Catches of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, by the Soviet Union and other nations in the Southern Ocean, 1947-1973.
Abstract: From 1947 to 1973, the U.S.S.R. conducted a huge campaign of illegal whaling worldwide. We review Soviet catches of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the Southern Ocean during this period, with an emphasis on the International Whaling Commission's Antarctic Management Areas IV, V, and VI (the principal regions of illegal Soviet whaling on this species, south of Australia and western Oceania). Where possible, we summarize legal and illegal Soviet catches by year, Management Area, and factory fleet, and also include information on takes by other nations. Soviet humpback catches between 1947 and 1973 totaled 48,702 and break down as follows: 649 (Area I), 1,412 (Area II), 921 (Area III), 8,779 (Area IV), 22,569 (Area V), and 7,195 (Area VI), with 7,177 catches not currently assignable to area.

In all, at least 72,542 humpback whales were killed by all operations (Soviet plus other nations) after World War II in Areas IV (27, 201), V (38,146), and VI (7,195). More than one-third of these (25,474 whales, of which 25,192 came from Areas V and VI) were taken in just two seasons, 1959-60 and 1960-61. The impact of these takes, and of those from Area IV in the late 1950's, is evident in the sometimes dramatic declines in catches at shore stations in Australia, New Zealand, and at Norfolk Island.

When compared to recent estimates of abundance and initial population size, the large removals from Areas IV and V indicate that the populations in these regions remain well below pre-exploitation levels despite reported strong growth rates off eastern and western Australia. Populations in many areas of Oceania continue to be small, indicating that the catches from Area VI and eastern Area V had long-term impacts on recovery.
Subject: Whaling (Laws, regulations and rules)
Whaling (Statistics)
Cetacea (Natural resources)
Wildlife conservation (Laws, regulations and rules)
Fish industry (Laws, regulations and rules)
Fisheries (Laws, regulations and rules)
Authors: Clapham, Phil
Mikhalev, Yuri
Franklin, Wally
Paton, David
Baker, C. Scott
Ivashchenko, Yulia V.
Brownell, Robert L., Jr.
Pub Date: 01/01/2009
Publication: Name: Marine Fisheries Review Publisher: Superintendent of Documents Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Agricultural industry; Business Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2009 U.S. Department of Commerce ISSN: 0090-1830
Issue: Date: Wntr, 2009 Source Volume: 71 Source Issue: 1
Topic: Event Code: 930 Government regulation; 940 Government regulation (cont); 980 Legal issues & crime; 680 Labor Distribution by Employer Advertising Code: 94 Legal/Government Regulation Computer Subject: Government regulation
Product: Product Code: 0914019 Whales; 9106280 Wildlife Protection Programs; 0900000 Fishing, Hunting & Trapping NAICS Code: 11421 Hunting and Trapping; 92412 Administration of Conservation Programs; 114 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping SIC Code: 0971 Hunting, trapping, game propagation; 0912 Finfish; 0913 Shellfish; 0921 Fish hatcheries and preserves
Geographic: Geographic Name: Southern Ocean
Accession Number: 200920501
Full Text: Introduction

The great whales of the Southern Ocean were extensively exploited by modern whaling methods, with the first catches made in the Falkland Islands Dependencies region of IWC Management Area II in 1904 (Tonnesson and Johnsen,1982; Hart, 2006). Exploitation went through several phases. Populations of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, and blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, around South Georgia crashed around the time of World War 1, and further exploitation occurred in other regions into the 1930's. There was a hiatus in whaling during World War II, but large-scale catches resumed in Antarctic waters after 1945.

As is now well known, between 1947 and 1973 the Soviet Union conducted large-scale illegal whaling throughout much of the North Pacific, Indian, South Atlantic, and Southern Oceans (Yablokov, 1994, 1995; Yablokov et al., 1998; Ivashchenko et al., 2007; Berzin, 2008; Clapham and Ivashchenko, 2009). This campaign involved the killing of animals of all ages and species, irrespective of quotas, regulations, and protected status established at the time by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Much of the true catch data have now been made available through the efforts of former Soviet biologists working aboard the various factory ships involved; these data involve the number of animals taken, and sometimes additional details such as location of catch and biological characteristics of the whales.

In the Southern Hemisphere alone, almost 100,000 whales were secretly killed by the U.S.S.R. and not reported to the IWC (Yablokov et al., 1998; Clapham and Baker, 2002). Of this total, some 46,000 were humpback whales. Although the locations (general or specific) of most of these catches have been revealed, many discrepancies and gaps have remained which have complicated efforts to determine the potential impact of these takes on the stocks concerned. Here, we detail illegal Soviet catches of humpback whales in the Antarctic region during 1947- 73, and we attempt to assign these catches to each of the six management areas (termed Areas I-VI) defined by the IWC (IWC, 1980 and Fig. 1). We also provide data on humpback whale catches by factory fleet, as well as total catches (by the U.S.S.R. and other nations) for Areas IV, V, and VI.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Data Sources

From 1947 to 1973, Soviet catches of humpback whales were made by four floating factory fleets, which operated at various times during the period: Slava (1946-66), Sovetskaya Ukraina (195-973), Yuri Dolgorukiy (1960-1973), and Sovetskaya Rossiya (1961-73). The total catch during the entire period was 48,702 humpbacks; only 2,710 of these catches were reported to the IWC.

Here and previously, the first source for these catch records was Soviet Antarctic Whaling Data (1947-1972) (Yablokov,1995, commonly referred to by the color of its cover as "the green volume"). This provides details of reported vs. true catch data for each of the four floating factory fleets; in many but not all cases these catches are broken down by Area. However, there are two inconsistencies in this record:

1) If Area totals for each whaling season and factory ship are summed from the individual tables, they sometimes do not agree with the summary totals given for each factory ship for the entire period of operation. Sometimes this is because catches which were not assigned to Area are omitted from the summary table's totals; sometimes it appears to be a simple mathematical error.

2) Some data shown in catch summaries provided by Zemsky et al. (1995, 1996) are not included in the green volume, and (less often) the other way around.

The tables presented in this paper make the assumption that the data given in Zemsky et al. (1995, 1996) are more complete than those in the green volume, and therefore they represent a more accurate record; the only exceptions are a few places where Zemsky et al. (1995, 1996) have gaps that the green volume fills (e.g. the 1967-68 season for S. Ukraina). Thus, the tables represent a combination of information derived from both sources.

The data derived from the green volume for the Slava and Yuri Dolgorukiy needed no correction (i.e. the numbers were consistent between the Zemsky papers and the green volume). The S. Ukraina green volume data required some minor adjustments. The S. Rossiya data in the green volume were the most problematic. Data for non Soviet whaling operations were taken from summaries in various published sources, primarily Chittleborough (1965).

The 1959-60 and 1960-61 Antarctic Seasons

Of the 48,702 humpback whales caught by the U.S.S.R., more than half were killed in two Antarctic whaling seasons: 1959-60 and 1960-61. The Area breakdowns for Slava and S. Ukraina in 1959-60 were based upon original catch records and knowledge of where the fleets were operating (reported in less detail by Mikhalev, 2000). Operations in that season occurred between December and March in Area V, with an incursion into Area VI in the second half of March; because the exact number of whales taken in Area VI is not known, March catch totals for both fleets have been divided evenly between V and VI.

The Area breakdowns for Slava and S. Ukraina for 1960-61 were taken from Mikhalev (2004) and Zemsky et al. (1996), which together provide information on where the two fleets (notably the latter) were operating each month, together with catch totals for each month. In general terms, the fleets were in Area IV in November, Area V in December-January, and Area VI in February-March; but because there were a few days that did not quite fit this pattern, some catches (though not a lot) may have been assigned by us to the wrong Area.

Catch Summary

True Soviet whaling catches are reported by factory ship, year, and Area in a series of tables below, as follows: Slava (Table 1), Sovetskaya Ukraina (Table 2), Yuri Dolgorukiy (Table 3), Sovetskaya Rossiya (Table 4), all fleets combined, by Area (Table 5), by season and factory fleet (Table 6). Non Soviet catches of humpback whales in the same period came primarily from Areas IV and V; these are summarized in Tables 7 and 8, respectively.

Table 9 gives total catches for the entire period: 27,201 (Area IV), 38,146 (Area V), and 7,195 (Area VI), with 7,177 catches not assignable to an area. Including both Soviet and non Soviet catches, at least 72,542 humpback whales were killed in Areas IV, V, and VI during the post-war period.

Discussion

Following World War II, almost half the total of illegal whaling in the Southern Hemisphere by the U.S.S.R. were of humpback whales, which was probably the most abundant species in the areas in which the Soviet fleets were working, and thus provided the fastest way to meet the production targets in the industrial plan that governed everything. However, blue whales, sperm whales, sei whales, Bryde's whales, minke whales, and right whales were also killed in large numbers

Although the true catch figures have been known for some time, assigning these catches to Management Area has in many cases proved difficult. Contradictions in published information and lack of availability of detailed catch positions has introduced uncertainty into efforts to assess the impact of these catches on the various stocks concerned. Although more detailed information may become available from previously unsearched archives in the former Soviet Union, the summaries given here are the most accurate accounting available to date, and the reported totals are unlikely to be significantly in error.

The large number of humpbacks killed by the U.S.S.R. in Areas IV and V from about 1957 to 1961 precipitated major declines in catches at shore stations in Australia and New Zealand, notably those reliant on whales from Area V. More than 6,000 whales were removed from Area IV in 1957-58 and 1958-59 by the Slava fleet, and this was followed by a notable decline in catches at the two western Australian stations of Carnarvon and Albany, which in 1959 took only 700 humpbacks from an assigned quota of 1,175 (Table 7).

More dramatic was the situation in Area V following the huge Soviet catches in 1959-60 and 1960-61 (a total of 25,474 whales, of which about 20,630 came from Area V). In 1961, the eastern Australian stations of Tangalooma and Byron Bay failed for the first time to reach their catch quota, and the fishery collapsed the following year (Table 8). The decline was even more apparent to the east at the stations in New Zealand, where the catch dropped from 361 whales in 1960 to 80 (1961) and then 32 (1962). Similarly, in 1962 the station at Norfolk Island caught only 4 whales from a quota of 170.

The total post-war catches by all nations from Areas IV and V (27,201 and 38,146 humpbacks, respectively) were very large. If one compares these figures to current estimates of abundance and initial population size (IWC, 2006), it is apparent that the current sizes of these populations remain well below their pre-exploitation levels despite reported strong growth rates in some areas. Jackson et al. (2008) explored this issue using a two-stock Bayesian density-dependent logistic population model. Their median posterior estimate of carrying capacity for eastern Australia (broadly equivalent to Area V) was 26,383-31,400, with a median recovery estimate in 2008 of 27-31% of initial population size.

The situation with Area VI (total known catch 7,195 whales) is less clear than for Areas IV and V. Median posterior estimate of carrying capacity for Oceania of Jackson et al. (2008) was 16,022-22,957, with a median recovery estimate of 20-25% of initial population size. This estimate, together with the relatively low abundance of humpback whales observed in many parts of this region today (New Zealand, New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga, American Samoa, and French Polynesia) suggests a slow recovery from the large-scale overexploitation perpetrated by the U.S.S.R. This situation has prompted recent concern over the status of humpback whales in Oceania, and has led to that sub-population being categorized as "endangered" by the IUCN (Childerhouse et al., 2008).

Acknowledgments

We thank Cherry Allison at IWC for help clarifying whale catch data.

Literature Cited

Berzin, A. A. 2008. The truth about Soviet whaling. In Y. V Ivashchenko, P J. Clapham, and R. L. Brownell, Jr. (Editors), The truth about Soviet whaling: a memoir, p. 1-59 [transl. by Y. V. Ivashchenko]. Mar. Fish. Rev. 70(2).

Childerhouse, S., J. Jackson, C. S. Baker, N. Gales, P. J. Clapham, and R. L. Brownell, Jr. 2008. Megaptera novaeangliae, Oceania subpopulation. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://www.iucnredlist.org/ details/132832).

Chittleborough, R. G. 1965. Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 16:33-128.

Clapham, P., and C. S. Baker. 2002. Modern whaling. In W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, and J. G. M. Thewissen (Editors), Encyclopedia of marine mammals, p. 1,328-1,332. Acad. Press, San Diego, Calif.

--. and Y. Ivashchenko. 2009. A whale of a deception. Mar. Fish. Rev. 71(1):44-52.

Hart, I. B. 2006. Whaling in the Falkland Islands Dependencies, 1904-1931. Pequena Press, Newton St. Margarets, U.K., 365 p.

Ivashchenko, Y V., P. J. Clapham, and R. L. Brownell, Jr. (Editors). 2007. Scientific reports of Soviet whaling expeditions in the North Pacific, 1955-1978. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-175, 36 p. [transl. by Y V Ivashchenko].

IWC. 1980. Southern Hemisphere stock divisions. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 32:582.

--. In press. Report of the workshop on the Comprehensive Assessment of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales. J. Cetacean Res. Manage.

Jackson, J. A., A. Zerbini, P Clapham, R. Constantine, C. Garrigue, N. Hauser, M. M. Poole, and C. S. Baker. 2008. Progress on a two-stock catch allocation model for reconstructing population histories of east Australia and Oceania. Int. Whaling Comm., The Red House, Sta. Rd., Impington, Camb., U.K., Pap. SC/60/SH14, 12 p.

Mikhalev, Y A. 2000. Biological characteristics of humpback whales taken in Antarctic Area V by the whaling fleets Slava and Sovietskaya Ukraina. Int. Whaling Comm., The Red House, Sta. Rd., Impington, Camb., U.K., Pap. SC/52/IA12, 18 p.

--. 2004. Trade and the biological characteristic of humpback whales, caught by Soviet Antarctic flotillas into the season 1960-61. Int. Whaling Comm., The Red House, Sta. Rd., Impington, Camb., U.K., Pap. SC/56/SH9, 12 p.

Tonnessen, J. N., and A. O. Johnsen. 1982. The history of modern whaling. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, 798 p.

Yablokov, A. V. 1994. Validity of whaling data. Nature 367:108.

--. 1995. Soviet Antarctic whaling data (1947-1972). Cent. Russ. Environ. Pol., Moscow, 320 p. [In Engl. and Russ.]

--, V. A. Zemsky, Y. A. Mikhalev, D. D. Tormosov, and A. A. Berzin. 1998. Data on Soviet whaling in the Antarctic in 1947-1972 (population aspects). Russ. J. Ecol. 29:38-42.

Zemsky, V. A., A. A. Berzin, Y A. Mikhalev, and D. D. Tormosov. 1995. Soviet Antarctic pelagic whaling after WWII: review of actual catch data. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 45:131135.

--, Y. Mikhalev, and A. A. Berzin. 1996. Supplementary information about Soviet whaling in the Southern Hemisphere. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 46:131-138.

Phil Clapham is with the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (e-mail: phillip.clapham@noaa.gov) and the South Pacific Whale Research Consortium, P.O. Box 3069, Avarua, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Yuri Mikhalev is with the Ukranian Pedagogical University, Staroportofrankovskaya 26, Odessa 270020, Ukraine. Wally Franklin is with the South Pacific Whale Research Consortium, P.O. Box 3069, Avarua, Rarotonga, Cook Islands and the Oceania Project, P.O. Box 646, Byron Bay, NSW 2481, Australia. David Paton is with the South Pacific Whale Research Consortium, P.O. Box 3069, Avarua, Rarotonga, Cook Islands and Blue Planet Marine, P.O. Box 5535, Kingston, ACT 2604, Australia. C. Scott Baker is with the South Pacific Whale Research Consortium, P.O. Box 3069, Avarua, Rarotonga, Cook Islands and the Marine Mammal Institute and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, 2030 SE Marine Science, Drive, Newport, OR 97365. Yulia Ivashchenko is with Seastar Scientific, Dzerzhinskogo St 5-30, 150033 Yaroslavl, Russia (current address: National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115). Robert L. Brownell, Jr. is with the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 1352 Lighthouse Avenue, Pacific Grove, CA 93950.
Table 1.--Number of humpback whales killed by the Slava, by area
and season, from 1946-47 to 1965-66. All catches from 1957-58 and
1958-59 have been assigned to Area IV, although it is likely that
up to about 300 of these animals were taken in locations to the
west of this region while in transit (Mikhalev, personal
recollection). The 1959-60 catches are known to have come largely
from Area V, with some others from western Area VI (Mikhalev,
2000); therefore, while the exact numbers per Area are not known,
the total has been apportioned on this basis. The Area totals for
1960-61 (when Slava and Sovetskaya Ukraina were operating generally
together) are estimated from information about fleet movements
given in Mikhalev (2004); while those figures are not entirely
accurate because of the grouping of some catches across the
boundary of Areas V and VI, they are unlikely to be significantly
in error.

Year                 Area I   Area II   Area III   Area IV

1946-47 to 1956-57
1957-58                                              2,235
1958-59                                              4,039
1959-60
1960-61                                                 19
1961-62                 6                   9          259
1962-63                 6                  16          453
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66                                    13           61

Total                  12        0         38        7,066

Year                 Area V   Area VI    Unknown    Total

1946-47 to 1956-57                         3,564     3,564
1957-58                                              2,235
1958-59                                              4,039
1959-60               4,930       495                5,425
1960-61               2,415     1,612                4,046
1961-62                 216     1,156                1,646
1962-63                 168       103                  746
1963-64                                       97        97
1964-65                                                  0
1965-66                   7                             81

Total                 7,736     3,366      3,661    21,879

Table 2.--Number of humpback whales killed by the Sovetskaya
Ukraina, by area and season, 1959-60 to 1967-68.

Year      Area I   Area II   Area III   Area IV

1959-60
1960-61                                   42
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64               4         11        24
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67    238                            51
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73

Total      238        4         11        117

Year      Area V   Area VI   Unknown     Total

1959-60    6,848       672                7,520
1960-61    3,941     1,590                5,573
1961-62                         1,078     1,078
1962-63                           667       667
1963-64      260                            299
1964-65                             3         3
1965-66                           710       710
1966-67       18       180                  487
1967-68                           181       181
1968-69                                       0
1969-70                                       0
1970-71                                       0
1971-72                                       0
1972-73                             1         1

Total     11,067     2,442      2,640    16,519

Table 3.--Number of humpback whales killed by the Yuri
Dolgorukiy, by area and season, from 1960-61 to 1972-73.

Year      Area I   Area II   Area III   Area IV

1960-61      2           5       33         181
1961-62    191                   17         108
1962-63                  2       75         868
1963-64                          27         118
1964-65                          67          18
1965-66                774      265
1966-67                 90      266           4
1967-68                535       84           4
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72      3
1972-73                  2

Total      196       1,408      834       1,301

Year      Area V   Area VI    Unknown     Total

1960-61    2,274       415                2,910
1961-62      267       512                1,095
1962-63                                     945
1963-64                                     145
1964-65                                      85
1965-66                                   1,039
1966-67                                     360
1967-68                                     623
1968-69                                       0
1969-70                                       0
1970-71                                       0
1971-72                                       3
1972-73                                       2

Total      2,541       927          0     7,207

Table 4.--Number of humpback whales killed by the Sovetskaya
Rossiya, by area and season, from 1961-62 to 1972-73. The
difference between the data given in the green volume and the total
number reported by Zemsky et al. (1996) are assigned to unknown
area. The overall total of 3,097 agrees with that in Zemsky et al.
(1996).

Year      Area I   Area II   Area III   Area IV

1961-62    203                   3          9
1962-63
1963-64                         34         85
1964-65                                    56
1965-66
1966-67                                   103
1967-68                          1         42
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73

Total      203        0         38        295

          Area V   Area VI   Unknown      Total

1961-62    1,069     404                  1,688
1962-63                        573          573
1963-64        4                27          150
1964-65       61                29          146
1965-66                        223          223
1966-67       85                            188
1967-68        6      56        20          125
1968-69                          2            2
1969-70                                       0
1970-71                                       0
1971-72                                       0
1972-73                          2            2

Total      1,225     460       876        3,097

Table 5.--Combined humpback whale catch totals by area and year
for all four Soviet factory fleets, 1946-73. The 3,564
unassigned catches from 1946-47 to 1956-57 seasons were all
taken by the Slava.

Year         Area I    Area II    Area III   Area IV     Area V

1946-47 to
1956-57

1957-58                                         2,235
1958-59                                         4,039
1959-60                                                   11,778
1960-61            2          5         33        242      8,630
1961-62          400                    29        376      1,552
1962-63            6          2         91      1,321        168
1963-64                       4         72        227        264
1964-65                                 67         74         61
1965-66                     774        278         61          7
1966-67          238         90        266        158        103
1967-68                     535         85         46          6
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72            3
1972-73                       2

Total            649      1,412        921      8,779     22,569

Year        Area VI    Unknown      Total

1946-47 to                3,564      3,564
1956-57

1957-58                              2,235
1958-59                              4,039
1959-60        1,167                12,945
1960-61        3,617                12,529
1961-62        2,072      1,078      5,507
1962-63          103      1,240      2,931
1963-64                     124        691
1964-65                      32        234
1965-66                     933      2,053
1966-67          180                 1,035
1967-68           56        201        929
1968-69                       2          2
1969-70                                  0
1970-71                                  0
1971-72                                  3
1972-73                       3          5

Total          7,195      7,177     48,702

Table 6.--Southern Hemisphere humpback whale
catches for all four Soviet floating factories, 1946-73.
Source: Zemsky et al. (1995, 1996), except for 1967-68
S. Ukraina data, which come from the green volume.

Season        Slava    S. Ukraina     Yuri D.    S. Rossiya

46-47              1
47-48
48-49            112
49-50            511
50-51            945
51-52            599
52-53            311
53-54            213
54-55            361
55-56            236
56-57            275
57-58          2,235
58-59          4,039
59-60          5,425        7,520
60-61          4,046        5,573        2,910
61-62          1,646        1,078        1,095        1,688
62-63            746          667          945          573
63-64             97          299          145          150
64-65                           3           85          146
65-66             81          710        1,039          223
66-67                         487          360          188
67-68                         181          623          125
68-69                                                     2
69-70
70-71
71-72                                        3
72-73                           1            2            2

Total         21,879       16,519        7,207        3,097

Season        Total

46-47              1
47-48              0
48-49            112
49-50            511
50-51            945
51-52            599
52-53            311
53-54            213
54-55            361
55-56            236
56-57            275
57-58          2,235
58-59          4,039
59-60         12,945
60-61         12,529
61-62          5,507
62-63          2,931
63-64            691
64-65            234
65-66          2,053
66-67          1,035
67-68            929
68-69              2
69-70              0
70-71              0
71-72              3
72-73              5

Total         48,702

Table 7.--Other (non Soviet) catches of humpback whales from Area IV,
1949-62. Point Cloates, Carnarvon, and Albany are all on the west
coast of Australia. Source: Chittleborough (1965: Table 1).

             Point Cloates             Carnarvon

Year    Quota       Catch           Quota   Catch

1949    600         190
1950    600         348               600      40
1951    600         574               650     650
1952    600         536               600     600
1953    603         603               600     600
1954    600         600               600     600
1955    500         500               500     500
1956    Transferred (1)             1,000   1,000
1957                                1,000   1,018
1958                                1,000     885
1959                                1,000     541
1960                                  750     440
1961                                  475     475
1962                                  540     503

                 Albany

Year        Quota      Catch     Antarctic   Total
                                 (pelagic)

1949                                    0      190
1950                                  779    1,167
1951                                1,112    2,336
1952           50          51       1,127    2,314
1953          100         100         193    1,496
1954          120         120         258    1,578
1955          126         126          28    1,154
1956          120         119         832    1,951
1957          120         102           0    1,120
1958          120          82           0      967
1959          175         159       1,413    2,113
1960          120         105          66      611
1961          105         105           4      584
1962          100          40          56      599

Total West coast of Australia: 1    5,868   18,180

(1) Quotas and catches transferred to Carnarvon.

Table 8.--Other (non Soviet) catches of humpback whales from Area
V, 1949-62. Tangalooma (Queensland), and Byron Bay (New South Wales)
are both in eastern Australia. Source: Chittleborough (1965: Table 2).

               Tangalooma                 Byron Bay

Year     Quota        Catch         Quota         Catch

1949
1950
1951
1952      600          600
1953      700          700
1954      600          598           120           120
1955      600          600           120           120
1956      600          600           120           120
1957      600          600           121           121
1958      600          600           120           120
1959      660          660           150           150
1960      660          660           150           150
1961      660          591           150           140
1962      600           68           150           105

Total Eastern Australia: 8,307

             Norfolk Island

Year     Quota        Catch      New Zealand    Antarctic
                                                (pelagic)

1949                                 141             0
1950                                  79           903
1951                                 111           162
1952                                 122           146
1953                                 109           504
1954                                 180             0
1955                                 112         1,097
1956      150          150           143           194
1957      120          120           184             0
1958      120          120           183             0
1959      150          150           318           885
1960      170          170           361           931
1961      170          170            80           293
1962      170            4            32             0

Total Eastern Australia: 8,307     2,155         5,115

Year                                Total

1949                                 141
1950                                 982
1951                                 273
1952                                 868
1953                               1,313
1954                                 898
1955                               1,929
1956                               1,207
1957                               1,025
1958                               1,023
1959                               2,163
1960                               2,272
1961                               1,274
1962                                 209

Total Eastern Australia: 8,307    15,577

Table 9.--Known total post-war catches (U.S.S.R. and other nations) of
humpback whales from Areas IV, V, and VI, and migratory corridors
directly north of these areas (e.g. Australia and New Zealand). There
were an additional 7,177 Soviet catches that were not assignable
to an Area.

Year/Source              Area IV    Area V    Area VI     Total

U.S.S.R., 1959-60                    11,778      1,167    12,945
U.S.S.R., 1960-61            242      8,630      3,617    12,489
Other U.S.S.R., 1949-73    8,779      2,161      2,411    13,351
Australia-NZ, 1949-62     18,180     15,577               33,757

Total                     27,201     38,146      7,195    72,542
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