Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1814
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Kirov Roumen - - 2013
Brain activation patterns and mental, electrophysiological, and neurobiological features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suggest more functions than only elaborative encoding. Hence, the periodic occurrence of REM sleep episodes and dreaming may be regarded as a recurrent adaptive interference, which incorporates recent memories into a broader vital context comprising ...
Naorat Sathapana - - 2013
Background. Few population-based estimates of the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in low- or middle-income countries are available. We describe the incidence and epidemiology of hospitalizations for RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) detected by active population-based surveillance in 2 rural Thailand provinces during 2008-2011. Methods. Patients hospitalized with ...
Markowitsch Hans J - - 2013
It is argued that Llewellyn's hypothesis about the lack of rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep dreaming leading to loss of personal identity and deficits in episodic memory, affectivity, and prospection is insufficiently grounded because it does not integrate data from neurodevelopmental studies and makes reference to an outdated definition of episodic ...
Haynes Amber K - - 2013
Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children globally, with the highest burden in low- and middle-income countries where the association between RSV activity and climate remains unclear. Methods. Monthly laboratory-confirmed RSV cases and associations with climate data were assessed for respiratory surveillance ...
Mattei Tobias A - - 2013
By integrating the classic psychological principles of ancient art of memory (AAOM) with the most recent paradigms in cognitive neuroscience (i.e., the concepts of hodotopic organization and nonlinear dynamics of brain neural networks), Llewellyn provides an up-to-date model of the complex psychological relationships between memory, imagination, and dreams in accordance ...
Nielsen Tore - - 2013
Certain method of loci (MoL) prerequisites - familiar, coherently ordered locations - should appear during dreaming if the latter is, in fact, elaborative memory encoding as hypothesized by Llewellyn. A review of the literature suggests that dreamed locations are neither familiar nor coherently ordered and thus unsuitable for facilitating memory in this sense. This ...
Pearlmutter Barak A - - 2013
According to the tuning-for-criticality theory, the essential role of sleep is to protect the brain from super-critical behaviour. Here we argue that this protective role determines the content of dreams and any apparent relationship to the art of memory is secondary to this.
Porte Helene Sophrin - - 2013
Toward illuminating the structure of Llewellyn's dream theory, I compare it in formal terms to Freud's dream theory. An alternative to both of these dream machines, grounded in the distribution of cholinergic activation in the central nervous system, is presented. It is suggested that neither "high" nor "low" dream theory ...
Schredl Michael - - 2013
The hypothesis that dreaming is involved in off-line memory processing is difficult to test because major methodological issues have to be addressed, such as dream recall and the effect of remembered dreams on memory. It would be fruitful - in addition to studying the ancient art of memory (AAOM) in a scanner - to ...
Solms Mark - - 2013
Links with the Humanities are to be welcomed, but they cannot be exempted from normal scientific criteria. Any hypothesis regarding the function of dreams that is premised on rapid eye movement (REM)/dream isomorphism is unsupportable on empirical grounds. Llewellyn's hypothesis has the further problem of counter-evidence in respect of its ...
Spoormaker Victor I - - 2013
Neuroimaging studies show that episodic memory encoding is associated with increased activity in hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex; however, the latter structure shows decreased activity in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Together with few episodic memory traces in REM sleep, and REM sleep deprivation affecting hippocampus-independent emotional processes, this argues ...
Westermann Stefan - - 2013
Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional ...
Windt Jennifer Michelle - - 2013
Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be ...
Kurzban Robert - - 2013
Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain ...
Ainslie George - - 2013
Self-control is a necessary component of subjective effort, but it depends only on farsighted motivation, with no additional, depletable resource. The aversiveness of boring tasks probably comes from their interference with endogenous reward, a new and potentially controversial concept. The self-control needed to stick with any kind of aversive experience ...
Bonato Mario - - 2013
The cognitive impairments shown by brain-damaged patients emphasize the role of task difficulty as a major determinant for performance. We discuss the proposal of Kurzban et al. in light of our findings on right-hemisphere-damaged patients, who show increasing awareness deficits for the contralesional hemispace when engaged with resource-consuming dual tasks. ...
Bruyneel Sabrina D - - 2013
Though Kurzban et al.'s model explains a considerable set of empirical findings, it cannot accommodate other results without relying on extra assumptions. We offer an addition to the model, and suggest that cost-benefit analyses themselves depend on executive function, and therefore can be biased. The adapted model allows for explaining ...
Carter Evan C - - 2013
The depletion effect, a decreased capacity for self-control following previous acts of self-control, is thought to result from a lack of necessary psychological/physical resources (i.e., "ego depletion"). Kurzban et al. present an alternative explanation for depletion; but based on statistical techniques that evaluate and adjust for publication bias, we question ...
Charney Evan - - 2013
Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something ...
Cohen Daniel B - - 2013
We argue that maximising utility does not promote survival. Hence, there is no reason to expect people to modulate effort according to a task's opportunity costs. There is also no reason why our evaluation of the marginal opportunity costs of tasks should predictably rise with repetition. Thus, the opportunity cost ...
Craig A D - - 2013
A homeostatic energy model of awareness proposes that the anterior insular cortex engenders feelings that provide an amodal valuation of homeostatic energy utilization in an opponent, bivalent emotional control system. Feelings are the "common currency" which enable optimal utilization in the physical and mental behavior of a highly social primate. ...
Gendolla Guido H E - - 2013
We welcome the development of a new model on effort and performance and the critique on existing resource-based models. However, considering the vast evidence for the significant impact of experienced task demand on resource allocation, we conclude that Kurzban et al.'s opportunity cost model is only valid for one performance ...
Hagger Martin S - - 2013
I contend that Kurzban et al.'s model is silent on three issues. First, the extent to which opportunity-cost computations are automatic or deliberative is unclear. Second, the role of individual differences in biasing opportunity-cost computations needs elucidating. Third, in the absence of "next-best" tasks, task persistence will be indefinite, which ...
Bonagura Vincent R - - 2013
To illustrate the need for individualized immunoglobulin therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) and review current evidence on how best to identify the biological serum IgG level in patients with antibody-deficient PIDD. Two case studies from the author's clinical practice are discussed. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were ...
Harrison Justin M D - - 2013
We show that Kurzban et al.'s approach illuminates the relationship between religion and self-control. Whereas resource-depletion theorists suggest religion replenishes self-control resources ("strength"), we submit that religious cues make people feel observed, giving them "reason" to persevere, and we describe an experiment that supports our interpretation. Finally, we question the ...
Ballow Mark - - 2013
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the optimal dose for IgG replacement therapy is the dose that keeps the patient as free from infection as possible by either intravenous or subcutaneous delivery. To review the current evidence on optimizing IgG therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). Surveys ...
Ballow Mark - - 2013
To review the literature related to the identification and treatment of secondary complications associated with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The databases of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for articles pertaining to comorbid conditions occurring in patients with CVID and effective treatment for or management of those conditions. Articles were ...
Hennecke Marie - - 2013
Different to Kurzban et al., we conceptualize the experience of mental effort as the subjective costs of goal pursuit (i.e., the amount of invested resources relative to the amount of available resources). Rather than being an output of computations that compare costs and benefits of the target and competing goals, ...
Hillman Kristin L - - 2013
One shortcoming of Kurzban et al.'s model is that it is not clear how animals persist through subjectively effortful tasks, particularly over a long time course. We suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a critical role by encoding the utility of an action, and signalling where efforts should be ...
Hofmann Wilhelm - - 2013
Kurzban et al.'s framework may be extended in fruitful ways by treating effort also as a cost input that affects the utility computation of a given option (rather than only as the output of a utility comparison between options). The weight people assign to effort as a cost may vary ...
Holroyd Clay B - - 2013
The target article highlights the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in conflict monitoring, but ACC function may be better understood in terms of the hierarchical organization of behavior. This proposal suggests that the ACC selects extended goal-directed actions according to their learned costs and benefits and executes those ...
Huizenga Hilde M - - 2013
The opportunity cost model (OCM) aims to explain various phenomena, among which the finding that performance degrades if executive functions are used repeatedly ("resource depletion"). We argue that an OCM account of resource depletion requires two unlikely assumptions, and we discuss an alternative that does not require these assumptions. This ...
Inzlicht Michael - - 2013
The opportunity cost model offers an ultimate explanation of ego depletion that helps to move the field beyond biologically improbable resource accounts. The model's more proximate explanation, however, falls short of accounting for much data and is based on an outdated view of human rationality. We suggest that our own ...
Iran-Nejad Asghar - - 2013
We argue that prioritization, simultaneity, and mutual exclusion are mind-body integration functions that can't be addressed meaningfully at the psychological (computational) level alone. We describe the outlook for an integration between Kurzban et al.'s profound discussion of opportunity cost/benefit prioritization and decades of related development in biofunctional science.
Kool Wouter - - 2013
Kurzban and colleagues carry forward an important contemporary movement in cognitive control research, tending away from resource-based models and toward a framework focusing on motivation or value. However, their specific proposal, centering on opportunity costs, appears problematic. We favor a simpler view, according to which the exertion of cognitive control ...
Nicolle Antoinette - - 2013
Kurzban et al.'s opportunity cost model of mental effort relies heavily on counterfactual thinking. We suggest that a closer inspection of the role of counterfactual emotions, and particularly of action/inaction asymmetries in anticipated regret, may be important in understanding the role of opportunity costs in decisions to persist with a ...
Prudkov Pavel N - - 2013
Kurzban et al. associate mental effort and fatigue with a hypothetical mechanism able to estimate the utilities of possible actions and then select the action with a maximal utility. However, this approach faces fundamental problems. In my opinion, mental effort and fatigue are results of a conflict between the monotony ...
Tops Mattie - - 2013
Kurzban et al.'s expectancy-value mechanism of effort allocation seems relevant in situations when familiar tasks are initiated. However, we think additional mechanisms are important when people continue with a task for a prolonged time. These mechanisms, which are particularly relevant for performance of novel or urgent tasks, involve neural systems ...
Wright Rex A - - 2013
We address points of confusion pertaining to interrelations among and roles of core constructs involved in the production of performance outcomes. We do so informed by the body of work derived from Brehm's seminal motivation intensity theory - in particular an elaboration from the theory concerned with fatigue influence on effort and ...
Zayas Vivian - - 2013
Despite the simplicity of Kurzban et al.'s framework, we argue that important information is lost in their simplification. We discuss research on delay of gratification and self-regulation that identifies key situational and psychological factors affecting how people represent rewards and costs. These factors affect the expected utilities of behavioral options ...
Lattimer Jennie Greco - - 2013
A national work group met in 2004 to discuss the future of advanced practice nursing. The representatives were nursing education, certification, accreditation, and regulation experts, and the goal was to develop a consensus model for advanced practice nursing regulation (Nevidjon et al., 2010). As a result, a set of recommendations ...
Reimer Nicole - - 2013
Understanding compassion fatigue and devising and implementing interventions to address the subject are important for nurses and patients. However, few literature reports exist that address interventions for nurses who experience compassion fatigue. This article discusses how nurses on a medical-surgical oncology unit in an academic, community Magnet™ hospital adopted these ...
Johnson Natasha L - - 2013
Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication that occurs after allogeneic transplantation. It can cause severe dry eyes that are described as having a burning, gritty, and painful sensation. Ocular GVHD can affect quality of life by causing pain and photophobia, limiting activities of daily living (e.g., reading, watching ...
Esper Peg - - 2013
More cancer therapies are being administered via an oral route. This paradigm shift in providing cancer treatment has been met with both excitement and significant challenges for oncology practitioners. Multiple factors can impact the ability for patients to initiate and stay on oral cancer therapy. A major factor in patient ...
McClelland Stacy - - 2013
Dissemination secondary to surgical interventions is an issue that arises in conversations between patients and providers prior to breast biopsy. Research supports needle biopsies over incisional or excisional biopsies in most situations. Tumor cell dissemination is a rare occurrence. However, the fear of dissemination as experienced by the patient is ...
McComb Sara - - 2013
The increasingly complex needs of patients with cancer and their families call for a multidisciplinary team to achieve optimal patient outcomes. The purpose of the current article is to describe a teamwork model that can be used to address the needs of patients and the challenges associated with a healthcare ...
Rong Pei-Jing - - 2013
Acupuncture point specificity is the theoretical basis for meridian and acupuncture theory. Also it is the key factor for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment. Studies on acupoint specifificity have aroused wide interest in scholars both at home and abroad. Some researchers abroad do not support acupoint specifificity. Chinese scholars have, ...
Andrews Lesley - - 2013
To assess whether dietary flavonoids have an effect on the incidence of colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer.
Thompson Nancy - - 2013
Back on a beautiful autumn day in Seattle, which also just happened to be my 50th birthday, I was selected as the 2012 Ruth McCorkle Award Lecturer by the Puget Sound Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) chapter. The lectureship was started in 1987 as a special tribute to Ruth McCorkle, PhD, ...
Wu Di-Jiong - - 2013
To explore differences in bone marrow angiogenesis seen in aplastic anemia (AA) patients presenting with differential Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome, and to correlate these differences with clinical pathology. Thirty-five patients were enrolled, including 18 with "yang deficiency syndrome" and 17 with "yin deficiency syndrome." Bone marrow biopsies and serum were ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >