Swensen & Walsh, 1997)

Nhandiroboideae (Zanonioideae) (18/80) Trop Af seAs Au C(--Mex) Me(--Bis) S(--Braz) WInd

Cucurbitoideae (100/680) Subcosm Af(--CapeP) sw, eAs(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Soc) S(--Chile) WInd Z

Begoniaceae (C; 5/920) Trop--subtr Af(--CapeP) As(--nChina) C(--Mex) H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) S(--Arg) WInd (Bouman & Lange, 1983; Carlquist, 1985a)

Datiscaceae (incl. Tetrameleae) (C; 3/4) (Datisca, Octomeles, Tetrameles) Trop --temp Crete--sAs; SriL & sChina--Sol & neQld; Cal & wNev--BCal (Boesewinkel, 1984b; Davidson, 1973, 1976; Rieseberg et al., 1992; Steenis, 1953; Swensen et al., 1994)

Tetrameloideae (2/2) (Octomeles, Tetrameles) Trop EHemisphere: SriL & sChina--Sol & neQld)

Datiscoideae (1/2) (Datisca) Temp Crete--sAs; Cal & wNev--BcaI

Capparanae (B; 449/4,140)

Capparales (Brassicales, Resedales) (C; 449/4,140) (Dahlgren, 1983; Ernst, 1963a; Ettlinger, 1987; Ettlinger & Kjaer, 1968; Gandolfo et al., 1998b; Gershenson & Mabry, 1983; Gerstberger, 1987; Jorgensen, 1987; Rodman, 1987, 1988, 1991; Rodman et al., 1993, 1996, 1998)

Resedaceae (C; 6/75) Subtr--temp Af(--CapeP) sw, cAs(--nwIndia) At(Mac) C (nMex) E(--nAf) swN(Cal--Tex) P(Guad) (Abdallah & de Wit, 1967, 1978; Carlquist, 1998a; Orr, 1921)

Setchellanthaceae (C; 1/1) (Setchellanthus) warm temp, arid--semi--arid Mex (Carlquist & Miller, 1999; Iltis, 1999; Karol et al., 1999; Tobe et al., 1999; Tomb, 1999)

Capparaceae (C; 36/505) Trop--temp Af(--CapeP) As(--sJapan) Au C E(Med) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--BrC) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd (Anuradha et al., 1988; Ernst, 1963; Orr, 1921)

Tovarioideae (1/2) (Tovaria) TropMont America(Mex--Peru & Bol; WInd) (Boesewinkel, 1990; Carlquist, 1985c; D'Arcy, 1979a; Fisel & Weberling, 1990; Goldblatt, 1979a; Mauritzon, 1934b)

Pentadiplandroideae (1/2) (Pentadiplandra) Trop wAf (Erdtman, 1954a)

Koeberlinioideae (1/1) (Koeberlinia) Trop--warm temp America: swUSA, Mex; Bol (Gibson, 1979; Mehta & Moseley, 1981)

Capparoideae (incl. Dipterygium; excl. Oceanopapaver) (32/ca. 500) Trop --warm temp Af(--CapeP) As(--sJapan) Au C E(Med) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN(Fla) P(--Poly) S(--Pat) WInd (Anuradha et al., 1988; Hedge et al., 1980)

Emblingioideae (1/1) (Emblingia) Temp wAu (Erdtman et a1., 1969; Rodman et al., 1996)

Cleomaceae (incl. Buhsia, Podandrogyne) (15/ca. 175) Trop--temp Af(--CapeP) As Au C E I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--BrC) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd (Erbar & Leins, 1997; Hall & Sytsma, 2000; Iltis, 1957)

Brassicaceae (excl. Dipterygium) (C; 370/3,200) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Hedge, 1976; Janchen, 1942; Rollins, 1993; Vaughan et al., 1976)

Gyrostemonaceae (C; 5/17) Temp Au (Behnke, 1977; Carlquist, 1978c; Erdtman, 1954b; George, 1982; Goldblatt et al., 1976; Hufford, 1996; Keighery, 1985; Prijanto, 1970a; Tobe & Raven, 1991)

Bataceae (C; 1/2) (Batis) Trop--warm temp nAu--sNGu; SC--Wind--Braz; Cal--nPeru & Gal (Carlquist, 1978c; Dahlgren, 1975a; Giannasi, 1988; Goldblatt, 1976c; U. Jensen et al., 1994; Nowicke & Skvarla, 1979; Prijanto, 1970b; Rogers, 1982; Royen, 1957)

Salvadoraceae (C; 3/12) (Azima, Dobera, Salvadora) Trop EHemisphere: Af (--Cape); Ma; se, eAs-Mal & Phil (Rodman, 1991; Rodman et al., 1998)

Limnanthaceae (C; 2/11) (Floerkea, Limnanthes) Temp N(Que & BrC--Tenn & esp. Cal) (Carlquist & Donald, 1996; Maheshwari & John, 1956; Mason, 1952; Ornduff & Crovello, 1968; Plotkin & Sanderson, 1997; Price & Palmer, 1993)

Tropaeolaceae (C; 3/89) (Magallana, Tropaeolum, Trophaeastrum) TropMont America: Mex--cool temp Chile(--Fuegia) (Carlquist & Donald, 1996; Chadefaud, 1974; Devi & Narayana, 1994; Gadek et al., 1992; Huynh, 1968; Price & Palmer, 1993; Sparre & Andersson, 1991; Tiwari et al., 1977)

Akaniaceae (C; 1/1) (Akania) Subtr eAu(NSW--Qld) (Carlquist, 1996c; Gadek et al., 1992; Romero & Hickey, 1976; Stapf, 1912; Tobe & Raven, 1995)

Bretschneideraceae (C; 1/2) (Bretschneidera) Subtr--temp e, seAs: China incl. Tai, Thai (Boufford et al., 1989; Carlquist, 1996c; Gadek et al., 1992; Tang, 1935; Tobe, 1990)

Moringaceae (C; 1/14) (Moringa) Trop--subtr EHemisphere: Nam; Ma; nAf & Som--India & sChina (Ernst, 1963a; I. Ferguson, 1985; Steenis, 1948; Verdcourt, 1985)

Caricaceae (C; 4/35) Trop--subtr Af; Mex & Jam--Chile (Badillo, 1971; Carlquist, 1998c; Jorgensen, 1995)

Rutanae (C; 1,133/23,830) (Giannasi, 1988; U. Jensen et al., 1994)

Rutales (Sapindales) (C; 1,133/23,830) (Gadek et al., 1996; Mauritzon, 1936c; Waterman, 1983; Waterman & Grundon, 1983)

Rutineae (C; 330/3,885) (Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Hegnauer, 1978a; Silva et al., 1988; Thorne, 1974b)

Rutaceae (C; 155/1,650) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Man) At(Mac) Au C sE(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Soc) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Brizicky, 1962a; Chase et al., 1999; Dreyer, 1966; Gregor, 1989; Morton et al., 1996a; J. Price, 1963; Ramp, 1988; Waterman, 1975, 1983, 1990)

Rutoideae (incl. Chloroxylon, Flindersia, Luvunga, Toddalioideae) (120/?) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Man) At (Mac) Au C sE(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Soc) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Gregon, 1989)

Limaniaideae (Citroideae, Aurantiaideae) (30/?) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) e, seAs(--Japan) eAu C(--Mex) G Ma Me(--Sol) P(Mar)

Spatheliaideae (incl. Dictyloma, Harrisonia) (5/25) Trap America (Bah--Braz, Bol) (Chase et al., 1999; Vieira et al., 1988)

Cneoraceae (C; 1/3) (Cneorum) Temp Med & Can; trap eCuba (Boesewinkel, 1984a; Cariquist, 1988a; Chase et al., 1999; Lobreau-Callen & Jeremie, 1986; Labreau-Callen et al., 1978; Straka et al., 1976)

Ptaeroxylaceae (C; 2/8) (Cedrelopsis, Ptaeroxylon) Trap sAf(CapeP); Ma (Chase et aT., 1999; LeRoy, 1959; van Wyk in Dahigren & van Wyk, 1988; F. White, 1986, 1990)

Rhabdadendraceae (A; 1/3) (Rhabdodendron) Trap Amaz (Behnke, 1976e, 1977a; Prance, 1968; Puff & Weber, 1976; Tabe & Raven, 1989)

Simaraubaceae (incl. Leitneria; excl. Harrisonia) (C; 21/150) Trap--warm temp Af se, eAs(--Japan) Au(eQld) C(--Mex) G I(--Seyc, Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN (Fla, Ariz--Cal) P(--wcPaly) S(--Arg) WInd (Brizicky, 1962b; Channell & Waod, 1962; Fernando & Quinn, 1995; Fernanda et al., 1995; Godfrey & Clewell, 1965; Jarvis, 1989; Naateboam, 1962; Qiu et al., 1998; Ramp, 1988)

Kirkiaceae (C; 1/5) (Kirkia) Trop & sAf(--Transv) (Erdtman, 1954b; Fernanda & Quinn, 1995)

Picramniaceae (C; 2/50) Trap--subtr America (Mex--Arg; sFla--WInd) (Femanda & Quinn, 1995)

Picramniaideae (1/45) (Picramnia) Trop-subtr America(Mex--Arg, sFla--WInd)

Alvaradoideae (1/5) (Alvaradoa) Trap-subtr America (Mex--Arg, sFla-WInd)

Biebersteiniaceae (B; 1/5) (Biebersteinia) Temp Euras(Greece-WChina) (Bakker et al., 1998; Bate-Smith, 1973; Carner, 1976)

Peganaceae (B; 3/7) (Malacocarpus, Peganum, Tetradiclis) Temp-arid Euras (Egypt--eMed--Mang); N(Tex--Mex) (Gadek et al., 1996; Ranse Decraene et al., 1996; Kapil & Ahluwalia, 1963; Sheahan & Chase, 1994; Sheahan & Cutler, 1993)

Nitrariaceae (B; 1/8) (Nitraria) Temp EHemisphere: nAf& seEur--Sib; sAu (Ranse Decraene & Smets, 1991b; Gadek et al., 1996; Sheahan & Chase, 1994; Sheahan & Cutler, 1993)

Meliaceae (C; 52/600) Trap--warm temp Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--Japan) neAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) P(--Caok) S(--Par) WInd Z (Cheek & Rakatazafy, 1991; Das et al., 1984; Mabberley et al., 1995; Pennington & Styles, 1975)

Melioideae (incl. Nymania) (37/550) Trap-warm temp Af(--CapeP) e, seAs (--Japan) neAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Caak) S(--Par) WInd Z (van Wyk in Dahigren & van Wyk, 1988; F. White, 1986)

Quivisianthoideae (1/1) (Quivisiantha) Trop Ma

Capuranianthoideae (1/1) (Capuronianthus) Trop Ma

Swieteniaideae (13/47) Trap-warm temp Af e, seAs neAu C(--Mex) Ma Me (--Fiji) seN(sFla) P(--Tanga) S(--Par) WInd

Lepidabatryaceae (B; 2/2) (Lepidobotrys, Ruptiliocarpon) Trap wAf--C, S (Hammel & Zamara, 1993; Mennega, 1993; Tabe & Hammel, 1993)

Burseraceae (incl. Neomangenotia = Commiphora) (C; 17/540) Trap-warm temp Af(--CapeP)seAsAuC(--Mex)GI(--Maur)MaMe(--Fiji)sN(Fla, Ariz--Cal) P(--Tonga, Gal) S(--Par, sBraz) WInd (Brizicky, 1962b; Cheek & Rakotozafy, 1991; Forman et al., 1989; Khalid, 1983; Lam, 1932)

Anacardiaceae (incl. Blepharocarya, Dobinea) (C; 72/850) Trop--cool temp Af (--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) nAu C sE(--nAf) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me (--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Soc) SC--Chile) WInd nZ (Brizicky, 1962c; Stern, 1952; Terrazas & Chase, 1996; Wannan & Quinn, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992; Wannan et al., 1987; Young, 1976, 1981; Young & Aist, 1987)

Anacardioideae (8/115) Trop Af As(--Tai) nAu C(--Mex) Ma Me(Sum, Phil--Sol) P(Mic, Sam) S (Takhtajan, 1997)

Spondioideae (incl. Julianiaceae, Pistachia) (62/730) Trop--cool temp Af (--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) nAu C sE(--nAf) G H I(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Soc) S(--Chile) WInd, nZ (Copeland, 1955; Hallier, 1908; Petersen & Fairbrothers, 1979; Record & Hess, 1943; Takhtajan, 1997; Young, 1976)

Dobineoideae (2/3) (Dobinea, Campylopetalum) TropMont As: eHim, China (Yunnan)

Tepuianthaceae (A; 1/5) (Tepuianthus) TropMont S: Ven--Col(GuayH) (Maguire & Steyermark, 1981; Roth & Lindarf, 1990)

Coriariineae (B; 1/5)

Coriariaceae (C; 1/5) (Coriaria) TropMont--temp s, eAs(Pak--Japan) C(--Mex) E(wMed) Me(--Fiji) P(--Soc) S(Andes--Chile) Z (Bohm & Ornduff, 1981; Carlquist, 1985b; Duyjes, 1993; Garg, 1981; Petseon, 1970; Praglowski, 1970a; Skog, 1972; Suzuki & Yoda, 1989; Tobe & Suzuki, 1993)

Sapindineae (C; 150/1550) (Thorne, 1974b)

Sapindaceae (incl. Filicium) (C; 145/ca. 1,490) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) seAs(--Japan) At(Ber) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Alas) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Chile, Arg) WInd Z (Adema et al., 1994; Brizicky, 1963; Eastop, 1973; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Judd et al., 1994; Umadevi & Daniel, 1991)

Dodonaeoideae (1/68) (Dodonaea) Trop-warm temp Af seAs At(Ber) Au C H I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN(Fla--Ariz) P(Marq, Gal) sWind Z

Koelreuterioideae (28/ca. 50) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) eAs Au C I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN S(--Chile) WInd Z

Sapindoideae (112/ca. 1,230) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) e, seAs(--Japan) At(Ber) Au C G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN(--Ga, Kan) P(--Marq, Gal) sWInd

Hippocastanoideae (2/15) (Aesculus, Billia) Trap--temp seEur--eAs(--Japan); Penn & Michigan--Fla & Tex; Cal--Ecu (Hardin, 1957; Umadevi et al., 1986; Xiang et a!., 1996b)

Aceroideae (2/125) (Acer, Dipteronia) Trop--temp Euras(--nAf)--Java, Sul; Alas --Guat (Gelderen et al., 1994; Hegnauer, 1989; Tanai, 1978; Umadevi et al., 1986; Wolfe & Tanai, 1987)

Melianthaceae (C; 2/15) (Bersama, Melianthus) Trap Af--temp Cape (van Wyk in Dahigren & van Wyk, 1988; Mauritzon, 1936c; Takahashi & Kawano, 1989; Umadevi et al., 1986)

Sabiaceae (C; 3/45) Trop--temp e, seAs(--Sol); Mex--Peru; WInd; Rev (Beusekom & Water, 1989; Carlquist, 1993b; Carlquist et al., 1993; Mauritzon, 1936c; Water, 1980)

Meliosmoideae (2/25) (Meliosma, Ophiocaryon) Trop--temp As(--Japan)NGu; Mex--Peru; WInd

Sabioideae (1/19) (Sabia) Trop--temp eAs(--Japan)--Sol

Fabineae (C; 652/18,390) (Ditsch et al., 1995; Thorne, 1981)

Connaraceae (C; 16/380) Trop Af(--Natal) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) S(--seBraz, Bol) WInd (Breteler, 1989; Corner, 1976; Dickison, 1971-1973, 1979, 1981b; Forero, 1983)

Connaroideae (15/375) Trop Af(--Natal) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Tonga) S(--seBraz, Bol) WInd

Jollydoroideae (1/3) (Jollydora) Trop wAf

Fabaceae (C; 630/18,000) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac, Ber) Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Behnke & Pop, 1981; Chappill, 1995; Crepet & Taylor, 1985; Crisp & Doyle, 1995; Ditsch et al., 1995; Doyle, 1995; Doyle et al., 1997; Erdtman, 1954b; I. Ferguson & Skvarla, 1988; El Gazzar & El Fiki, 1977; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Giannasi, 1988; Gottlieb et al., 1994; Guinet & Ferguson, 1989; Heel, 1993; Hegnauer, 1956, 1989; Herendeen, 1995; Herendeen et al., 1992; Isely, 1998; Manning & Stirton, 1994; Martin & Dowd, 1990; Polhill & Raven, 1981; Stirton & Zarucchi, 1989; Thorne, 1981)

Caesalpinoideae (150/2,700) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) Se, eAs(--Japan) At(Ber) neAu C sE G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Vt, Minn) P(--Marq) S(--Pat) WInd (I. Ferguson et al., 1994; Hou et al., 1996; Isely, 1975; Wunderlin et al., 1987)

Mimosoideae (40/2,500) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Ber) Au C G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Va, ND) P(--Tonga) S(--Pat) WInd (Crepet & Taylor, 1985, 1986; Elias, 1981; Isely, 1973)

Faboideae (incl. Swartzieae) (440/12,800) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At (--Mac, sAtl) Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Behnke, 1981b; Doyle et al., 1996; Endo & Ohashi, 1998; I. Ferguson et al., 1994; Herendeen, 1995; Isely, 1981)

Surianaceae (incl. Recchia, Stylobasium) (B; 5/7) Trop--subtr coastal Af(--Moz) seAs(--sChina) At(Ber) Au C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--NGu) N(sFla) P(--Poly) nS(--eBraz) WInd (Behnke et al., 1996; Carlquist, 1978c; Crayn et al., 1995; Fernando et al., 1993; Gutzwiller, 1961; Heo & Tobe, 1994)

Quillajaceae (B; 1/4) (Quillaja) Temp S (Goldblatt, 1976a; Morgan et al., 1994; Steele et al., 2000)

Proteanae (B; 79/1,690)

Proteales (C; 79/1,690) (Martin & Dowd, 1990; Thorne, 1981)

Proteaceae (C; 79/1,690) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) seAs(--sJapan) Au(--Tas) C(--Mex) G Ma Me(--Fiji) P(Car) S(--Pat) Z (Behnke, 1995b; Dettmann & Jarzen, 1990, 1991; Feuer, 1986, 1990; Johnson & Briggs, 1975, 1981; Venkata Rao, 1957)

Persoonioideae (5/102) Trop--temp Au(-Tas); NCal; NZ (Douglas & Tucker, 1996; Weston, 1995)

Bellendenoideae (1/1) (Bellendena) Cool Tas (Weston, 1995)

Eidotheoideae (1/1) (Eidothea) Trop Qld (Douglas & Hyland, 1995)

Proteoideae (26/635) Trop--warm temp EHemisphere: Af(--Cape) Au Ma

Sphalmioideae (1/1) (Sphalmium) Trop neQld (Briggs et al., 1975)

Carnarvonioideae (1/2) (Carnarvonia) Trop nQld

Grevilleoideae (44/950) Trap--warm temp Af(Cape) Se, eAs(--sJapan) Au C (--Mex) G Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Sam) S(--Pat) Z

Geranianae (B; 204/6,066) (Welzen & Baas, 1984)

Geraniales (incl. Linales) (C; 114/3,775) (Rury, 1985; Welzen & Baas, 1984)

Humiriaceae (C; 8/50) Trop wAf; America(Nic, CRica & Coco--seBraz & Peru) (Boesewinkel, 1985; Cuatrecasas, 1961; Ham, 1989; Hooren & Nooteboom, 1986a; Narayana & Rao, 1978; Record & Hess, 1943; Suryakanta, 1974)

Ctenolophonaceae (C; 1/3) (Ctenolophon) Trap EHemisphere: wAf; seAs--NGu (Erdtman, 1954b; Hooren & Nooteboom, 1986b; Link, 1992b; Saad, 1962)

Hugoniaceae (C; 5/55) Trap EHemisphere: Af--Ma & Masc; seAs--Fiji & Ncal (Takhtajan, 1997)

Irvingiaceae (B; 3/10) (Desbordesia, Irvingia, Klainedoxa) Trop EHemisphere: Af; seAs--Born (Erdtman, 1954b; Fernando et al., 1995; Fernando & Quinn, 1995; Harris, 1999; Kool, 1980, 1986; Link, 1992a, 1993; Nooteboom, 1967)

Ixonanthaceae (incl. Allantospermum, Cyrillopsis, Phyllocosmus) (B; 5/34) Trap Af; sChina--NGu; Guy--Braz (Hooren & Nooteboom, 1986a; Kool, 1980, 1986; Link, 1993; Steyermark & Luteyn, 1980)

Linaceae (C; 8/250) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Sib) At(Mac) Au C E(--Ice) Ma N(--Green) P(Ga1) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Boesewinkel, 1980; Hooren & Nooteboom, 1986a; Narayana & Rao, 1978; Robertson, 1971; Welzen & Baas, 1984)

Tremandraceae (C; 3/43) (Platytheca, Tetratheca, Tremandra) Temp Au(esp. swAu) (Carlquist, 1977c; Thompson, 1976)

Chrysobalanaceae (A; 17/455) Trap--warm temp Af(--Natal) seAs nAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--SCruz) seN(--SC) P(--Coco, Bonin) S(--seBraz, Bol) WInd (Prance, 1972a, 1989; Prance & Mori, 1983; Prance & F. White, 1988; Record & Hess, 1943; Tobe & Raven, 1984a; Tokuoka & Tobe, 1999; F. White, 1976)

Rhizophoraceae (C; 15/130) (excl. Anisophylleeae) Trop--subtr Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--sJapan) At(Ber) nAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN (Fla) P(--Gal, Marq) S(--seBraz, nePeru) WInd (Behnke, 1984, 1988b; Dahlgren, 1988; Dorr, 1994; Tomlinson, 1986)

Putranjivaceae (B; 4/210) (Drypeteae incl. Drypetes, Lingelsheimia, Putranjiva, Sibangea) Trap Af As(--Ry) Au(NSW) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc) Me(--Fiji) N(--sFla) P(--Bonin, Mic) S(--Peru) WInd (Chase et al., 1993; Rodman et al., 1993; Tokuoka & Tobe, 1999; Wurdack & Chase, 1996)

Erythroxylaceae (C; 2/264) (Erythroxylum, Nectaropetalum) Trap Af(--CapeP) seAs nAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Sol) S(--Arg) WInd (Narayana & Rao, 1978; Oltmann, 1968; Rury, 1985)

Zygophyllaceae (C; 20/250) Trap--warm temp Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--NGu) sN(--Utah) P(--Marq) S(--Pat) WInd (D. Porter, 1972; Sheahan & Chase, 1996, 2000; Sheahan & Cutler, 1993)

Morkillioideae (3/4) (Morkillia, Sericodes, Viscainoa) Subtr--warm temp Mex

Tribuloideae (7/70) (Balanites, Kallstroemia, Kelleronia, Neoluederitzia, Sisyndite, Tribulus, Tribulopsis) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At Au C E(Med) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--NGu) N(Ill--Cal) P(--Marq) S(--Arg) WInd (Maksoud & Hadidi, 1988; Praglawski, 1987; Sarma & Rao, 1991; Sheahan & Chase, 2000; Sheahan & Cutler, 1993)

Seetzenioideae (1/1) (Seeezenia) Arid--warm temp n & sAf--Afgh

Larreoideae (5/27) (Bulnesia, Guaiacum, Larrea, Pintoa, Porlieria) Trop-warm temp (often arid) sN(Fla--Cal) S(--Pat), Wind

Zygophylloideae (4/150) (Augea, Fagonia, Tetraena, Zygophyllum) Trop--temp Af(-- Cape) sw-cAs At(Mac) Au E(Med) (Sheahan & Cutler, 1993)

Oxalidaceae (incl. Averrhoeaceae but excl. Lepidobotrys) (C; 6/700) Trop--cool temp Af(--Cape) As(--Jap) Au C E(--Ice) I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Java, Sul) N(--Que, Wash) O P(Gal) S(--Fuegia) WInd (Boesewinkel, 1985; Devi & Narayana, 1990; Lack & Kevan, 1987; Narayana, 1966, 1970a)

Geraniaceae (incl. Hypseocharis) (C; 6/705) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At (--Mac, sAtl) Au(--Tas) C E(Ice--nAf) H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--NGu) N (--Green) O S(Andes--Fuegia) Z (Boesewinkel, 1988, 1997; Boesewinkel & Been, 1979; Narayana, 1970a; Price & Palmer, 1993)

Ledocarpaceae (B; 7/18) Subtr-Andean S (Boesewinkel, 1997; Hunziker & Espinar, 1973; Lefor, 1975)

Vivianiaideae (4/6) Subtr--temp S(--Pat) (Behnke, 1977c; Carlquist, 1985d; Lefor, 1975; Narayana & Devi, 1995)

Ledocarpoideae (2/11) (Balbisia, Wendtia) Subtr--Andean sS

Rhynchothecoideae (1/1) (Rhynchotheca) Andes of S

Balsaminaceae (C; 4/600) Trop--bor Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) C(CRica) I(Seyc) Ma Me(--Sol) N(--Alas) (Huynh, 1968; Narayana, 1970b)

Polygalales (Malpighiales) (C; 90/2,290)

Malpighiaceae (C; 66/1,200) Trop-subtr Af(--CapeP) seAs Au(neQld) C G Ma Me(--Fiji) sN P(Car) S(--Arg) WInd (Anderson, 1990; Robertson, 1972; D. Taylor & Crepet, 1987; S. Vogel, 1987; Yunus, 1990)

Byrsonimoideae Trop-subtr America(Mex--Par & Bol; sFla--WInd) (Anderson, 1978)

Gaudichaudioideae Trop Af(--CapeP) seAs Au(neQld) C(--Mex) G Ma Me(--Fiji) P(Car) S(--Arg) WInd

Malpighioideae Trop--subtr America(Tex-Ariz; Mex-Peru; WInd)

Trigoniaceae (C; 3/26) (Humbertodendron, Trigonia, Trigoniastrum) Trop seAs-Sum, Born; Ma; Mex--seBraz & Par (Boesewinkel, 1987; Lleras, 1978)

Euphroniaceae (B; 1/3) (Euphronia) Trap nS(Guy & Col-Braz) (Litt & Chase, 1999)

Polygalaceae (incl. Diclidanthera, Xanthophyllum) (C; 19/1,045) Subcosm Af (--Cape) As(--Man) At(--Az) Au(--Tas) C E I Ma Me(--Sol) N(--Green) P(--Mar, Gal) S(--Fuegia) WInd (Detienne, 1991; Erdtman, 1944, 1954b; Meijden, 1982, 1986; N. Miller, 1971; Verkerke, 1984, 1985a)

Krameriaceae (B; 1/17) (Krameria) Trop-warm temp America(Tex & Cal-Arg & Chile; Ga & Fla--WInd) (Leinfellner, 1971; Robertson, 1973; Simpson, 1989; Simpson & Helfgott, 1997; Simpson & Skvarla, 1981; Thorne, 1983; Verkerke, 1985b)

Rosidae (C; 858/16,520) (Hufford, 1992; Manos et al., 1993; Meurer--Grimes, 1995)

Rosanae (B; 375/7,790) (Crane & Blackmore, 1989; Dickison, 1989a; Endress & Stumpf, 1991; Ferrenbach & Barthlott, 1988; Giannasi, 1986; Huber, 1963; Hufford, 1990; Hufford & Endress, 1989; Petersen & Fairbrothers, 1985; Qiu et al., 1998; Thorne, 1974a, 1989b; Wolfe, 1989; Zavada & Dilcher, 1986)

Hamamelidales (C; 35/132) (Behnke, 1989; E. Friis et al., 1989, 1991; Hennig et al., 1994; Hjelmqvist, 1948; Hufford & Crane, 1989; Kubitzki et al., 1993; Zhou & Jiang, 1990)

Trochodendrineae (C; 4/6) (Crane, 1989a; Endress, 1986; Praglowski, 1975)

Trochodendraceae (C; 2/2) Subtr--temp eAs (Bailey & Nast, 1945b, 1946; Bondeson, 1952; Crane et al., 1991; Croizat, 1947b; Endress, 1993g; Nast & Bailey, 1945)

Trochodendroideae (1/1) (Trochodendron) Temp eAs(Japan, Kor, & Tai) (Fields, 1996; Manchester et al., 1991; Nast & Bailey, 1946)

Tetracentroideae (1/1) (Tetracentron) SubtrMont--temp As(Nepal & Burma--sw & cChina (Nast & Bailey, 1945)

Eupteleaceae (C; 1/2) (Euptelea) SubtrMont--temp As(Assam--cChina & Japan (Endress, 1969, 1993d; Nast & Bailey, 1946; Pan et al., 1991b; Wang et al., 1984)

Cercidiphyllaceae (C; 1/2) (Cercidiphyllum) Temp As(wChina, Kor, & Japan) (Crane, 1984; Crane & Stockey, 1986; Endress, 1993b; Serbet & Stockey, 1996; Swamy & Bailey, 1949)

Hamamelidineae (C; 31/126) (Call & Dilcher, 1994; Crane, 1989a; Crane & Blackmore, 1989; Crane et al., 1986; Walker, 1976a, 1976b; Wheeler, 1995)

Platanaceae (C; 1/7) (Platanus) Trop--temp Balk; Him; Laos; Maine & Minn--Fla & Tex--Mex (Boothroyd, 1930; Crane et al., 1993; Ernst, 1963b; E. Friis et al., 1988; Hsiao, 1973; Kubitzki, 1993n; Manchester, 1986)

Altingiaceae (= Liquidambaroideae) (C; 3/12) (Altingia, Liquidambar, Semiliquidambar) TropMont--temp sw & eAs(--Tai)--Java; America(Conn--Hond) (Bogle, 1986; Ernst, 1963b; D. K. Ferguson, 1989; Wisniewski & Bogle, 1982)

Hamamelidaceae (C; 27/107) Trop--temp, eAf(--CapeP) sw, e, seAs(--Japan) Au(neQld) C Ma Me(--Bis) eN P(Bonin) S(Col) (Bogle & Philbrick, 1980; Crepet et al., 1992; P. Endress, 1968, 1989a, 1989b, 1993e; Goldblatt & P. Endress, 1977; Li & Hickey, 1988; Li et al., 1999a, 1999b; Pan et al., 1990; Schwartzwalder & Dilcher, 1991; Zhang & An-ming, 1995)

Disanthoideae (1/2) (Disanthus) Temp Japan (Pan et al., 1991)

Hamamelidoideae (22/100) TropMont--temp eAf(--CapeP) w, se, eAs(--Japan) Au(neQld) C Ma Me(--Bis) eN(--Que) P(Bonin) S(Col) (Bogle, 1970a; P. Endress, 1970, 1989c; Magallon-Puebla et al., 1995)

Exbucklandioideae (4/5) (Chunia, Exbucklandia, Mytilaria, Rhodoleia) Trop--temp e, seAsia(--Japan)--Sumatra (Bogle, 1989)

Balanopales (Buxales) (C; 8/100) (Thorne, 1977, 1981, 1983; Zhou & Jiang, 1990)

Buxineae (B; 6/62)

Buxaceae (excl. Simmondsia) (C; 5/60) Trop---temp Af(--CapeP) As(--Japan) C (--Mex) E I(Socot) Ma Me(Java, Born, Phil) seN wS(--Bol) WInd (Behnke, 1982a; Carlquist, 1982b; Channell & Wood, 1987; Drinnan et al., 1991; Hegnauer, 1988)

Buxoideae (4/55) Trop--temp Af(--CapeP) As(--Japan) C(--Mex) sE I(Socot) Ma Me(Java, Born, Phil) seN(Ky--Fla) nwS WInd (I. Friis, 1989b; Kohler, 1993; Kohler & Bruckner, 1989)

Styloceratoideae (1/5) (Styloceras) Trop Andean S(Col--Bol)

Didymelaceac (C; 1/2) (Didymeles) Trop Ma (Carlquist, 1982b; Hegnauer, 1988; Kohler, 1980; Sutton, 1989a; Takhtajan et al., 1986)

Balanopineae (Daphniphyllineae) (C; 2/39)

Daphniphyllaceae (C; 1/30) (Daphniphyllum) Trap--temp e & seAs(India--Japan)--Bis (Bhatnagar & Garg, 1977; Carlquist, 1982b; Corner, 1976; Huang, 1965, 1996, 1997; Sutton, 1989b; Zhang & Lu, 1989)

Balanopaceae (C; 1/9) (Balanops) Trap P: neQld; Nheb--Fiji; NCaI (Carlquist, 1980)

Bruniales (C; 17/105) sAf, Ma (Carlquist, 1990c, 1991b; Thorne, 1983)

Roridulaceae (C; 1/2) (Roridula) Temp sAf(CapeP) (Carlquist, 1976c; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988)

Bruniaceae (C; 12/75) Temp sAf(Cape--Natal) (Carlquist, 1978a, 1990c, 1991b; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Dummer, 1912; Goldblatt, 1981; Pillans, 1947)

Geissolomataceae (C; 1/1) (Geissoloma) Temp sAf(swCapeP) (Carlquist, 1975, 1990c; Dahlgren & Rao, 1969; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Weberling, 1963)

Grubbiaceae (C; 1/3) (Grubbia) Temp sAf(CapeP) (Carlquist, 1977a, 1977b, 1978b; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Tieghem, 1897; Xiang, 1999)

Myrothamnaceae (C; 1/2) (Myrothamnus) Trop--subtr Af(Ang & Transv--Nam & Natal); Ma (Carlquist, 1976a, 1990c; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Endress, 1989b; Grundell, 1933; Kubitzki, 1993m)

Hydrostachyaceae (C; 1/22) (Hydrostachys) Trap Af(Zaire, Tanzania)--sAf (--Natal); Ma (Scogin, 1992a; Xiang, 1999)

Casuarinales (C; 4/96)

Casuarinaceae (C; 4/96) Trop--temp EHemisphere: seAs Au(--Tas) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma(naturalized?) Me(Mal--Phil, Fiji) P(--Marq) (Dilcher et al., 1990; Flares & Moseley, 1990; Hwang & Conran, 2000; Johnson, 1989; Johnson & Wilson, 1993; Kubitzki et al., 1993; Moseley, 1948)

Juglandales (C; 13/110) (Kubitzki et al., 1993; Lu & Zhang, 1990; Petersen & Fairbrothers, 1980, 1985; Zhou & Jiang, 1990)

Juglandineae (C; 9/65) (Stone & Broome, 1971, 1975)

Rhoipteleaceae (C; 1/1) (Rhoiptelea) Trap seAs(sChina, Vietnam) (Chang, 1981; Handel-Mazzetti, 1932; Wu & Kubitzki, 1993c; Zhang et al., 1994)

Juglandaceae (C; 8/64) Trap--temp Euras: seE--Japan; seAs--NGu; America: Que & ND--Andean S(--Arg) & eBraz; WInd (Gunter et al., 1994; Iljinskaja, 1990; Manchester, 1987a, 1987b, 1989a, 1991; W. Manning, 1940, 1948; Petersen & Fairbrothers, 1980; Polechko & Clarkson, 1986; Schaarschmidt, 1985; Smith & Doyle, 1995; Stone, 1993; Stone & Broome, 1975)

Platcaryoideae (1/1) (Platycarya) Temp c & eChina

Engelhardioideae (3/19) (Alfaroa, Engelhardia, Oreomunnea) Trap--temp Him--NGu; Mex--Col

Juglandoideae (4/44) (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya) Trop--temp Euras: seEur-se & eAs(--Japan); America: Que & ND--Andean Arg) (IIjinskaja, 1990; Stanford et al., 2000)

Myricineae (C; 4/45) (Petersen & Fairbrothers, 1980)

Myricaceae (C; 4/45) (Canacomyrica, Comptonia, Gale, Myrica) Trop-bor Afr (--Cape) Se, eAs(--Kam) At(Mac, Ber) C wE G Ma Me(Born--NGu) N (--Alas) S(--Chile) WInd (Diboll, 1959; Elias, 1971b; D. K. Ferguson, 1998; Kubitzki, 19931; MacDonald, 1989; Sundberg, 1985; Verdcourt & Polhill, 1997)

Betulales (Fagales) (C; 17/1,090) (Behnke, 1989; Crepet, 1981; Govaerts & Frodin, 1998; Kubitzki et al., 1993; Manos & Steele, 1997; Manos et al., 1993; Petersen & Fairbrothers, 1980; Snow & Goldblatt, 1992; Zhou & Jiang, 1990)

Nothofagaceae (C; 1/35) (Nothofagus) TropMont--cool temp SHemisphere: eAu (--Tas) G Me(NGu--Bis) sS(Chile, Arg) Z (Erdtman, 1954b; Hill, 1991; Hill & Jordan, 1993; Hill & Read, 1991; Manos, 1997a; Philipson & Philipson, 1988; Romero, 1986; Steenis, 1971)

Fagaceae (C; 9/915) TropMont--temp Euras(nAf--Sak)--Bis; America: Que & Vancouver I--Col & WInd (Crepet, 1989; Crepet & Nixon, 1989; Elias, 1971a; Jones, 1986; Kubitzki, 1993h; Nixon, 1989; Nixon & Crepet, 1994)

Quercoideae (1/600) (Quercus) TropMont-temp Euras(nAf--Sak)--Bis; America: Que & Vancouver I--Cal & WInd (Crepet, 1989; Kaul, 1986; Manos, 1997b)

Trigonobalanoideae (3/3) (Colombobalanus, Formanodendron, Trigonobalanus) eAs--wMe; Cal (Nixon & Crepet, 1989)

Castanoideae (4/300) TropMont--temp Euras(nAf-Japan)-Bis; N(NE & Wash--Fla, Tex, & Cal) (Forman, 1966; Kaul, 1986)

Fagoideae (1/10) (Fagus) Temp Euras & eN

Ticodendraceae (C; 1/1) (Ticodendron) TropMont C(Guat--Pan) (Behnke, 1991 b; Carlquist, 1991a; Conti et al., 1994; Feuer, 1991; Gomez--Laurito & Gomez P., 1989, 1991; Hammel & Burger, 1991; Hickey & Taylor, 1991; Kubitzki, l993p; Snow & Goldblatt, 1992; Tobe, 1991)

Betulaceae (C; 6/140) Temp--Arct Euras(Ice--nAf--eAs); America(Green--Arg) (Abbe, 1935--1938; Chen et al., 1990, 1999; Crane, 1989b; Endress, 1968; Hall, 1952; Kubitzki, 1993a)

Betuloideae (2/85) (Alnus, Betula) TropMont--Arct Euras(Ice--nAf--Kam--seAs); America(Green--Arg)

Coryloideae (4/55) Temp--bar Euras(--Japan); N--C

Rosales (C; 118/3,145) (Mauritzon, 1939a)

Rosaceae (C; 110/3,100) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At)--Az) Au C E(Ice --nAf) GH I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Poly) S(--Fuegia) Wind Z (El--Gazzar, 1981; Evans & Dickinson, 1997; Goldblatt, 1976a; Kalkman, 1988; Morgan et al., 1994; Robertson, 1974; Savile, 1979; S.--Y. Zhang, 1992a, 1992b)

Spiraeoideae (incl. Adenostoma, Cercocarpus, Cowania, Dryas, Kerrieae, Lyonothamnus, Neviusia Physocarpus, Purshia, Rhodotypos, Spiraea) Temp--Arct Euras(--Kam); America(Alas--Bol) (Evans & Dickinson, 1999b)

Rosoideac (incl. Filipendula) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(--Trist, Mac) Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(Fern) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Alice & Campbell, 1996; Eriksson et al., 1998)

Amygdaloideae (Prunoideae) (incl. Exochorda, Omleria, Princepia) TropMont-bor Af As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au(neQld) C B Ma Me(--Sol) N(--Lab, BrC) (Berggren et al., 2000; Evans & Dickinson, 1999a)

Pyroideae (Maloideae) (incl. Kageneckia, Lindleya, Porteranthus, Vauquelinia) (28/1,110) TropMont--bor As(--Kam) At(Mad) C E(--nAf) H N (--Alas) P(--Pol) S(Andes--Bol, Urug) Wind (Campbell et al., 1995; Dickson et al., 1992; Evans & Campbell, 2000b; Evans & Dickinson, 1999; Phipps et al., 1990, 1991; Robertson et al., 1991; Rohrer et al., 1991, 1994)

Crossosomataceae (C; 4/8 or 9) (Apacheria, Crossosoma, Glossopetalon, Velascoa) Temp N(Wash & Idaho--Mex incl. Guad) (Calderon & Rzedowski, 1997; DeBuhr, 1978; Mason, 1975; Richardson, 1970; Tatsuno & Scogin, 1978; Thorne, 1977; Thorne & Scogin, 1978)

Anisophylleaceae (A; 4/34) (Anisophyllea, Combretocarpus, Poga, Polygonanthus) Trap Af; Ma; seAs--Sum & Born; Amaz (Behnke, 1988b; Dahlgren, 1988; Tobe & Raven, 1988a, 1988b)

Saxifragales (C; 81/2,305) (Bohm et al., 1986; Grund & Jensen, 1979; Hibsch-Jetter & Soltis, 1996; Morgan & Soltis, 1993; Soltis & Soltis, 1997; Soltis et al., 1993)

Tetracarpaeaceae (C; 1/1) (Tetracarpaea) Cool temp Tas (Hils et al., 1988)

Crassulaceae (C; 33/1,500) Subcosm Af As(--Kam) At(Mac) sAu C E(Ice--nAf) I(--Masc) Ma N(--Green) O P(Bonin) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Knapp, 1994; Mort et al., 1998; R. C. Ham, 1994; R. C. Ham & Hart, 1998; Subramanyam, 1962)

Crassuloideae Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) sAu C E(Ice--nAf) Ma N(--Alas) O S(--Fuegia) WInd Z

Sempervivoideae (Sedoideae) (incl. Cotyledonoideae, Echeverieae, Kalanchoeae, Sedum) TropMont--Arct Af(--CapeP) As(--Kam) At(Mac) C E (Ice--nAf) I(--Masc) Ma N(--Green) P(Bonin) S(--Bol)

Penthoraceae (C; 1/2) (Penthorum) Subtr--temp As: Indochina--eAs(--Manc); N: Maine & Minn--Fla & Tex (Haskins & Hayden, 1987; Hayden & Lewandowski, 1997)

Saxifragaceae (C; 30/525) TropMont--Arct Euras(Ice-Mad--Kam); America: N (--Green) C(Mex) S(Andes--Fuegia) (Johnson & Soltis, 1994, 1995; Morgan & Soltis, 1993; D. Soltis, 1988, 1995; D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997; D. Soltis et al., 1993, 1996)

Astilboideae (1/12) (Astilbe) Temp eAs(--Amur); N(Va & Ky--Ga) (D. Soltis et al., 1993)

Saxifragoideae (incl. Astilboides, Rodgersia) (29/515) TropMont--Arct Euras(Ice---Mad--Kam); America: Green--Mex; Andes--Fuegia (Gornall 1989)

Aphanopetalaceae (B; 1/2) (Aphanopetalum) sAu (Bensel & Palser, 1975; Dickison et al., 1994)

Iteaceae (C; 1/10) (Itea) Temp seAs(--Japan)--wMe; N(NJ & Ill--Fla & Tex) (Bohm et al., 1988; D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997)

Pterostemonaceae (C; 1/3) (Pterostemon) TropMant Mex (Ramirez & Gordillo, 1997; D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997; Wilkinson, 1994)

Grossulariaceae (C; 1/150) (Ribes) Temp--bar Euras: Ice--nAf--Sak; America: Alas --Andes & Fuegia (Messinger et al., 1999; D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997)

Haloragaceae (B; 8/100) Subcosm Af(--Cape) seAs(--Kam) At(Az, Ber) Au C E(--ice) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Sol) N(--Green) O P(--East, Fern) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z Hernandez--Castillo & Cevallos--Ferroz, 1997; Orchard, 1972, 1975; Praglowski, 1970b; D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997)

Alseuosmiaceae (C; 4/12) (Alseuosmia, Crispiloba, Periomphale, Wittsteinia [incl. Memecylanthus, Pachydiscus]) TropMont--temp P: eAu--NGu; NCal--Z (Airy Shaw, 1965; Dickison, 1986c, 1989c; Gardner, 1978; Steenis, 1986b; Tirel, 1996)

Podostemales (C; 48/275)

Podostemaceae (C; 48/275) Trap--temp Af(--Natal) se, eAs(--Japan) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) I(--Masc) Ma Me(--NGu) eN(--Que) S(--Urug) WInd (Cantreras et al., 1993; Cusset & Cusset, 1988; Les et al., 1998; Mauritzon, 1933a; Philbrick & Navelo, 1995)

Tristichoideae (4/10) Trop Af(Transv--Egypt) seAs C(--Mex) I(--Maur) Ma Me (--Phil) S(--Urug) WInd

Podostemoideae (44/265) Trop--temp Af(--Natal) se, eAs(--Japan) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) I(Masc) Ma Me(--NGu) eN(Que--La) S(--Urug) WInd

Cunoniales (C; 34/430) (D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997; Tharne, 1976)

Cunoniaceae (C; 27/350) TropMont--temp Af(Cape) seAs e, wAu(--Tas) C(--sMex) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Bradford, 1999; Dickison, 1975b, 1975c, 1980a, 1980b, 1984; Dickison & Rutishauser, 1990; Fehrenbach & Barthlott, 1988; Hufford & Dickison, 1992; Ingle & Dadswell, 1956)

Cunonioideae (24/340) TropMont--temp Af(Cape) seAs e, swAu(--Tas) C(--sMex) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Dickison, 1984, 1986a)

Baueroideae (1/3) (Bauera) Temp eAu(--Tas) (Dickison, 1975a)

Eucryphioideae (1/5) (Eucryphia) Subtr--temp sSHemisphere: Au(Qld--Tas); Chile & Arg (Bausch, 1938; Behnke, 1985; Dickison, 1978)

Davidsonioideae (C; 1/3) (Davidsonia) Trop--subtr Au: Qld, NSW (Bange, 1952; Harden & Williams, 2000; Ingle & Dadswell, 1956)

Burnelliaceae (1/52) (Brunellia) TropMont America: sMex--Andean S(--Bol); WInd (Cuatrecasas, 1970; Ehrendorfer et al., 1984)

Cephalotaceae (B; 1/1)(Cephalotus) Temp swAu (Lloyd, 1942; Nicholls et al., 1985)

Staphyleaceae (C; 5/27) TropMont--temp Euras(--Manc)--Bis; America: Que & Minn--Peru; WInd (Carlquist & Hoekman, 1985; Dickison, 1984, 1986a, 1987a, 1987b; Linden, 1960; Ramp, 1987)

Staphyleoideae (3/22) (Euscaphis, Staphylea, Turpinia) TropMont--temp Euras (--Man)--Bis; America: Que & Minn--Peru; WInd

Tapiscioideae (2/5) (Huertea, Tapiscia) Trop--temp se, eAs(--China); America: WInd--Ven

Myrtanae (C; 483/8,730)

Myrtales (C; 483/8,730) (Bailey, 1933; Behnke, 1984; Conti et al., 1996, 1997; Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Dahlgren & Thorne, 1984; Decraene & Smets, 1991a; Johnson & Briggs, 1985; Keating, 1984; Martin & Dowd, 1986; Mauritzon, 1939a; V. Patel et al., 1985; Schmid, 1984; Sytsma et al., 1996b; Tobe & Raven, 1984b; Vliet & Bass, 1985)

Melastomatineae (C; 263/3,820) (Clausing & Renner, 2000; Conti et al., 1997)

Penaeaceae (C; 5/25) Temp sAf(--CapeP) (Cariquist & DeBuhr, 1977; Dahlgren, 1967-1971; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Stephens, 1909; Tobe & Raven, 1984d; Weberling, 1963)

Oliniaceae (C; 1/10) (Olinia) Trop Af--Cape; (SHel--naturalized?) (van Wyk in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Patel et al., 1983; Rao & Dahlgren, 1969; Tobe & Raven, 1984c; Weberling, 1963)

Rhynchocalycaceae (C; 1/1) (Rhynchocalyx) Trop sAf(Natal) (Averett & Graham, 1984; Graham & Averett, 1984; Oliver, 1894; Sprague & Metcalfe, 1937; Strey & Leistner, 1968; Tobe & Raven, 1985a; van Wyk in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988)

Alzateaceae (C; 1/2) (Alzatea) Trap America(Crica--Peru) (Almeda, 1997; Baas, 1979; Graham, 1985, 1995; Graham & Averett, 1984; Lourteig, 1965; Muller, 1975; Tobe & Raven, 1985b)

Crypteroniaceac (C; 3/10) (Axinandra, Crypteronia, Dactylocladus) Trop As(SriL, Assam, & sChina)--wMe(Born & Phil) (Beusekom--Osinga, 1977; Beusekom--Osinga & van Beusekom, 1975; Johnson & Briggs, 1985; Muller, 1975; Tobe & Raven, 1983, 1987a; Vliet, 1974; Vliet & Baas, 1975)

Melastomataceae (C; 245/3,360) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--sJapan) nAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) eN(--NS, Ia) P(--Soc) S(--Arg) WInd (Baas, 1981; Clausing & Renner, 2000; Meyer & Renner, 2000; Morley, 1953; Renner, 1993; Vliet, 1981; Vliet et al., 1981)

Memecylaceae (incl. Astronia) (C; 7/410) Trap Af(--CapeP) sAs nAu C(--Mex) I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Soc) S(--seBraz) WInd (Renner, 1993)

Myrtineae (C; 151/3,200)

Myrtaceae (C; 144/3,000) Trop--cool temp Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--sJapan) At(Ber) Au C(--Mex) sE(Med) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) O P (--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Behnke, 1984; Briggs & Johnson, 1979; Erdtman, 1954b; Johnson & Briggs, 1985; Sytsma et al., 1998b; Vliet & Baas, 1985; P. Wilson et al., 1994, 1996)

Heteropyxidoideae (2/2) (Heteropyxis, Psiloxylon) Trop--subtr sAf(Transv--Natal) & Masc (Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; V. Patel et al., 1985; Schmid, 1980; Stern & Brizicky, 1958; Tobe & Raven, 1987b, 1990; Weberling, 1963)

Myrtoideae (incl. Leptospermoideae) (142/3,000) Trop--warmTemp Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--sJapan) At(Ber) Au C(--Mex) sE(Med) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (K. Hill & Johnson, 1995)

Vochysiaceae (C; 7/200) Trap wAf; America: sMex--seBraz & Par (Boesewinkel & Venturelli, 1987; Conti et al., 1996, 1997; Stafleu, 1948)

Lythrineae (B; 69/1,710)

Lythraceae (C; 31/460) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, Wash) P(--Poly, Gal) S(--Chile) Wind (Baas & Zweyfenning, 1979; Corner, 1976; S. A. Graham, 1964a, 1975, 1995; S. A. Graham et al., 1993a, 1993b, 1998)

Lythroideae (27/450) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, Wash) P(--Poly) S(--Chile) WInd

Duabangoideae (1/3) (Duabanga) Trop seAs(--sChina)--NGu (Dahlgren & Thorne, 1984; S. Graham et al., 1993b, 1998; Jayaweera, 1967; Rao et al., 1987; Thanikaimoni & Jayaweera, 1966; Thorne, 1981, 1983; Venkateswarlu, 1937; Venkateswarlu & Prakasa Rao, 1964; Vliet & Baas, 1985)

Sonneratioideae (1/4) (Sonneratia) Trop EHemisphere: eAf seAs(--sChina) nAu G I(--Seyc) Ma Me(--NHeb) P(--wcPoly) (Dahlgren & Thorne, 1984; Graham et al., 1993b, 1998; Muller, 1969, 1981; Rao et al., 1987; Thanikaimoni & Jayaweera, 1966; Thorne, 1976, 1981, 1983; Venkateswarlu, 1937; Venkateswarlu & Prakasa Rao, 1964; Vliet & Baas, 1985)

Punicoideae (1/2) (Punica) warm temp EHemisphere: Euras(Balk--wHim); Socot (Bridgewater & Baas, 1978; Conti et al., 1993; Dahlgren & Thorne, 1984; Graham et al., 1998; Thorne, 1976, 1981, 1983)

Trapoideae (B; 1/1-3) (Trapa) Trop--temp EHemisphere: sw-nAf; Euras: Manc--NGu (Conti et al., 1993, 1996, 1997; Miki, 1959; Ram, 1956)

Onagraceae (C; 18/650) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac, Ber) Au C E (Ice--nAf) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Baum & Sytsma, 1995; Bult & Zimmer, 1993; Conti et al., 1993; Hoch et al., 1993; Skvarla et al., 1976, 1978; Sytsma et al., 1998a, 1988b; Tobe & Raven, 1996)

Combretaceae (C; 20/600) Trop-subtr Af(--CapeP) As At(Ber) neAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Arg) WInd (Exell & Stacy, 1966, 1972; Vliet, 1979)

Strephonematoideae (1/6) (Strephonema) Trop wAf (Stace, 1965; Vliet, 1978, 1979)

Combretoideae (19/595) Trop-subtr Af(--CapeP) As At(Ber) nAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Arg) WInd

Asteridae (C; 2,311/34,920) (Olmstead et al., 1992)

Cornanae (C; 77/1,645) (Jensen, 1992; Morgan & Soltis, 1993; D. Soltis & P. Soltis, 1997; Stern et al., 1970)

Hydrangeales (C; 55/725) (Carlquist, 1992b)

Hydrangeaceae (C; 17/250) TropMont--temp As(--Sak) C sE H Me(--Bis) N(--BrC, NY) S(--Chile, Pat) (Bohm et al., 1985; Gandolfo et al., 1998a; Grund & Jensen, 1979; Hufford, 1997; Magallon-Puebla, 1997; Roels et al., 1997; Soltis et al., 1995)

Philadelphoideae (incl. Kirengeshoma) (8/135) SubtrMont--temp Euras (--Japan)--wMe; N: Penn & BrC--nwMex (Bensel & Palser, 1975; Steyr & Stern, 1979)

Hydrangeoideae (9/114) TropMont--temp e, seAs(--Sak)--Bis; H; America: NY & Wash--Andes(--Pat) (Stern, 1978)

Loasaceae (C; 13/280) Trop--warm temp s, neAf--Arab; BrC-Chile & Arg; Fla--WInd; Gal; Marq (Carlquist, 1984e, 1987d, 1992b; Downie & Palmer, 1992; Florence, 1985; Hufford, 1988, 1993; Kooiman, 1974; Poston & Nowicke, 1990; Roels et al., 1997; Soltis et al., 1995; Xiang et al., 1998)

Mentzelioideae (2/71) (Eucnide, Mentzelia) Trop--temp America: BrC--Chile; Fla--Wind; Gal

Loasoideae (7/200) Trop--warm temp sAf(Nam--CapeP); Som--Arab; Mex--Arg; WInd; Marq

Gronovioideae (4/8) Trap-warm temp America: Tex-Ariz & Mex-nwS; Gal; WInd (Poston & Nowicke, 1993)

Escalloniaceae (C; 14/165) TropMont-cool temp Af(-CapeP) eAs(-Japan) eAu (-Tas) C(-Mex) G I Me(-Sol) P(Fern) S(Andes-Fuegia) Z (Grund & Jensen, 1979; Praglowski & Grafstrom, 1985)

Escallonioideae (incl. Abrophyllum, Argophyllum, Carpodetus, Choristylis, Corokia, Cuttsia, Forgesia, Ixerba, Pottingeria, Roussea) (13/165) TrapMont-coal temp Af seAs eAu(-Tas) C(-CRica) G I(-Masc) Me (-Sol) P(-Fem, Poly) S(Andes-Fuegia) Z (Al-Shammery & Gornall, 1994; Bensel & Palser, 1975; Eyde, 1966a)

Tribeloideae (1/1) (Tribeles) Temp S(-Fuegia) (Al-Shammary & Gornall, 1994)

Eremosynaceae (C; 1/1) (Eremosyne) Temp swAu (AI-Shammary & Gornall, 1994; Hibsch-Jetter et al., 1997)

Francoaceae (C; 2/2) (Francoa, Tetilla) Temp Chile (Al-Shammary & Gornall, 1994; Ronse Decraene & Smets, 1999)

Greyiaceae (C; 1/3) (Greyia) Subtr-warm temp sAf(Transv-CapeP) (Bohm & Chan, 1992; Ronse Decraene & Smets, 1999; Steyn et al., 1986, 1987; van Wyk in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988)

Montiniaceae (B; 4/13) (Grevea, Kaliphora, Melanophylla, Montinia) Trop-warm temp Af(-Cape); Ma (Airy Shaw, 1972; Carlquist, 1989b; Dahlgren et al., 1977; Ferguson, 1977; Milne-Redhead, 1955; Rakouth, 1989)

Vahliaceae (C; 1/5) (Bistella) Trop-warm temp EHemisphere: Af(CapeP-nAf); swAs (-nwIndia) (Al-Shammary & Gornall, 1994; Bridsen, 1975; Saxena, 1973)

Columelliaceae (C; 1/4) (Columellia) Andean S: Col-Bol (Brizicky, 1961c; Carlquist, 1992b; Stern et al., 1969)

Desfontainiaceae (C; 1/1) (Desfontainia) TropMont-coal temp America: Crica-Fuegia (Carlquist, 1992b; Hoc & Bravo, 1984)

Cornales (C; 22/920)

Vitineae (B; 13/785) (Thorne, 1968, 1976, 1981)

Vitaceae (C; 13/785) Trop-temp Af(-Cape) As(-Sak) At(Ber) Au C E G I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Que, Wash) P(Car, Gal) S(-Chile) WInd (Behnke, 1974b, 1986c; Brizicky, 1965a)

Vitoideae (12/750) Trap-temp Af(-Cape) As(-Sak) At(Ber) Au C E G I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Que, Wash) P(Car, Gal) S(-Chile) WInd

Leeoideae (1/34) (Leea) Trop EHemisphere: Af se, eAs(-China) Au(neQld) G I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) P(Car) (Corner, 1976; Ridsdale, 1974)

Gunnerineae (B; 1/40) (Thorne, 1968, 1992)

Gunneraceae (C; 1/40) (Gunnera) TropMont-temp SHemisphere: Af(-Cape) Au (Tas) C(-Mex) H Ma Me(Phil-NHeb) O P(Fern) S(-Fuegia) Z (Behnke, 1986c; M. Doyle & Scogin, 1988a, 1988b; Fuller, 1995; Jarzen, 1980; Jarzen & Dettmann, 1989; Praglowski, 1970b)

Cornineae (C; 8/95) (Eyde, 1988; Fergusan, 1977; Hegnauer, 1969; Noshiro & Baas, 1998)

Cornaceae (C; 1/45) (Cornus) TrapMont-Arct eAf As(-Kam) C E(-Ice) Me N (-Green, Alas) S(-Bol) (Bate-Smith et al., 1975; Chao, 1954; Eyde, 1967, 1985, 1988; I. Ferguson, 1977; Hohn & Meinschein, 1976; Murrell, 1993; Xiang et al., 1996a)

Curtisiaceae (C; 1/1) (Curtisia) Subtr-temp sAf(Transv-Cape) (Eyde, 1988)

Nyssaceae (C; 5/32) (Camptotheca, Davidia, Nyssa) TropMont-temp As(Him & Assam-China)--Me(Java, Barn-Sal); N: Maine & Ont-Pan (Chao, 1954; Eyde, 1963, 1966b, 1997; Hammel & Zamara, 1990; Hahn & Meinschein, 1976; Mohana Rao, 1972; Wen & Stuessy, 1993)

Nyssoideae (2/6) (Camptotheca, Nyssa) TrapMont-temp As(Him & Assam-China)-wMe(Java & Sum); N: Maine & Ont-Pan (Chao, 1954)

Davidioideae (1/1) (Davidia) Temp sw & cChina (Eyde, 1967; Schmid, 1979b)

Mastixioideae (2/25) (Diplopanax, Mastixia) TrapMont EHemisphere: seAs-Sol (Eyde & Qiuyun, 1990; Tiffney & Haggard, 1995; Xiang et al., 1998)

Alangiaceae (C; 1/19) (Alangium) Trap EHemisphere: Af-Ma & Com; se, eAs (-Manc)-Fiji, eAu & NCal (Bloembergen, 1939; Budzikiewicz et al., 1964; Chao, 1954; Eyde, 1968, 1972; Eyde et al., 1969)

Aralianae (C; 578/6,670)

Pittosparales (C; 10/245) (Dahlgren et al., 1981)

Pittosporaceae (C; 9/240) Trap-temp EHemisphere: Af(-Cape) e, seAs(-Japan) At(Mac) Au G H I(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) P(-Poly) Z (Cariquist, 1981a; Erbar & Leins, 19961; I. Friis, 1987; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Grund & Jensen, 1979; Schodde, 1972; Schurhoff, 1926; Stuhifauth et al., 1985; Tieghem, 1884; Wilkinson, 1992)

Byblidaceae (C; 1/5) (Byblis) Trop-temp Au-NGu (Carlquist, 1976b; Canran & Lowrie, 1993; Damin, 1922; Lowrie & Conran, 1998; Steenis, 1971)

Araliales (C; 530/5,065) (Gershenzan & Mabry, 1983; Nashiro & Baas, 1998; Plunkett & Lowry, 2000; Qiu et al., 1998; Radriguez, 1971)

Helwingiaceae (C; 1/5) (Helwingia) SubtrMont-temp As(Him & Assam-China & Japan) (Chao, 1954; I. Fergusan, 1977)

Phyllonamaceae (B; 1/4) (Phyllonoma) TrapMont America: Mex-Peru (Morgan & Soltis, 1993)

Garryaceae (C; 1/12) (Garrya) TrapMont-temp America: Wash-Pan; Jam & Cuba (Chao, 1954; Dabling, 1978; Eyde, 1964, 1988; Kapil & Mohana Rao, 1966; Moseley & Beeks, 1955)

Aucubaceae (C; 1/4) (Aucuba) Temp As: Him & Assam-Kor & Japan (Chao, 1954; Eyde, 1988; I. Ferguson, 1977; Rodriguez, 1971; Zhau & Jiang, 1990)

Eucommiaceae (C; I/I) (Eucommia) Temp China (Call & Dilcher, 1993, 1997; 01iver, 1890; Rowley et al., 1992; Zhang et al., 1990; Zhau & Jiang, 1990)

Griseliniaceae (B; 1/6) (Griselinia) Temp SHemisphere: NZ & sS (Backlund & Bremer, 1997; Chao, 1954; Dillon & Munoz-Schick, 1993; Ferguson, 1977; Philipson, 1967)

Torricelliaceae (C; 1/3) (Torricellia) SubtrMont-temp As: wNepal & nBurma -sChina(Chao, 1954; Ferguson, 1977; Hu, 1934; Oliver, 1889; Rodriguez, 1971)

Aralidiaceae (C; 1/1) (Aralidium) Trop sAs(Thai)-wMe(Sum & Born) (Eyde, 1988; Philipson, 1979; Philipson et al., 1980)

Myodocarpaceae (B; 4/20) (incl. Delabrea, Myodocarpus, Pseudosciadium) Troap NCal, Qld, Lard Hawe I, Vanuatu, sMe, Andes (Plunkett & Lowry, 2000)

Mackinlayaceae (B; 5/66) (incl. Actinotus, Apiopetalum, Centella, Mackinlaya, Micropleura, Spananthe) Circumtrop-warm temp Af As(-Ryu) Au C G H Ma Me seN P S WInd Z (Plunkett & Lowry, 2000)

Araliaceae (C; 92/1,625) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Sak) At(Mac, Ber) Au C E G H I(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Green) O P(-Marq) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Bauman, 1946; Bauman-Bodenheim, 1955; Erbar & Leins, 1988b; Eyde & Tseng, 1971; S. Graham, 1966; Mohana Rao, 1973; Philipson, 1979; Plunkett, 1998; Plunkett & Lowry, 2000; Plunkett et al., 1997; Roth, 1977; Shoup & Tseng, 1977; Thorne, 1973)

Aralioideae (50/1,150) Trop--bor Af(-Cape) As(-Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H I (-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Green) O P(-Marq) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z

Hydrocotyloideae p.p. (as Hydrocotyle, Trachymene) (C; 42/475) Subcosm Af (-Gape) As(-Japan) At(Can, Ber) Au C E(-Ice) G I(Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Nf, Wash) O P(-Marq) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Plunkett et al., 1997; Tikhomirov, 1964; Tseng, 1967)

Apiaceac (incl. Hydrocotyloideae pp. as Bolax, Bowlesia, Eremocharis; Klotzschia, Lagoecia) (C; 421/3,320) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(-Ice) G H Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Green) O P(-Fern, East) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Downie et al., 1996, 1998, 2000; Gilmartin, 1980; Hegnauer, 1978b; Heywood, 1971; Holub et al., 1987; Pimenov & Leonov, 1993; Plunkett & Lowry, 2000; Plunkett et al., 1996a, 1996b, 1997; Rodriguez, 1957; Valiejo-Roman et al., 1998)

Saniculoideae (incl. Arctopus) (11/320) Temp Af(-Cape) As(-Sak) At(-Az) Au C E H wMe N(-Que, BrC) P(Fern) S(-Chile) WInd Z

Apioideae (incl. Azorella, Bolax, Bowlesia, Diplaspis, Dichosciadium, Klotzschia, Lagoecia, Schizeilema, Stilbocarpa) (ca. 410/ca. 3,000) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au(-Tas) C E(-Ice) G H Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Green) O P(-East, Fern) S(-Fuegia, Falk) WInd Z (Downie & Katz-Downie, 1996, 1999; Downie et al., 1996, 1998, 2000; Katz-Downie et al., 1999; Lee & Downie, 1999, 2000; Plunkett & Downie, 1999)

Dipsacales (C; 38/1,360) (Backlund, 1996; Backlund & Bremer, 1997; Bell & Donoghue, 2000; Carlquist, 1992b; Donoghue, 1985; Donoghue et al., 1992; Erbar, 1991; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Theisen & Barthlott, 1994; Wagenitz & Laing, 1984)

Adoxaceae (C; 5/245) TropMont--bor eAfAs(-Kam) At eAu C E(-nAf) Me(-Phil) N(-Alas) P(Bonin) S(-Chile) (Benki-Iseppon & Morawetz, 1993, 2000; Cosner et al., 1994; Donoghue, 1981, 1983, 1985; Erbar, 1994)

Adoxoideae (incl. Sambucus) (4/43) TropMont-bor eAf As(-Kam) At(Mac) eAu C E(-nAf) Me(-Phil) N(-Alas) P(Bonin) S(-Chile) (Bolli, 1994; Erdtman, 1954b; Eriksson & Donoghue, 1997; Wu, 1981)

Opuloideae (Viburnoideae) (1/200) (Viburnum) TropMont--bor As(-Sak) At (Can, Mad) C E(-nAf) Me(-Phil) N(-Alas) P(Bonin) S(Andes--Arg) WInd (Donoghue, 1981, 1983)

Caprifoliaceae (incl. Carlemannia, Diervilleae, Linnaeae, Silvianthus) (C; 12/450) TropMont-bor Euras(Ice-nAf-Kam)--Sum & Phil; N: Green--Mex (Ogata, 1988; Pyck et al., 1999; Robbrecht, 1993b)

Morinaceae (C; 3/13) (Acanthocalyx, Cryptothladia, Morina) Temp Euras: Balk & Israel-China (Backlund & Bremer, 1998; Blackmore & Cannon, 1983/1984; Cannon & Cannon, 1984; Hofmann & Gottmann, 1990; Verlaque, 1983; Vijayaraghavan & Sarveshwari, 1968)

Dipsacaceae (C; 8/250) TropMont--temp EHemisphere: Af(-Cape) As(-Manc) At(Mac) E(Ice-nAf) (Caputo & Cozzolino, 1994; Ehrendorfer, 1965; I. Ferguson, 1965)

Valerianaceae (C; 10/400) TropMont--bor Antarc Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) C E(Ice--nAf) N(--Alas) S(Andes--Fuegia) WInd (Clarke, 1978; I. Ferguson, 1965; V. Patel & Skvarla, 1979)

Valerianoideae (9/400) TropMont--bor Antarc Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) C E(Ice--nAf) N(--Alas) S(Andes--Fuegia) WInd

Triplostegioideae (1/2) (Triplostegia) TropMont--warm temp As(se & eAs--SriL)--NGu (Backlund, 1996; Backlund & Bremer, 1997; 1998; Backlund & Nilsson, 1997; Hoffmann & Gottmann, 1990; Peng et al., 1995)

Asteranae (incl. Campanulanae) (C; 1,656/26,605) (Carlquist, 1992b; Cosner et al., 1994; R. Dahlgren, 1977b; Devore & Stuessy, 1995; Erbar, 1988, 1991; Erbar & Leins, 1995; Gustafsson & Bremer, 1995; Hufford, 1990; Leins & Erbar, 1989b; Michaels & Palmer, 1993; Olmsted et al., 1992; Wagenitz, 1992)

Campanulales (C; 77/2,285) (Carlquist, 1992b; Carolin, 1960b, 1967; Gustafsson & K. Bremer, 1995; Lammers, 1992)

Pentaphragmataceae (C; 1/30) (Pentaphragma) Trop As(Burma & China)--NGu (Carlquist, 1997a; Dunbar, 1978; Erdtman, 1954b; Kapil & Vijayaraghavan, 1962)

Sphenocleaceae (C; 1/2) (Sphenoclea) Trop EHemisphere: wAf (poss. introduced)--Ma; sAs--NGu & neQld (Dunbar, 1975; Erbar, 1995; Haridasan & Mukherjee, 1988; Monod, 1980; Rosatti, 1986; Subramanyam, 1950)

Campanulaceae (C; 69/2,085) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au(--Tas) C E(Ice--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Dunbar, 1975; Dunbar & Wallentinus, 1976; Erbar & Leins, 1989; Rosatti, 1986; Shetler & Morin, 1986)

Campanuloideae (34/820) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au(--Tas) C E(Ice--nAf) G I Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Green) P(--Tonga) S(--Chile) WInd Z

Cyphioideae (1/50) (Cyphia) Trop--warm temp Af: CapeV--CapeP (Thulin, 1978)

Lobelioideae (30/1,200) Subcosm Af(--Cape) w, se, eAs(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C wE(--nAf) H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--sAlas) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Lammers, 1993; Schultheis & Baldwin, 1997)

Cyphocarpoideae (1/2) (Cyphocarpus) Temp Chile

Nemacladoideae (3/14) (Nemacladus, Parishella, Pseudonemacladus) Temp N: swUSA--nwMex (Haberle & Ayers, 1997; Thulin, 1978)

Donatiaceae (C; 1/2) (Donatia) Cool temp--subAntarc SHemi sphere: Tas; NZ; Fuegia (Philipson & Philipson, 1973; Rapson, 1953)

Stylidiaceae (C; 5/166) Trop--subAntarc SHemisphere: seAs(--sChina) Au(--Tas) Me(--NGu) O S(Fuegia) Z (Carlquist, 1969a; Carolin, 1960; Erbar, 1992; Erickson, 1958; Laurent et al., 1999; Philipson & Philipson, 1973; Rapson, 1953)

Asterales (C; 1,579/24,320) (Downie & Palmer, 1992; Gustafsson & K. Bremer, 1995; Lammers, 1992; Michaels et al., 1993)

Menyanthaceae (C; 5/40) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) Au(--Tas) C E(Ice--nAf) G I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) S(--Arg) WInd Z (Chuang & Ornduff, 1992; Erbar, 1997; Ornduff, 1988; R. Patel et al., 1981b)

Goodeniaceae (C; 20/390) Trop--temp Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--Japan) At(Ber) Au (--Tas) C(--Mex) G H I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(Fla, Tex) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Carlquist, 1969b; Carolin, 1959, 1960a, 1960b, 1967, 1978; Gustafsson & K. Bremer, 1995; Gustafsson et al., 1996, 1997; Hansen, 1997)

Goodenioideae (16/300) Trop-temp Af(-CapeP) se, eAs(-Japan) At(Ber) Au (-Tas) C(-Mex) G H I(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) seN(Fla, Tex) P(-Marq, Gal) S(-Chile) WInd Z(Leins & Erbar, 1989a)

Dampieroideae (3/88) (Anthotium, Dampiera, Leschenaultia) Temp Au(-Tas) (Carolin, 1967)

Brunonioideae (1/1) (Brunonia) Temp Au (Carolin, 1978; Erbar & Leins, 1988a)

Asteraceae (C; 1,528/23,840) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac, SHel) Au C E(Ice-nAf) G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji)N(-Green) 0 P(-Marq) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Bayer & Starr, 1998; Bentham, 1873; B. Bremer, 1987; K. Bremer, 1987, 1994, 1996; K. Bremer et al., 1992; Carlquist, 1966, 1976d; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Grau & Hopf, 1985; Gustafsson, 1996; Gustafsson & K. Bremer, 1995; Heywood et al., 1977; Hind et al., 1996; Holub et al., 1987; R. Jansen, 1990; R. Jansen & Palmer, 1988; R. Jansen et al., 1988, 1991; Karis, 1996; K.-J. Kim & Jansen, 1995; K.-J. Kim & Turner, 1990; K.-J. Kim et al., 1992; Michaels et al., 1993; Mishler et al., 1996; Olmsted et al., 1992; Skvarla et al., 1977; Thorne, 1977)

Calyceraceae (C; 6/50) Subtr-temp S: Bol & sBraz-Fuegia (Carlquist & DeVore, 1998; DeVore et al., 1997; Erbar, 1993; Gustafsson & K. Bremer, 1995; Hansen, 1992; Pesacreta et al., 1994; Pontiroli, 1963; Skvarla et al., 1978; Theisen & Barthlott, 1994)

Barnadesioideae (9/90) Trap S (K. Bremer & Jansen, 1992)

Barnadesieae (9/90) Trap S (Gustafsson et al., 1998; R. Jansen et al., 1988; Pesacreta & Stuessy, 1996; Stuessy & Spooner, 1988; Stuessy et al., 1994; Zhaoi et al., 1998)

Carduoideae (Cichorioideae, Lactucoideae) (360/6,965) Trap-temp Af As (-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(Ice-nAf) G I Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Green) P(Fern) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Karis et al., 1992)

Mutisieae (76/1,000) Trop-temp Af(-Cape) As(-China) CsN(-Cal & wTex) S (-Fuegia) (Cabrera, 1977; Hansen, 1991; Karis et al., 1992; Kim et al., 1996)

Tarchonantheae (2/27) (Brachylaena, Tarchonanthus) Trap Af-sAf; Masc (Keeley & Jansen, 1991)

Cardueae (incl. Carlineae, Echinopsideae, Gundelieae) (83/2,500) Trap-bor Af As(-Kam) At(Mac) C E(Ice-nAf) I(Maur, Seyc) Me(Phil) N(-Green) P(Bonin, Fern) S(-Chile) (Haffner & Hellwig, 1999; Petit, 1997; Susanna et al., 1995)

Vernonieae (incl. Hesperomania, Stokesia, Trichospira) (70/1,500) Trop-temp Af As(-Japan) Au C I(Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Ont, Sask) P(Gal, Rev) S(-Chile) WInd (S. B. Jones, 1977; K.-J. Kim et al., 1992; Robinson, 1977)

Eremothamneae (2/26) (Eremothamnus, Hoplophyllum) Temp sAf(-Nam) (Karis, 1992; Robinson, 1992, 1994)

Liabeae (15/180) Trap America: Mex-Peru & Bol; WInd (Funk, 1995; Nordenstam, 1977)

Cichorieae (Lactuceae) (98/1,550) Trap-bor Af As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(Ice-nAf) I(Maur, Seyc) Me(-NGu) N(-Green) P(Bonin, Fern) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z(Whittan et al., 1995)

Arctoteae (excl. Ursinia) (14/180) Temp EHemisphere: Af(-Cape); sw, cAs

Asteroideae (1,159/16,785) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E (Ice--nAf) G H I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Karis, 1993)

Astereae (174/2,800) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(SHel) Au C E(Ice--nAf) G H I(Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Sam) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Lane et al., 1996)

Anthemideae (incl. Ursinia, Cotula) (109/1,740) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As (--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(--Ice) G H Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Green) O P(Bonin) S(--Fuegia) Z (K. Bremer & Humphries, 1993)

Gnaphalieae (181/2,000) Subcosm Af As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(--Ice) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--East) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Anderberg, 1991; K. Bremer, 1994; Eldenas et al., 1999)

Senecioneae (incl. Blennosperma) (120/3,200) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As (--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(--Ice) G I(Masc, Seyc) Ma Me N(--Green) O P(--Poly, Fern) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Knox & Palmer, 1995; Nordenstam, 1977, 1978)

Calenduleae (8/110) Temp Af(--Cape); Mac & Med--sw, cAs; Fuegia

Eupatorieae (170/2,400) Subcosm Af As(--Sak) At Au C E G I(--Masc, Seyc) Me(--Fiji) N(--Nf, BrC) O P(--Tonga) S(--Chile) WInd (Robinson, 1977)

Helenieae p.p.(93/560) Trop-temp Af As(s--ne) Au C(esp. Mex) E H N (esp. S, w-sw Canada)P(Desv, Gal) S(--Arg, Chile) WInd (Turner & Powell, 1977)

Inuleae (38/480) Trop--temp EHemisphere: Af(s--Som) As(Turk, Arab--China) At(Can, CapeV) Au E(nAf--Cauc) Ma (K. Bremer, 1994; Drury & Watson, 1966; Eldenas et al., 1998, 1999)

Plucheae (28/220) Trop--warm temp Af(s--Eth) As(Arab, Casp) Au C G I (Maur) Ma Me(--Phil, NHeb) sN P(--Bonin) S(--Arg) WInd (K. Bremer, 1994; Eldenas et al., 1999)

Heliantheae (incl. Ambrosieae, Anisopappus) (189/2,500) Subcosm Af As (--Sak) Au C H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) P(--Gal) S(--Fuegia) WInd (Bergquist et al., 1992; Carlquist, 1959; Eldenas et al., 1999; Eriksson, 1991; Karis, 1993b; Miao et al., 1995; Stuessy, 1977)

Coreopsideae (32/535) Trop--temp Af As At(sAtl) Au C E H Me N P(--Poly) sWInd (Ryding & K. Bremer, 1992)

Tageteae (17/240) Trop--warm temp America: Fla--Cal--S; Gal (Strother, 1977)

Solananae (C; 277/7,480)

Lamiidae (C; 2,790/48,560) (Olmstead et al., 1992)

Solanales (C; 277/7,480) (Carlquist, 1992b)

Solanineae (C; 141/4,755) (Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983)

Solanaceae (C; 82/2,925) Subcosm Af As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, Wash) P(--Marq) S(--Arg, Chile) WInd Z (Carlquist, 1992b; D'Arcy, 1979b; Hawkes et al., 1979, 1988; A. Hunziker, 1979; Lesyer & Roberts, 1986; Olmstead & Palmer, 1992; R. Smith et al., 2000; Thorne, 1983)

Browallioideae (Cestroideae) (20/485) Trop--temp swAf Au C G H N(--Wash) P(--Marq, Rev) S(--Pat)

Solanoideae (incl. Nolana) (56/2,420) Subcosm Af As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, Ore) P(--Marq) S(--Pat) WInd Z (Axelius, 1996; Carlquist, 1987a, 1992b; Di Fulvio, 1971; Johnston, 1936; Mesa, 1981; Olmstead & Palmer, 1997)

Goetzeoideae (4/5) Trap WInd: Cuba--PRico (Carlquist, 1988c, 1992b; Santiago & Olmsted, 1996; Zona, 1989)

Sclerophylacoideae (1/12) (Sclerophylax) Subtr S: Par--Urug & Arg

Duckeodendroideae (1/1) (Duckeodendron) Trap Amaz (Carlquist, 1988c, 1992b; Erdtman, 1954b)

Convolvulaceae (C; 59/1,830) Subcosm Af As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Marq) S(--Arg) WInd Z (Carlquist & Hanson, 1991; Stephanovic & Olmstead, 2000)

Humbertioideae (1/1) (Humbertia) Trap Ma (Jazewitch, 1959; Mariaux, 1959)

Dichondroideae (2/9) (Dichondra, Falkia) Temp--trap Af(--Cape) se, eAs(--Japan) At(Ber) Au C G I(Masc) Ma Me(--Phil) N(Va--Cal) P(Gal, Fern) S(--Arg) WInd Z

Convolvuloideae (55/1,650) Subcosm Af As(--Japan) At(--Mac, Ber) Au C E (--nAf) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que, BrC) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Arg) WInd Z

Cuscutoideae (1/170) (Cuscuta) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(-Sak) At(Mac) Au C E G H Me(--Fiji) N(--NS, Wash) P(--Poly, Gal) S(--Arg) WInd Z (Corner, 1976; McNeal & dePamphilis, 2000; K. Wilson, 1960b)

Boraginineae (C; 136/2,725) (Carlquist & Eckhart, 1984)

Hydrophyllaceae (excl. Codon, Hydrolea) (C; 15/300) Trap--bor America: C N (--Green) P(Gal) S(--Fuegia) WInd; H (Carlquist & Eckhart, 1984; Constance, 1963; D. Ferguson, 1999; Di Fulvio, 1979; K. Wilson, 1960a)

Hydroleaceae (B; 1/20) (Hydrolea) Trap--warm temp Af e, seAs At(Ber) Au(neQld) C Ma Me(--Phil, Sul) e, seN S(--Urug) WInd (Constance, 1963; D. Ferguson, 1999; K. Wilson, 1960a)

Boraginaceae (excl. Pteleocarpa) (C; 117/2,400) Subcosm Af(--CapeP) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(Ice--nAf) H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) 0 P(--Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Al--Nowaihi et al., 1987; Al--Shehbaz, 1991; Baas, 1997; Di Fulvio, 1979; Hegnauer, 1997; Riedl, 1997)

Ehretioideae (11/145) Trap--temp Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--Japan) neAu C I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Sol) wN(--Wash) P(Gal) S(--Chile) WInd (J. S. Miller, 1988; Veldkamp, 1988)

Cordioideae (4/255) Trap--warm temp Af(-CapeP) seAs neAu C G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd (Nowicke & Miller, 1987)

Heliotropoideae (incl. Ixorhea, Nogalia) (6/430) Subcosm Af As(--Japan) At (Ber, Mac) Au C E G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) sN(--Del, Ia) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Chile) Wind

Boraginoideae (95/1,570) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E (Ice--nAf) I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Green) O P(Guad) S(--Fuegia) Z

Wellstedioideae (1/2) (Wellstedia) Subtr Nam; Sacot

Hoplestigmataceae (B; 1/2) (Hoplestigma) Trap wAF: Gabon--Cameroon (Erdtman, 1952; Gilg, 1908; Hallier, 1912, 1923b; Nawicke & Miller, 1989)

Lennoaceae (C; 2/4) (Lennoa, Pholisma) Trop--warm temp America: Cal & Ariz--Col & Ven (Drugg, 1962; Hallier, 1923b; R. Smith & dePamphilis, 1998; R. Smith et al., 2000; Yatskievych & Mason, 1986; Yatskievych & Zavada, 1984)

Lamianae (Gentiananae) (C; 2,513/41,080) (Carlquist, 1992b; Harborne, 1966; S. Jensen, 1992; Lu, 1990; Scogin & Romo--Contreras, 1992)

Rubiales (Gentianales) (C; 1,286/17,040) (Bailey, 1933; Carlquist, 1992b; Gershenzon & Mabry, 1983; Potgieter et al., 2000; Struwe et al., 1995; Theisen & Barthlott, 1994)

Gentianaceae (C; 78/1,265) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E (Ice--nAf) G H I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(East, Marq) S (--Fuegia) WInd Z (Bremer & Struwe, 1992; Carlquist, 1984a; Meszaros et al., 1996; R. Patel et al., 1981b; Struwe & Albert, 1996; Struwe et al., 1997)

Gentianoideae (incl. Saccifolium) (C; 75/1,200) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(Ice--nAf) G H I(--Maur) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(East, Marq) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Albert & Struwe, 1996; B. Bremer & Struwe, 1992; Carlquist, 1984a; Maguire & Pires, 1978; Meszaros et al., 1996; Struwe & Albert, 1996; Struwe et al., 1998)

Potalioideae (3/65) (Anthocleista, Fagraea, Potalia) Trop Af(--Transv) seAs nAu G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) P(--Marq) S(Col--Braz) (S. Jensen, 1992; Struwe & Albert, 1996, 2000)

Loganiaceae (C; 8/120) Trop--warm temp Af e, seAs Au C(--Mex) G wMa Me (--NGu) seN(--Va, Ind) P(Car) sWInd Z (Andranava, 1988; Struwe et al., 1995)

Gelsemiaceae (C; 2/11) (Gelsemium, Mostuea) Trop--warm temp AfseAs C seN nS (Struwe et al., 1995; Takhtajan, 1997)

Strychnaceae (C; 3/220) (Gardneria, Neubergia, Strychnos) Trop--warm temp Afe, seAs C(--Mex) Me(--Fiji) S (Struwe et al., 1995; Takhtajan, 1997)

Geniostomaceae (C; 2/75) (Geniostoma, Labordia) Trop--warm temp EHemisphere: eAs(Japan) eAu(Qld, Lard Howe Is) G H I(Masc) Me(--Fiji) P(Bonin, Car, Mar, Poly) nZ (Struwe et al., 1995; Takhtajan, 1997)

Rubiaceae (C; 630/10,400) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) At(Mac) Au C E (Ice--nAf) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq) S (--Fuegia) WInd Z (Andronova, 1988; B. Bremer, 1992, 1996a, 1996b; B. Bremer & Eriksson, 1992; B. Bremer & Jansen, 1991; B. Bremer & Struwe, 1992; B. Bremer et al., 1995, 1999; Erbar & Leins, 1996a; Koek--Noorman, 1977; Kooiman, 1971; Lorence, 1990; Robbrecht, 1993a, 1993b; Rogers, 1984; Rova et al., 1997; Wagenitz, 1959; M. Young et al., 1996)

Rubioideae (incl. Theligoneae, Henriquesieae) Subcosm Af(--Cape) As(--Kam) sAt(Mac) Au(--Tas) C E(Ice--nAf) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Green) O P(--Marq, Fern) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Andersson & Rova, 1998; Behnke, 1975b, 1975c; Inouye et al., 1988; Koek--Norman, 1980; Kooiman, 1971; Natali et al., 1995; Robbrecht, 1993b; Rutishauser et al., 1998; Wunderlich, 1971)

Cinchonoideae (incl. Antirrheoideae, Hillia) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) As (--Japan) Au C G H I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--Sac) S(--Chile) WInd (B. Bremer et al., 1995)

Ixoraideae (incl. Vanguerieae) Trap Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--Japan) neAu C(--Mex) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) seN(sFla) P(--Marq, Gal) sWInd (Andreasen & B. Bremer, 1996; Andreasen et al., 1999)

Dialypetalanthaceae (C; 1/1) (Dialypetalanthus) Trop Braz (Dahlgren & Thorne, 1984; Piesschaert et al., 1997; Robbrecht, 1993b)

Apocynaceac (C; 562/4,950) Trop-temp Af(--Cape) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Alas) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Civeyrel et al., 1998; Demeter, 1922; Dawnie & Palmer, 1992; M. Endress, 1997; M. Endress & Albert, 1995; M. Endress & Bruyns, 2000; M. Endress et al., 1990, 1996; Erdtman, 1946; Fallen, 1986, 1987; Hallier, 1912; Judd et al., 1994; Potgieter & Albert, 1998; Rosatti, 1989; Safwat, 1962; Takhtajan, 1997; Thorne, 1968, 1983, 1992a)

Rauvolfioideae (Plumerioideae) (incl. Cerbereae) Trap Af(--CapeP) seAs n, eAu(--Tas) C(--Mex) E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--NJ, Kan) P(--Marq, Gal) S(--Chile) Wind

Apocynoideae Trop-temp Af(--CapeP) As(--Japan) At(--Az) Au C E(--nAf) G I Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Alas) P(Bonin) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Nilsson et al., 1993; Woodson & Moore, 1938)

Periplocoideae (45/200) Trop-temp EHemisphere: Af(--CapeP) As At(Can) Au E(Med) G I Ma Me(--Phil) (Erdtman, 1954b; Nilsson et al., 1993)

Secamonoideae Trap-temp Af(--Cape) seAs nAu C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Heb) N(--Penn, Ind) sWInd (Safwat, 1962)

Asclepiadoideae Trop-temp Af(--Cape) As At(Can) Au C E G I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--NB, BrC) P(--Tonga, Gal) S(--Chile) WInd (Gilmartin, 1980)

Lamiales (Scrophulariales, Bignoniales) (C; 1,227/24,040) (Behnke & Barthlott, 1983; Giannasi, 1988; S. Jensen, 1992; Oxelman et al., 1999; Scogin, 1992b; Scogin & Romo-Contreras, 1992; Tomas-Barberanet et al., 1988; Wagenitz, 1992; Wag-staff & Olmstead, 1997)

Oleaceae (C;24/900) Trop-temp Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Nf, BrC) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Baas et al., 1988; Inamdar et al., 1986b; K.-J. Kim & Jansen, 1998; Piechura & Fair-brothers, 1983; Rohwer, 1993e, 1996; H. Taylar, 1945; Wallander & Albert, 1998; Wilson & Wood, 1959)

Jasminoideae (incl. Nyctanthes) (9/500) Trop-temp Af(--CapeP) As(--Japan) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) swN(Cal--Tex) P(--Marq) S(--Chile) (Bigazzi, 1989; Kiew & Baas, 1984; K.-J. Kim & Jansen, 1998; Rohwer, 1994)

Oleoideae (incl. Hesperelaea, Myxopyreae, Schrebereae) (15/400) Trop-temp Af(--Cape) As(--Sak) At(Mac) Au C E(--nAf) G H I(Masc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Nf, BrC) P(--Tonga, Rev) sWlnd Z

Tetrachondraceae (B; 1/2) (Tetrachondra) Cool temp SHemisphere: NZ--Fuegia & Pat (Hutchinson, 1973; Skottsberg, 1912)

Polypremaceae (B; 1/1) (Polypremum warm temp--Trop America: Del, Mo--Fla, Tex; Mex-Ecu; WInd (Oxelman et al., 1999)

Plocospermataceae (B; 1/1) (Plocosperma, incl. Lithophytum) Trop C: sMex-Guat (Chiang & Frame, 1987; M. Endress et al., 1996; S. R. Jensen, 1992; Oxelman et al., 1999)

Gesneriaceae (C; 147/3,720) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--Japan) neAu C sE G H I Ma Me(--NHeb) P S(--Chile) WInd Z (Beaufort-Murphy, 1983; Burtt, 1965, 1977; Burtt & Wiehlar, 1995; Carlquist & Hoekman, 1986a; Denton & Smith, 1996; Kvist & Pedersen, 1986; J. Smith, 1996; J. Smith et al., 1997a, 1997b; Wiehler, 1983)

Gesnerioideae (incl. Sanango) (56/1,800) Trop America: WInd & Mex--Coca & nArg, Bol (Dickison, 1994; S. Jensen, 1994; Norman, 1994; Wiehler, 1983, 1994)

Coronantheroideae (9/20) Trop--temp SHemisphere: Sol, Ncal--NZ, Lord Howe Is & NSW; Chile & wArg

Didymocarpoideae (Cyrtandroideae, Cyrtandromoea, Titanotrichum) (82/1,900) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) e, seAs(--Japan) Au(neQld) C(--Mex) sE G H I(Masc) Ma Me(--NHeb) PC(--Sam) S(--Peru) (J. Smith et al., 1997a)

Verbenaceae (Verbenoideae, excl. Monochileae) (B; 36/1,035) Trop--warm temp Af(--Cape) As(--Manc) At(--Mac, Ber) Au C E(--nAf) G I Ma Me(--NHeb) N(--NS, BrC) P(--Gal) S(--Chile) WInd Z (Cantino et al., 1992a, 1992b; Junell, 1934; Poser et al., 1997; Raj, 1987; Takhtajan, 1997; Thorne, 1992a, 1992b; Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997)

Veronicaceae (incl. Antirrhineae, Aptosimeae, Calceolarieae, Gratioleae, Jerdonia, Leucophylleae, Manuleae) (B; Ca. 100/ ca. 1,600?) Subcosm Af As At Au C E I Ma Me N O P S WInd Z (Argue, 1993; Burtt, 1965; Freeman & Scogin, 1999; Olmstead & Reeves, 1995)

Globulariaceae (C; 2/30) (Globularia, Poskea) Subtr--temp EHemisphere: Som--Soc; Mac--swAs; Sweden--nAf (Argue, 1993; Carlquist, 1992b; Praglowski & Gyllander, 1973; Rosen, 1940; Thorne, 1992a)

Plantaginaceae (C; 3/255) (Bougueria, Littorella, Plantago) Subcosm Af As(--Sib) At(Mac) Au C E(Ice--nAt) H Ma Me(NGu) N(--Green) O P(--East) S(Andes--Fuegia) WInd Z (Bassett, 1973; Hegnauer, 1969; Rosatti, 1984)

Hippuridaceae (B; 1/1) (Hippuris) Temp--Arct nEuras: Ice-nAf-Kam; America: Green & Alas--sCal; cChile--Fuegia (Hegnauer, 1969, 1978a; Thorne, 1992a)

Callitrichaceae (B; 1/50) (Callitriche) Subcosm Af(--CapeP) As(--Kam) At(Mac) sAu C E(Ice--nAf) G Ma Me(--NGu) NC(--Green) O P(Fem) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Fassett, 1951; Fikenscher et al., 1969; Hegnauer, 1969; Philbrick & Les, 1995; Thorne, 1992a)

Acanthaceae (C; 350/4,350) Trop-warm temp Af(--Cape) As(--Manc) At(Mac) nAu C E(--nAf) G I(--Masc) Ma Me N(--Que) PC-East, Gal) S(--Chile) WInd (Ahmad, 1974; Behnke, 1986a; Carlquist & Zona, 1988a; Hedren et al., 1995; H. Jensen et al., 1988; Long, 1970; McDade & Moody, 1999; McDade et al., 1996, 2000; Scotland, 1993; Scotland et al., 1995)

Nelsonioideae (5/15) Trop Af As nAu C(--Mex) Ma wMe sN(--SC) P(Rev) S WInd (Johri & Singh, 1959; Long, 1970; Mohan Ram & Masand, 1963)

Thunbergioideae (4/205) Trop EHemisphere: Af(--Cape) seAs Ma (Long, 1970; Schonenberger & P. Endress, 1998)

Mendoncioideae (2/65) (Gilletiella, Mendoncia) Trop Af; Ma; America: sMex--Bal (Brummitt, 1989; Schonenberger & P. Endress, 1998)

Acanthoideae Trop--temp Af As(--Manc) At(Mac) neAu C E(--nAf) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Fiji) N(--Que) P(--East, Gal) S(--Chile) WInd (Long, 1970)

Ruellioideae Trop-temp Af(--CapeP) se, eAs(--Japan) nAu C Ma Me(--Fiji) N (--NJ) P(Mar, Gal) S(--Par) WInd (Long, 1970)

Avicenniaceae (C; 1/14) (Avicennia) TropAf(--CapeP) seAs At(Ber) n, eAu C (--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--NHeb) seN(Fla--Tex) P(--Mar, Gal) S(--Braz) WInd nZ (Erdtman, 1945; Oxelman et al., 1999; Tomlinson, 1986)

Scrophulariaceae (incl. Buddlejaceae s.s., Oftia, Selagineae, Verbasceae) (C; Ca. 38/ ca. 1,400?) Trop--temp Af(--Cape) As At(Mac) C(--Mex) E(--nAf) I (--Masc) Ma Me(--NGu) N P(Marq) S(--Chile) WInd (Armstrong, 1985; Carlquist, 1997b; Dahlgren & Rao, 1971; Freeman & Scogin, 1999; Hartley & Balkwill, 1990; Norman, 1987; Olmstead et al., 1998; Olmsted & Reeves, 1995; Oxelman et al., 1999; R. Patel et al., 1981 a; Thieret, 1967; A. Wolfe et al., 1997)

Phrymaceae (C; 1/1) (Phryma) Temp eAs: Sib-Him; N: Que & Man-Fla & Okl (Chadwell et al., 1992)

Stilbaceae (C; 7/28) Temp sAf(CapeP) (Carlquist, 1986; Dahlgren et al., 1979; Dahlgren in Dahlgren & van Wyk, 1988; Engell, 1987; H. Jensen et al., 1988; Thorne, 1992)

Retzioideae (1/1) (Retzia) Temp sAf(Cape) (Dahlgren et al., 1979; Engell, 1987; Goldblatt & Keating, 1977)

Stilboideae (5/12) Temp sAf(CapeP) (Raj, 1983)

Nuxoideae (1/15) (Nuxia) Trap-warm temp EHemisphere: sArab--Masc--sAfr (Oxelman et al., 1999)

Martyniaceae (C; 2/12) (Martynia, Proboscidea) Trop-warm temp America: Tex & Cal--Arg; WInd (Bretting & Nilsson, 1988; Carlquist, 1987c; Thieret, 1977; Van Eseltine, 1929)

Lentibulariaceae (C; 4/245) Subcosm Af As(--Kam) Au C E(Ice--nAf) G I(--Maur) Ma Me(--NGu) N(--Green) P(--Mic, Gal) S(--Fuegia) WInd Z (Casper, 1963; P. Taylor, 1964)

Cyclocheilaceae (B; 2/4) (Asepalum, Cyclocheilon) Trap e & neAf & Yemen (Takhtajan, 1997; Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997)

Paulowniaceae (B; 1/6) (Paulownia) Warm-temp eAs (Freeman & Scogin, 1999; Hu, 1959; Olmstead & Reeves, 1995; Olmstead et al., 1998; Vujicie et al., 1993)

Schlegeliaceae (B; 3/20) (Gibsoniothamnus, Schlegelia, Synopsis) Trap America: Mex, C, S, WInd (Armstrong, 1985; Olmstead & Reeves, 1995)

Myoporaceae (excl. Leucophylleae, Oftia; incl. Androya, Bontia) (C; 5/210) Troptemp se, eAs(--Japan) Au G H I(--Masc) Ma Me(Mol--NGu) N(--sFla) P (--Poly) nS(Sur--Ven, naturalized?) WInd Z (Carlquist & Hoekman, 1986b; Kelchner et al., 2000; Oxelman et al., 1999; Zona, 1998)

Bignoniaceae (excl. Paulowniaea) (C; 113/800) Trop--warm temp Af(--CapeP) As(--China) Au(--Tas) C(--Mex) G I(--Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(--Sol) sN(--NJ, Cal) P(Car) S(--Chile) WInd nZ (Gentry, 1976; Gentry & Tomb, 1980; Goldblatt & Gentry, 1979; Spangler & Olmstead, 1999)

Petreaceae (B; 4/450) (Casselia, Lampayo, Petrea, Recordia) Trop--subtr America: Mex--Arg, Chile; WInd (Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997)

Pedaliaceae (C; 13/75) Trop-warm temp EHemisphere: Af(-CapeP) se, eAs (-Japan) nAu I(Sacot) Ma Me(-NGu) (Bretting & Nilsson, 1988; Bruce, 1953; Carlquist, 1987c; S. Manning, 1991; Straka & Ihlenfeldt, 1965)

Trapellaceae (B; 1/1 or 2) (Trapella) Temp eAs (Erdtman, 1954b; John et al., 1992; Takhtajan, 1997)

Orobanchaceae (Pedicularidaceae) (B; 100/ca. 1,830?) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(-Mac, Falk) Au(-Tas) C E(Ice-nAf) 1(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me (-Bis) N(-Green) O P(Bonin, Fern) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Boeshore, 1920; Minkin & Eshbaugh, 1989; Olmstead & Reeves, 1995; N. D. Young et a!., 1999)

Rhinanthoideae (ca. 83/ca. 1,600?) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(-Mac) Au(-Tas) C E(Ice-nAf) I(-Masc, Seyc) Ma Me(-Bis) N(-Green) O P(Fern) S(-Fuegia, Falk) WInd Z (Musselman & Dickison, 1975)

Orobanchoideae (17/230) Trop-bor Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) swAu C E(-nAf) I(Socot) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Alas) P(Bonin) S(Andes-Chile) (Hallier, 1905, 1912; Thieret, 1971; Thome, 1976, 1981, 1983, 1992a; Tiagi, 1963)

Nesogenaceae (exci. Asepalum, Cyclocheilon) (B; 1/7) (Nesogenes) Trop EHemisphere: Af(Tanzania) I(Masc) Ma P(Tuamotu Is) (Marais, 1981; Raj, 1985)

Lamiaceae (B; 264/6,990) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C E(Ice-nAf) G H I(Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-Green) P(-Marq) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Abu-Asab et al., 1993; Cantino, 1982, 1990, 1992a, 1992b; Cantino & Sanders, 1986; Cantino et al., 1992; Carlquist, 1992a; June11, 1934; Ryding, 1995, 1996; Sanders & Cantino, 1984; Thorne, 1992a, 1992b; Trudel & Morton, 1992; Wagstaff & Olmstead, 1997; Wagstaff et al., 1998)

Symphorematoideae (B; 3/24) (Congea, Sphenodesme, Symphorema) trop EHemisphere: seAs-Sum; neQld (Abid, 1967; Raj, 1984)

Chloanthoideae (excl. Spartothamnella; incl. Prostanthereae, Tectona) (B; 17/240) seAs; Au-Me (Abu-Asab & Cantino, 1993b; Raj & El-Ghazaly, 1987; Raj & Grafstrom, 1984)

Ajugoideae (incl. Caryopteridoideae, Garrettia, Monochileae, Spartothamnella, Tetraclea, Teucrioideae, Trichostema, Viticoideae, Wenchengia) (48/1,575) Subcosm Af(-CapeP) s, eAs(-Japan) neAu C E(Med) G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) nP(-Marq) S(-Urug) WInd Z (Abu-Asab & Cantino, 1989, 1993a; Abu-Asab et al., 1993; Cantino & Abu-Asab, 1993; Cantino et al., 1999; Huang et al., 2000; Steane et al., 1997, 1999)

Scutellarioideae (incl. Renschia, Tinnea, Holmskioldia) (4/320) Subcosm Af(-Malawi) As(-Amur) Au C E(-nAf) I(Masc) Ma Me(-NGu) N(-Alas, Lab) S(-Fuegia) WInd

Pogostemonoideae (6/88) Trop-temp EHemisphere: Euras-Indomalesia, Au, Ma, Masc (Abu-Asab & Cantino, 1994; Ryding, 1994)

Lamioideae (53/1060) Subcosm Af(-Cape) As(-Kam) At(Mac) Au C B (Ice-nAf) H I Ma Me(-NHeb) N(-Green) P(-Soc) S(-Fuegia) WInd Z (Abu-Asab & Cantino, 1992, 1994)

Nepetoideae (Ocimoideae) (133/3,685) Subcosm AfAs(-Manc) At(Mac) nAu C E(-nAf) G H I(-Masc) Ma Me(-Fiji) N(-NC, Cal) P(-Marq) S(-Arg) WInd (Wagstaff et a!., 1995)

TAXA INCERTAE SEDIS

Aextoxicon Ruiz & Pavon., Aextoxicaceae (1) Temp Chile. Removed from Celastrales and Euphorbiales (Chase et al., 1996; Mabberley, 1997; Pax, 1917; Takhtajan, 1997)

Berberidopsis Hook.f., Berberidopsidaceae (2) Temp Chile, subtr eAu. Removed from Flacourtiaceae (Chase et al., 1996; Takhtajan, 1985, 1997)

Codon L. (2) Temp swAf. Removed from Hydrophyllaceae (Constance, 1963; D. M. Ferguson, 1999)

Corynocarpus J. R. & G. Forst, Corynocarpaceae (ca. 5) Trop P: Aru Is-Vanuatu, neAu, G, Z (Nowicke & Skvarla, 1983b; Steenis, 1951; Takhtajan, 1997; Wagstaff & Dawson, 2000). A very isolated genus probably meriting at least ordinal status (Philipson, 1987a), but relationships unknown, possibly belonging near the Violales.

Haptanthus Goldberg & Nelson (1) Trop Hond. Relationships still unknown (Goldberg & Nelson, 1989)

Heteranthia Nesse & C. Mart. (1) Trop Braz. Probably in or near Solanaceae (Mabberley, 1997)

Pteleocarpa Oliver (1) Trop wMe. Excluded from Boraginaceae by Riedl (1997) and Baas (1997)

V. Acknowledgments

I thank all those botanists, especially M. M. J. van Balgooy, W. Barthlott, H.-D. Behnke, R. K. Brummitt, S. Carlquist, M. W. Chase, G. Dahlgren, J. I. Davis, W. C. Dickison, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, C. Erbar, M. F. Fay, R. Hegnauer, K. Kubitzky, S. R. Manchester, J. W. Nowicke, G. T. Prance, P. H. Raven, S. S. Renner, J. L. Reveal, R. Schmid, E. L. Schneider, R. J. Soreng, A. Takhtajan, J. A. Wolfe, W. B. Zomlefer, and S. Zona, who have over the years so generously supplied books, separates, specimens, and other information useful in compiling this synopsis. J. L. Reveal has been most helpful in sending lists of superorder, order, family, and subfamily names with their authors and dates of publication so that I would not go astray on matters of priority.

I have also over the years enjoyed the friendship of my fellow generalists, Arthur Cronquist, Rolf and Gertrud Dahlgren, and Armen Takhtajan, and have had many fruitful discussions with them. Many curators have allowed me the use of their herbaria and have sent me specimens on loan or on exchange for study. Fellowships from the Fulbright Association and the National Science Foundation enabled fieldwork in Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, other sites in Malesia, India, Iran, Europe, and elsewhere. Colleagues at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden have guided me through the intricacies of my computers and have rescued me from trying mistakes. Marianne Wallace drew the phylogenetic shrub, and Maria Elena Siqueiros corrected my Spanish in the "Resumen." I thank them all.

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Key to abbreviations for geographical areas in the following synopsis

Antarc -- Antarctic or subantarctic in distribution; often ranging northward in the Andes and other high mountains

SubAntarc -- Largely found just north of Antarctic regions

Arct -- Arctic in distribution; often also in alpine locations to the south

Bor -- Largely boreal in distribution; i.e., distributed between the Arctic and temperate climatic areas

Temp -- Largely or totally temperate in distribution

TempMont -- Primarily restricted to mountains in the temperate zone; basically Arctic-alpine plants

Subtr -- Largely subtropical in distribution

SubtropMont -- Primarily restricted to higher mountains in the subtropics

Circumtrop -- Circumtropical, distributed throughout the Tropics of both hemispheres (E & W)

Trop -- Largely tropical in distribution

TropMont -- Primarily restricted to higher mountains in the Tropics

Subcosm -- Widely distributed on all habitable continents and on many islands; i.e., nearly cosmopolitan (no angiosperm family being truly cosmopolitan in occupying all possible habitats)

Af -- Africa south of the Sahara Desert

As -- Asia: the Arabian Peninsula and Anatolia east to the Bering Strait, including the continental islands of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Hainan, Taiwan, and Japan (the Near East and all of Eurasia south of the Caucasus and east of the Ural Mountains)

At -- Atlantic Ocean islands, including Bermuda and Macaronesia south to Gough and Tristan da Cunha Islands

Au -- Australia, including Tasmania and Lord Howe Island

C -- Central America, including Mexico, south through Panama

E -- Europe (north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains and west of the Ural Mountains), including the Mediterranean area and Saharan North Africa

G -- New Caledonia (Grande Terre) and the Loyalty Islands

H -- Hawaiian Islands

I -- Indian Ocean islands, including Socotra, Aldabra, the Seychelles, and the Mascarenes, south to Amsterdam and St. Paul Islands

Ma -- Madagascar and the Comoros

Me -- Malesia, a largely archipelagic area ranging from the Malayan Peninsula on the west to the Fiji Islands on the east, including Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu (New Hebrides), and Fiji, or basically all of the continental islands southeast of Asia, north of Australia, and southwest of the Pacific Basin

N -- North America north of Mexico, including Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

O -- Subantarctic islands south of the Antarctic Convergence

P -- Pacific Ocean islands north and east of Malesia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand (all of the oceanic islands of the Pacific Basin except the Hawaiian Islands); i.e., Bonin, Micronesia, Polynesia, Guadalupe, Revillagigedo, Coco, Clipperton, Galapagos, and Juan Fernandez Islands

S -- South America, including the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad, south to and including Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands

WInd -- West Indies (the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles)

Z -- New Zealand and the Chatham Islands

ADDITIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE SYNOPSIS

Afgh -- Afghanistan, a mountainous country in Central Asia, northwest of Pakistan, south of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and east of Iran

Alas -- Alaska, the northwesternmost U.S. state, mostly with boreal and Arctic flora except for the temperate, largely insular southern panhandle, which extends south to Prince Rupert Sound north of the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia

Alta -- Alberta, a Canadian province, between British Columbia and Saskatchewan, north of Montana and south of the District of Mackenzie

Amaz -- Basin of the Amazon River and its tributaries, mostly in Brazil and Ecuador but including parts of Venezuela and Colombia south to Bolivia

Amur -- Region around the Amur River, which rises in Mongolia, forms the border between the Russian Far East and Chinese Manchuria, and flows into the Sea of Okhotsk

Ang -- Angola, a former Portuguese colony in West Africa, surrounded by Zaire, Zambia, Botswana, and Namibia

Arab -- Arabian Peninsula, treated here as southwesternmost Asia, but its southern tip has strong African floristic elements

Arg -- Argentina, with Chile the southernmost republics of South America

Ariz -- Arizona, a southwestern U.S. state, between California and New Mexico

AsMin -- Asia Minor, technically Anatolia, Turkey in Asia, but often used loosely for western Asia

Az -- Azores, or Acores, Portuguese islands, west of Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean, part of Macaronesia

Bah -- Bahamas, an island nation in the West Indies, southeast of Florida and north of Cuba

Balk -- Balkans, several nations of southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Seas

BCal -- Baja California, the Mexican peninsula south of Alta California

Bel -- Belize, formerly British Honduras, on the Yucatan Peninsula, east of Guatemala and south of Mexico

Ber -- Bermuda, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina, with a subtropical flora due to the climatic influence of the adjacent Gulf Stream

Bis -- Bismarck Archipelago, islands between New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, south of the Caroline Islands

Bol -- Bolivia, a landlocked South American nation, west of Brazil and north of Paraguay, Argentina, and Chile, much of which is in the Amazon Basin east of the Andes

Bonin -- Bonin and Volcano Islands, in the western Pacific Ocean, south of Japan and north of the Mariana Islands

Born -- Borneo, a very large island between Sumatra and the Philippines, west of Sulawesi (Celebes)

Braz -- Brazil, a large South American nation, south of Guyana and Venezuela and east of Peru and Bolivia

BrC -- British Columbia, the southwesternmost province of Canada, north of Washington, east of southern Alaska, south of the Yukon Territory and Mackenzie District, and west of Alberta

Cal -- California, a geologically diverse U.S. Pacific state, west of Nevada and south of Oregon

Can -- Canary Islands, part of Macaronesia, Spanish islands in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco and south of Madeira

Cape -- Cape Peninsula, at the southern tip of Africa

CapeP -- Cape Province, the southernmost province of Republic of South Africa

CapeV -- Cape Verde Islands, part of Macaronesia, formerly Portuguese islands in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal on the bulge of western Africa

Car -- Caroline Islands, including Palau and Yap, in southwestern Micronesia, north of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago and south of the Mariana Islands

Casp -- Caspian Sea region in western Asia, including Iran to the south, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to the east and north, Russia to the north, and the Caucasus Mountains to the west

Cauc -- Caucasus Mountains, a range of mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas, separating southern Europe from southwestern Asia

Coco -- Isla del Coco, a Costa Rican island in the Pacific Ocean, south of Costa Rica

Col -- Colombia, the northwesternmost republic of South America

Comoros -- Comoro Islands in the Mozambique Channel, between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Conn -- Connecticut, a U.S. New England state, bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and New York to the west

CRica -- Costa Rica, a Central American republic, north of Panama and south of Nicaragua and separating the Caribbean Sea from the Pacific Ocean

Del -- Delaware, a small U.S. Middle Atlantic state on the Delmarva Peninsula, bordered by the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Pennsylvania on the north, and Maryland on the west and south

Desv -- Desventuradas, the Chilean islands of San Felix and San Ambrosio, in the Pacific Ocean west of northern Chile

East -- Easter Island, a Chilean island in the South Pacific Ocean, east-southeast of Polynesia

Ecu -- Ecuador, a western South American nation on the equator, between Colombia and Peru, with the Pacific Ocean to the west

Eth -- Ethiopia, a mountainous, landlocked East African nation, surrounded by Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and the Sudan

Euras -- Eurasia, the totality of Europe (here including Mediterranean Africa north of the Sahara Desert) and Asia (excluding Malesia)

Falk -- Falkland Islands, a U.K. possession (but claimed by Argentina as the Islas Malvinas), in the South Atlantic Ocean off the southern tip of Argentina

Fern -- Islas Juan Fernandez, the Chilean islands Mas a Tierra and Mas Afuera, in the South Pacific Ocean west of Santiago, Chile

Finl -- Finland, a Scandinavian country separated from Estonia on the south by the Gulf of Finland, bounded by Russia on the east, Norway on the north, and Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia on the west

Fla -- Florida, a peninsular U.S. state, south of Georgia, the southern tip of which, with the adjacent Florida Keys, has an essentially Caribbean flora

Fuegia -- Tierra del Fuego, an archipelago belonging to Chile and Argentina, south of the Strait of Magellan

Ga -- Georgia, a southeastern U.S. state, between Florida and the Carolinas and east of Alabama

Gal -- Galapagos Islands, oceanic, volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean on the equator, west of and belonging to Ecuador

Green -- Greenland, a large island northeast of North America, whose interior is now largely covered by deep glaciers; a possession of Denmark

Guad -- Guadalupe Island, a high, volcanic Mexican island, in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Baja California

Guat -- Guatemala, a Central American nation, east and south of Mexico, west of Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador, and north of the Pacific Ocean

GuayH -- Guayana Highlands, sandstone table mountains (tepuis) in Guyana, Venezuela, and northern Brazil, with rich and possibly archaic flora

Guy -- Guyana, formerly British Guiana, a small nation between Venezuela and Suriname, north of Brazil and south of the Atlantic Ocean

Him -- Himalayas, extensive high mountain ranges north of India

Hond -- Honduras, a Central American republic, bordered by El Salvador and the Gulf of Fonseca on the south, Nicaragua on the east, the Caribbean Sea on the north, and Guatemala on the west

Ia -- Iowa, a U.S. midwestern prairie state, west of Illinois and Wisconsin, south of Minnesota, east of South Dakota and Nebraska, and north of Missouri

Ice -- Iceland, a Scandinavian island republic in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Norway and northwest of the British Isles

Ill -- Illinois, a U.S. midwestern state, separated from Iowa and Missouri on the west by the Mississippi River, south of Lake Michigan and Wisconsin, east of Indiana, and north of Kentucky

Ind -- Indiana, a U.S. midwestern state, east of Illinois, west of Ohio, south of Michigan, and north of Kentucky

Jam -- Jamaica, a large West Indian island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba and west of Santo Domingo (Hispaniola)

Kam -- Kamchatka Peninsula of the Russian Far East, north of the Kuril Islands and west of the Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands; here used to include the Chukchi Peninsula and other extreme northeastern parts of Russia

Kan -- Kansas, a U.S. Great Plains state surrounded by Oklahoma, Missouri, Nebraska, and Colorado

Kor -- Asiatic peninsula between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, south of Manchuria and southwest of the Russian Far East

Ky -- Kentucky, a U.S. southeastern state bordered by Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri

La -- Louisiana, a U.S. southern state north of the Gulf of Mexico, south of Arkansas, west of Mississippi, and east of Texas

Lab -- Labrador, the northeasternmost part of the Canadian mainland, northwest of Newfoundland and part of Newfoundland Province

Mac -- Macaronesia, several Atlantic archipelagoes, including the Cape Verde, Canary, Madeira, and Azores Islands, formerly or presently part of Portugal or Spain

Mad -- Madeira, Portuguese islands in the Atlantic Ocean, north of the Canary Islands

Mal -- Malaya, the peninsular portion of Malaysia south of Thailand, here considered the westernmost part of Malesia

Man -- Manitoba, a Canadian province, east of Saskatchewan, west of Ontario and Hudson's Bay, north of North Dakota and Minnesota, and south of the District of Keewatin

Manc -- Manchuria, a region of China, north of Korea, east of Mongolia, and east and south of the Russian Far East, separated from the last by the Amur River

Mar -- Mariana Islands, Pacific Ocean islands between the Bonins to north and the Carolines to south; part of Micronesia

Marq -- Marquesas Islands, volcanic oceanic islands east of the Line and north of the Tuamotu Islands; part of Polynesia

Masc -- Mascarene Islands, in the Indian Ocean, composed mainly of Mauritius and the French island of Reunion

Mass -- Massachusetts, a U.S. New England state bordered by Connecticut, Rhode Island, the Atlantic Ocean, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York

Maur -- Island of Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, which, with Reunion and smaller islets, constitutes the Mascarene Islands

Md -- Maryland, a U.S. Middle Atlantic state, north of Virginia, south of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, west of Delaware, and surrounding Chesapeake Bay

Med -- Mediterranean Sea area of southernmost Europe and northern Africa north of the Sahara Desert

Mex -- Mexico, here treated as the northernmost republic of Central America, although geologically it is part of North America

Mic -- Micronesia, oceanic islands in the Pacific Basin west of Polynesia

Minn -- Minnesota, a U.S. northern state with many lakes and the headwaters of the Mississippi River, north of Iowa, west of Wisconsin, and east of the Dakotas

Miss -- Mississippi, a U.S. southern state, east of the Mississippi River, Louisiana, and Arkansas and west of Alabama

Mo -- Missouri, a U.S. central state, bordered by Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma

Mol -- Moluccas or Spice Islands, part of Indonesia, between Borneo and New Guinea, a geologically unstable region between the Asian and Australasian continental masses

Mong -- Mongolia, a republic of central Asia, north and west of China and south of Siberia

Moz -- Mozambique, a nation in the Indian Ocean, north of the Republic of South Africa and east of Zimbabwe

nAf -- Northern tier of African republics, south of the Mediterranean Sea, including the Atlas Mountains and much of the Sahara Desert, with an essentially Mediterranean flora, here treated botanically as part of Europe

Nam -- Namibia (formerly the trustee territory of South-West Africa, governed by the Republic of South Africa), a republic west of Botswana and north of the Republic of South Africa

NB -- New Brunswick, a Canadian province, northeast of Maine and west of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island

NC -- North Carolina, a U.S. southeastern state, north of Georgia and South Carolina, east of Tennessee, and south of Virginia

NCal -- New Caledonia (Nouvelle Caledonie), a French island with many endemic plants, north of New Zealand, east of Australia, west of Fiji, and south of New Hebrides

ND -- North Dakota, a U.S. Great Plains state bounded by South Dakota, Minnesota, Canada, and Montana

NE -- New England, U.S. northeastern states east of New York and south of Quebec, including Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island

Neb -- Nebraska, a U.S. Great Plains state bordered by Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado

Nf -- Newfoundland, a large Canadian maritime island, between the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean, east of Quebec and southeast of Labrador; Labrador and Newfoundland form the Province of Newfoundland

NGu -- Large island of New Guinea with small satellite islands, north of Australia

NHeb -- New Hebrides, an archipelago between the Solomon and Fiji Archipelagoes and north of New Caledonia; now the island nation of Vanuatu

Nic -- Nicaragua, a Central American nation, between Honduras and Costa Rica and separating the Caribbean Sea from the Pacific Ocean

NJ -- New Jersey, a small U.S. Middle Atlantic state east of Pennsylvania, south of New York, and north of Delaware, botanically noted for its Pine Barrens and Atlantic Ocean beaches and bays

NS -- Nova Scotia, a Canadian maritime province east of Maine and New Brunswick, largely surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean

NSW -- New South Wales, an Australian state south of Queensland and north of Victoria, bordering the Tasman Sea

NY -- New York, a U.S. Middle Atlantic state, west of New England, north of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, east and south of Ontario, and south of western Quebec

NZ -- New Zealand, an island nation between the Pacific Ocean and the Tasman Sea, consisting primarily of North and South Island and Stewart Island

Okl -- Oklahoma, a U.S. Great Plains state, bordered by Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico

Ont -- Ontario, a central Canadian province between Hudson's Bay and the Great Lakes, west of Quebec and east of Manitoba

Ore -- Oregon, a U.S. northwestern state bordering the Pacific Ocean, north of California and Nevada, west of Idaho, and south of Washington

Pan -- Panama, the southernmost republic of Central America, between Costa Rica and Colombia, noted especially for the Panama Canal connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean

Par -- Paraguay, a landlocked South American nation, north of Argentina, south of Bolivia, and west of southern Brazil

Pat -- Patagonia, an arid area mostly in southern Argentina, just north of Fuegia

Penn -- Pennsylvania, U.S. Middle Atlantic state south of New York, west of New Jersey, and north of Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia

Phil -- Republic of the Philippines, a Malesian archipelago north of Borneo and Sulawesi (Celebes)

Poly -- Polynesia, volcanic oceanic islands in the Pacific Basin east of Micronesia, here including all the islands south of the Hawaiian Islands, including the Cook, Society, Austral, Marquesas, Tuamotu, and Easter Islands

Port -- Portugal, a small maritime nation in the western Iberian Peninsula, between Spain and the North Atlantic Ocean

PRico -- Puerto Rico, a large West Indian (Antillean) island west of Santo Domingo (Hispaniola)

Qld -- Queensland, the northeasternmost state of Australia, with tropical rain forest west of the Great Barrier Reef, especially north of Townsville to the Cape York Peninsula

Que -- Quebec, a large Francophone Canadian province, north of New England and New Brunswick, west of Labrador, and east of Hudson's Bay

Rapa -- Polynesian islands in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Tropic of Capricorn and west southwest of Pitcairn Island

Rev -- Revillagigedo Islands, the Mexican islands of Socorro and San Benedicto in the Pacific Ocean, west of Colima

Ry -- Ryukyu Islands, a Japanese chain of islands, between Kyushu and Taiwan and between the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean

Sak -- Sakhalin, an elongate north-south island, west of the Kuril Islands and the Sea of Okhotsk and east of Tatar Strait; part of the Russian Far East

Salv -- El Salvador, a small Central American nation, north of the Pacific Ocean, south of Guatemala and Honduras, and northwest of Nicaragua

Sam -- Samoa, Pacific Ocean islands east of Wallis and Futuna and north of Tonga

Sask -- Saskatchewan, a Canadian province between Manitoba and Alberta, south of the Northwest Territories and north of the Dakotas and Montana

SAtl -- Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, including Ascension, St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha, and Gough Islands, all north of the Antarctic Convergence

SC -- South Carolina, a U.S. southeastern state bordering the Atlantic Ocean, east of Georgia and south of North Carolina

SCruz -- Santa Cruz Islands, an archipelago between the Solomon and New Hebrides (Vanuatu) Archipelagoes

Seyc -- Seychelles, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, north-northeast of Madagascar and east of Tanzania and Kenya

SHel -- St. Helena, a temperate oceanic, volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean with many endemic species

Sib -- Siberia, a vast Asian area of Russia, lying south of the Arctic Ocean, east of the Ural Mountains, north of Kazakhstan and Mongolia and west of the Russian Far East and Chinese Manchuria

Soc -- Society Islands, Polynesian islands, including Tahiti, between the Cook and Tuamotu Archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean

Socot -- Socotra, a large continental island belonging to Yemen, in the Indian Ocean off the Somalian Horn of Africa

Sol -- Solomon Islands, east of the Bismarck Archipelago and northwest of the New Hebrides (Vanuatu)

Som -- Somalia, a nation forming the Horn of Africa, which juts into the Indian Ocean, with the Gulf of Aden and Djibouti to the north and Ethiopia and Kenya to the west

SriL -- Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon, a continental Asiatic island nation in the Indian Ocean, separated from India on the northwest by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar

Sul -- Sulawesi (Celebes), an Indonesian island, east of Borneo and south of the Celebes Sea and the Philippine Islands

Sum -- Sumatra, a large island of Indonesia, west of Java and separated from Malaya to the northeast by the Strait of Malacca

Sur -- Suriname, a small country on the northeastern Atlantic Coast of South America, between French Guiana and Guyana

Syr -- Syria, a nation in the Near East, south of Turkey and east of Lebanon

Tai -- Taiwan, Republic of China, an island in the Pacific Ocean, separated from the People's Republic of China by the Taiwan Strait and lying between the Japanese Ryukyu Islands and the Philippine Islands

Tas -- Tasmania, an island state of Australia, south of Victoria and Bass Strait, with much cool temperate rain forest and many subantarctic floristic elements on the high plateaus

Tex -- Texas, a U.S. southern state, north of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas; like Florida, Texas has a number of tropical floristic elements not found in the rest of the U.S.

Thai -- Thailand (Siam), a nation in southeastern Asia, bordered by Malaysia, the Gulf of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma)

Transv -- Transvaal, the northernmost province of the Republic of South Africa, south of Zimbabwe and west of Mozambique and Swaziland

Tris -- Tristan da Cunha, a British volcanic island, near Gough Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, west southwest of Capetown

Turk -- Turkey, a Eurasian nation, between the Balkans, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, mostly south of the Black Sea, north of the Mediterranean Sea, and east of the Aegean Sea

Urug -- Uruguay, a small South American nation bordering the Atlantic Ocean between Brazil and Argentina

USA -- United States of America, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico as well as the 48 conterminous states

Va -- Virginia, a U.S. Middle Atlantic state, south of Maryland, east of West Virginia and Kentucky, and north of North Carolina

Ven -- Venezuela, a republic in northern South America, south of the Caribbean Sea and between Colombia and Guyana

Ver -- Vermont, a landlocked U.S. New England state, bordered by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Quebec, and New York

Wash -- Washington, the northwesternmost conterminous U.S. state, bounded by Oregon, Idaho, British Columbia, and the Pacific Ocean

Wisc -- Wisconsin, a U.S. midwestern state, west of Lake Michigan, west and south of Michigan, north of Illinois, and east of Minnesota and Iowa

Zim -- Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia, an African nation north of Transvaal, south of Zambia, east of Botswana, and west of Mozambique
Statistical summary of the class
                      Angiospermae (flowering plants)
                     as interpreted from this synopsis
                                   Dicotyledoeae Monocotyledone
Species                            ca. 199,500     57,900
Genera                                  10,900      2,778
Subfamilies                                310         82
Families                                   376        114
Subfamilies and undivided families         586        170
Suborders                                   48         16
Orders                                      49         24
Suborders and undivided orders              87         36
Superorders                                 22          9
Subclasses                                   7          3
Monogeneric families                       129         37
Monogeneric subfamilies                     91         15
Monotypic families                          41          9
Monotypic subfamilies                       32          5
Digeneric families                          30         15
Digeneric subfamilies                       24         11
Ditypic families                            25         10
Ditypic subfamilies                         20          3
Trigeneric families                         32         11
Trigenerics subfamilies                     18          4
Tritypic families                           15          3
Tritypic subfamilies                         9          0
Monogeneric suborders                        4          3
Monotypic suborders                          2          0
Digeneric suborders                          2          1
Trigeneric suborders                         2          0
Monogeneric orders                           3          2
Digeneric orders                             0          2
Ditypic orders                               1          1
Trigeneric orders                            0          1
Tritypic orders                              0          1
                                   Total Angiospermae
Species                                 257,400
Genera                                   13,678
Subfamilies                                 389
Families                                    490
Subfamilies and undivided families          756
Suborders                                    64
Orders                                       73
Suborders and undivided orders              123
Superorders                                  31
Subclasses                                   10
Monogeneric families                        166
Monogeneric subfamilies                     106
Monotypic families                           50
Monotypic subfamilies                        37
Digeneric families                           45
Digeneric subfamilies                        35
Ditypic families                             35
Ditypic subfamilies                          23
Trigeneric families                          43
Trigenerics subfamilies                      22
Tritypic families                            18
Tritypic subfamilies                          9
Monogeneric suborders                         7
Monotypic suborders                           2
Digeneric suborders                           3
Trigeneric suborders                          2
Monogeneric orders                            5
Digeneric orders                              2
Ditypic orders                                2
Trigeneric orders                             1
Tritypic orders                               1
                     Putatively indigenous angiosperm
             families and additional subfamalies of the world
                                                              Total families
                                                              and additional
                                        Dicots Monocots Total  subfamilies
Asia (excluding Malesia)
   Families                              237      72     309
   Additional subfamilies                135      34     169       478
South America (including Trinidad)
   Families                              221      59     280
   Additional subfamilies                105      35     140       420
Central America (including Mexico)
   Families                              210      54     264
   Additional subfamilies                 97      31     128       392
Africa (south of the Sahara Desert)
   Families                              195      60     255
   Additional subfamilies                 90      26     116       371
Malesia (Malaya-Fiji)
   Families                              193      59     252
   Additional subfamilies                 87      30     117       369
Australia (including Tasmania)
   Families                              163      65     228
   Additional subfamilies                 84      32     116       344
North America (north of Mexico)
   Families                              174      51     225
   Additional subfamilies                 78      28     106       331
West Indies (including the Bahamas)
   Families                              163      37     200
   Additional subfamilies                 63      26      89       289
Madagascar and the Comoros
   Families                              153      49     202
   Additional subfamilies                 69      22      91       293
Pacific Basin (excluding Hawaii)
   Families                              140      36     176
   Additional subfamilies                 55      22      77       253
Europe (including Mediterranean Africa)
   Families                              120      41     161
   Additional subfamilies                 56      15      71       232
New Caledonia and the Loyalties
   Families                              118      33     151
   Additional subfamilies                 43      19      62       213
Indian Ocean islands
   Families                              118      33     151
   Additional subfamilies                 42      13      55       206
Atlantic Ocean islands
   Families                               98      31     129
   Additional subfamilies                 30      10      40       169
New Zealand
   Families                               89      27     116
   Additional subfamilies                 16       4      20       136
Hawaiian Islands
   Families                               68      19      87
   Additional subfamilies                 19       5      24       111
Subantarctic islands
   Families                               33      10      43
   Additional subfamilies                  2       4       6        49
Antarctica
   Families                                1       1       2
   Additional subfamilies                  0       0       0         2
                    Angiosperm families and subfamilies
                        of restricted distribution
                                             Endemic dicot
Major geographical units                  families/subfamilies
 1. Africa (mainland south of the Sahara)        18/13
 2. Asia (excluding Malesia)                     16/17
 3. South America (including Trinidad)           15/13
 4. Australia                                     9/10
 5. North America (including Central              11/5
    America and the West Indies)
 6. Madagascar (and the Comoros)                  7/4
 7. New Caledonia                                 5/0
 8. Eurasia (including North Africa)              2/0
 9. Malesia (to Fiji)                             2/0
10. Indian Ocean                                  1/0
11. Pacific Basin                                 1/0
    Total                                        87/62
                                                               Total families
                                            Endemic monocot    and additional
Major geographical units                  families/subfamilies  subfamilies
 1. Africa (mainland south of the Sahara)         5/1                36
 2. Asia (excluding Malesia)                      2/0                33
 3. South America (including Trinidad)            2/3                32
 4. Australia                                     8/5                32
 5. North America (including Central              3/1                20
    America and the West Indies)
 6. Madagascar (and the Comoros)                  0/0                11
 7. New Caledonia                                 0/0                 5
 8. Eurasia (including North Africa)              2/1                 5
 9. Malesia (to Fiji)                             1/0                 3
10. Indian Ocean                                  0/0                 1
11. Pacific Basin                                 0/0                 1
    Total                                        23/11              177
                     World distribution of angiosperm
                         families and subfamilies
                            Dicots           Monocots           Totals
                                    Subfami-          Subfami-
Distribution               Families   lies   Families   lies   Families
Subcosmopolitan              100       93       25       26      125
Pantropical                   18       18        4        6       22
Missing from one continent    15       14       11        5       26
Southern Hemisphere            3        1        3        0        6
Other narrower disjuncts     131      116       42       33      173
 Eurasia (mci. Malesia)-
  America                     33       36       10        5       43
 N. America (incl. C.
  Amer. & W. Indies)-
  S. America                  22       22        4       11       26
 Africa-America                8        3        6        3       14
 Africa-Madagascar-
  Eurasia-Australasia
  (Pacific)                    5        9        5        3       10
 Australasia-Malesia           9        2        1        1       10
 Australasia-America           5        2        3        0        8
 Other disjuncts              49       42       13       10       62
Endemic to one continent
  or archipelago              98       70       29       13      127
Totals                       365      312      114       83      479
                                    Subfamilies
                           Subfami- & undivided
Distribution                 lies    families
Subcosmopolitan              119        175
Pantropical                   24         41
Missing from one continent    19         38
Southern Hemisphere            1          6
Other narrower disjuncts     149        289
 Eurasia (mci. Malesia)-
  America                     41         71
 N. America (incl. C.
  Amer. & W. Indies)-
  S. America                  33         56
 Africa-America                6         17
 Africa-Madagascar-
  Eurasia-Australasia
  (Pacific)                   12         20
 Australasia-Malesia           3         12
 Australasia-America           2         10
 Other disjuncts              52        103
Endemic to one continent
  or archipelago              83        206
Totals                       395        755
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