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Mullin Caitlin R - - 2013
The human visual system is capable of recognizing an infinite number of scenes containing an abundance of rich visual information. There are several cortical regions associated with the representation of a scene, including those specialized for object processing (the lateral occipital area [LO]) and for the spatial layout of scenes ...
Nagarathinam Amudha - - 2013
Pathological, genetic, and biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are linked to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation. Especially misfolded Aβ42 peptide is sufficient to promote amyloid plaque formation. However, the cellular compartment facilitating the conversion of monomeric Aβ to aggregated toxic Aβ species remains unknown. In vitro models suggest lipid membranes ...
Capogrosso Marco - - 2013
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of lumbosacral segments can restore a range of movements after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanisms and neural structures through which EES facilitates movement execution remain unclear. Here, we designed a computational model and performed in vivo experiments to investigate the type of fibers, neurons, and ...
Kanda Atsuhiro - - 2013
(Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], also known as Atp6ap2, has attracted growing attention as a key molecule for tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In addition to its role in tissue RAS activation, Atp6ap2/(P)RR was originally identified as an accessory subunit for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase), which is a multisubunit proton pump involved in diverse ...
Deuker Lorena - - 2013
Memory consolidation transforms initially labile memory traces into more stable representations. One putative mechanism for consolidation is the reactivation of memory traces after their initial encoding during subsequent sleep or waking state. However, it is still unknown whether consolidation of individual memory contents relies on reactivation of stimulus-specific neural representations ...
Nishikawa Masatomo - - 2014
The objective of this study was to analyze the expression levels of multiple components in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in radical nephrectomy specimens from patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with mTOR inhibitors in order to identify factors predicting susceptibility to these agents. This study ...
Wielgoss Arno - - 2014
Owing to complex direct and indirect effects, impacts of higher trophic levels on plants is poorly understood. In tropical agroecosystems, ants interact with crop mutualists and antagonists, but little is known about how this integrates into the final ecosystem service, crop yield. We combined ant exclusion and introduction of invasive ...
Akçay Caglar - - 2014
Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they ...
Hein Catherine L - - 2014
A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated ...
Zapalski Mikolaj K - - 2014
Coral reefs form the most diverse of all marine ecosystems on the Earth. Corals are among their main components and owe their bioconstructing abilities to a symbiosis with algae (Symbiodinium). The coral-algae symbiosis had been traced back to the Triassic (ca 240 Ma). Modern reef-building corals (Scleractinia) appeared after the ...
Castro L Filipe C - - 2014
The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, ...
Pagès Franck - - 2013
The implementation of a robust technology adapted to clinical practice for the evaluation of the tumor-immune infiltrate is required to exploit its prognostic and theranostic value (Robins et al., this issue).
Rao Srinivasa P S - - 2013
New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified and characterized the indolcarboxamides as a new class of antitubercular bactericidal agent. Genetic and lipid profiling studies identified the likely molecular target of indolcarboxamides as MmpL3, a transporter of ...
Robins Harlan S - - 2013
Infiltrating T lymphocytes are frequently found in malignant tumors and are suggestive of a host cancer immune response. Multiple independent studies have documented that the presence and quantity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are strongly correlated with increased survival. However, because of methodological factors, the exact effect of TILs on prognosis ...
Griffin Justin W - - 2013
➤ When possible, direct repair remains the current standard of care for the repair of peripheral nerve lacerations.➤ In large nerve gaps, in which direct repair is not possible, grafting remains the most viable option.➤ Nerve scaffolds include autologous conduits, artificial nonbioabsorbable conduits, and bioabsorbable conduits and are options for ...
Papadopulos Andreas - - 2013
Regulated exocytosis in neurosecretory cells relies on the timely fusion of secretory granules (SGs) with the plasma membrane. Secretagogue stimulation leads to an enlargement of the cell footprint (surface area in contact with the coverslip), an effect previously attributed to exocytic fusion of SGs with the plasma membrane. Using total ...
Moraes Davi J A - - 2013
The respiratory pattern generator modulates the sympathetic outflow, the strength of which is enhanced by challenges produced by hypoxia. This coupling is due to the respiratory-modulated presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), but the underlining electrophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. For a better understanding of the neural substrates responsible ...
Persson Anna-Karin - - 2013
Axonal degeneration occurs in multiple neurodegenerative disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. Although the underlying molecular pathways leading to axonal degeneration are incompletely understood, accumulating evidence suggests contributions of impaired mitochondrial function, disrupted axonal transport, and/or dysfunctional intracellular Ca(2+)-homeostasis in the injurious cascade associated with axonal degeneration. Utilizing ...
Moubarak Rana S - - 2013
The neuronal long isoform of Fas Apoptotic Inhibitory Molecule (FAIM-L) protects from death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis, yet its mechanism of protection remains unknown. Here, we show that FAIM-L protects rat neuronal Type II cells from Fas-induced apoptosis. XIAP has previously emerged as a molecular discriminator that is upregulated in Type ...
Taylor Brett M - - 2014
The influence of social demography on sex change schedules in protogynous reef fishes is well established, yet effects across spatial scales (in particular, the magnitude of natural variation relative to size-selective fishing effects) are poorly understood. Here, I examine variation in timing of sex change for exploited parrotfishes across a ...
Jacobsen Nis S - - 2014
Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish community structure and yield. We ...
Watkins Nicholas N - - 2013
Roughly 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV; disease burden is highest in resource-limited settings. One important diagnostic in HIV disease management is the absolute count of lymphocytes expressing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) receptors. The current diagnostic instruments and procedures require expensive equipment and trained technicians. In response, we ...
Weng Wen-Kai - - 2013
Mycosis fungoides (MF) and the leukemic presentation Sézary syndrome (SS) are clonal T cell lymphomas arising from the skin and are considered noncurable with standard therapies. To develop a specific and sensitive monitoring tool, we tested the ability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of T cell receptors (TCRB) to monitor minimal ...
Fabricius K E - - 2014
The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many ...
Klatt Björn K - - 2014
Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments ...
Schumacher Julia - - 2014
To assess the relative impact of functional constraint and post-mating sexual selection on sequence evolution of reproductive proteins, we examined 169 primate sperm proteins. In order to recognize potential genome-wide trends, we additionally analysed a sample of altogether 318 non-reproductive (brain and postsynaptic) proteins. Based on cDNAs of eight primate ...
Villaverde Alejandro F - - 2014
The interplay of mathematical modelling with experiments is one of the central elements in systems biology. The aim of reverse engineering is to infer, analyse and understand, through this interplay, the functional and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Reverse engineering is not exclusive of systems biology and has been studied ...
Schaber Jörg - - 2014
Negative feedback control is a ubiquitous feature of biochemical systems, as is time delay between a signal and its response. Negative feedback in conjunction with time delay can lead to oscillations. In a cellular context, it might be beneficial to mitigate oscillatory behaviour to avoid recurring stress situations. This can ...
Matsen Frederick A FA 3rd Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Box 356500, 1959 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail address for F.A. Matsen III: - - 2013
To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than ...
Fufa Duretti D Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8233, St. Louis, MO 63108. E-mail address for D. Fufa: - - 2013
Despite advances in microsurgery, digit replantation now is performed less frequently in the U.S. compared with fifteen years ago. There has been uncertainty regarding whether previously reported U.S. replantation success rates and results reported from other countries reflect the current experience in the U.S. We hypothesized that the success of ...
Fleming Stephen M SM Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United - - 2013
Perception is often categorical: the perceptual system selects one interpretation of a stimulus even when evidence in favor of other interpretations is appreciable. Such categorization is potentially in conflict with normative decision theory, which mandates that the utility of various courses of action should depend on the probabilities of all ...
Onishi Keisuke K Neurobiology Section, Biological Sciences Division University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 and Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Neuroscience, Brussels, B-1348 - - 2013
How growth cones detect small concentration differences of guidance cues for correct steering remains a long-standing puzzle. Commissural axons engage planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling components to turn anteriorly in a Wnt gradient after midline crossing. We found here that Frizzled3, a Wnt receptor, undergoes endocytosis via filopodia tips. Wnt5a ...
Dieni Cristina V CV McKnight Brain Institute and Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, and Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, - - 2013
Adult neurogenesis continually produces a small population of immature granule cells (GCs) within the dentate gyrus. The physiological properties of immature GCs distinguish them from the more numerous mature GCs and potentially enables distinct network functions. To test how the changing properties of developing GCs affect spiking behavior, we examined ...
David Stephen V SV Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, and Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland - - 2013
Speech and other natural vocalizations are characterized by large modulations in their sound envelope. The timing of these modulations contains critical information for discrimination of important features, such as phonemes. We studied how depression of synaptic inputs, a mechanism frequently reported in cortex, can contribute to the encoding of envelope ...
Wang Yunyan Y Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York - - 2013
Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons ...
Tooker Ryan E RE Department of Biomedical Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado - - 2013
Coding a wide range of light intensities in natural scenes poses a challenge for the retina: adaptation to bright light should not compromise sensitivity to dim light. Here we report a novel form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, specifically, a "weighted potentiation" that selectively increases output of Mb-type bipolar cells in ...
Walz Jennifer M JM Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, and Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina - - 2013
Cortical and subcortical networks have been identified that are commonly associated with attention and task engagement, along with theories regarding their functional interaction. However, a link between these systems has not yet been demonstrated in healthy humans, primarily because of data acquisition and analysis limitations. We recorded simultaneous EEG-fMRI while ...
Kanekiyo Takahisa T Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, Department of Neurology, Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, and Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, Institute of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia in the elderly population. Accumulation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides generated through proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are likely initiating events in the pathogenesis of AD. While Aβ production is accelerated in familial AD, increasing evidence ...
Yin Dong-Min DM Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912, Department of Neurobiology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912, and Charlie Norwood Veterans Administration Medical Center, Augusta, Georgia - - 2013
The trophic factor neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia candidate genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling was thought to regulate spine formation and function in a cell-autonomous manner. Yet, recent studies indicate that ErbB4 expression is largely restricted to GABAergic interneurons and is very low or absent in pyramidal cells. ...
Sherrill Katherine R KR Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, and Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts - - 2013
The current study used fMRI in humans to examine goal-directed navigation in an open field environment. We designed a task that required participants to encode survey-level spatial information and subsequently navigate to a goal location in either first person, third person, or survey perspectives. Critically, no distinguishing landmarks or goal ...
Won Yu-Jin YJ Section on Transmitter Signaling, Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland - - 2013
Free fatty acids receptor 3 (FFA3, GPR41) and 2 (FFA2, GPR43), for which the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate are agonist, have emerged as important G-protein-coupled receptors influenced by diet and gut flora composition. A recent study (Kimura et al., 2011) demonstrated functional expression of FFA3 in the ...
Rosenberg Ari A Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland - - 2013
An accurate representation of three-dimensional (3D) object orientation is essential for interacting with the environment. Where and how the brain visually encodes 3D object orientation remains unknown, but prior studies suggest the caudal intraparietal area (CIP) may be involved. Here, we develop rigorous analytical methods for quantifying 3D orientation tuning ...
Schlosburg Joel E JE Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California - - 2013
The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to ...
Herskowitz Jeremy H JH Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, and Departments of Neurology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, Medicinal Chemistry, Translational Research Institute, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida 33458, Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, Departments of Pathology and Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, and Unit of Clinical and Translational Neuroscience and Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and has no cure. Genetic, cell biological, and biochemical studies suggest that reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) production may serve as a rational therapeutic avenue to delay or prevent AD progression. Inhibition of RhoA, a Rho GTPase family member, is proposed to curb ...
Nunes Eric J EJ Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-1020, Universität Bonn, Pharma-Zentrum Bonn, Pharmazeutisches Institut, Pharmazeutische Chemie, 53121 Bonn, Germany, and Àrea de Psicobiologia, Campus de Riu Sec, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castelló, - - 2013
Motivated behaviors are often characterized by a high degree of behavioral activation, and work output and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon cost/benefit analyses. Moreover, people with major depression and other disorders often show effort-related motivational symptoms such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. It has been suggested that ...
Garcia-Lazaro Jose A JA Ear Institute, University College London, London WC1X 8EE, United - - 2013
To understand the strategies used by the brain to analyze complex environments, we must first characterize how the features of sensory stimuli are encoded in the spiking of neuronal populations. Characterizing a population code requires identifying the temporal precision of spiking and the extent to which spiking is correlated, both ...
Kenealy Brian P BP Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, and Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin - - 2013
Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH)/median eminence region (S-ME) is essential for normal reproductive function. GnRH release is profoundly regulated by the negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian estradiol (E2). Here we report that neuroestradiol, released in the S-ME, also directly influences GnRH ...
Woods Barrett I BI Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (B.I.W., A.C., W.D., J.K., and J.L.), Epidemiology (B.L.R.), and Anesthesiology (J.H.W.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Kaufmann Medical Building, Suite 1011, 3471 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA - - 2013
Perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is a risk factor for surgical site infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if the volume of perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion influences the risk of surgical site infection following lumbar spine procedures. A retrospective matched case control study was ...
Koehler Ryan J RJ Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail address for G.T. Nicandri: - - 2013
Examination of arthroscopic skill requires evaluation tools that are valid and reliable with clear criteria for passing. The Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool was developed as a video-based assessment of technical skill with criteria for passing established by a panel of experts. The purpose of this study was to test ...
Soper David E - - 2013
Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the cause of the most frequent congenital infection in America; however, pregnant women are not routinely screened. Primary CMV infection is associated with a high maternal-to-child transmission rate (40%); up to 15% of these infected neonates will be symptomatic at birth and develop permanent sequelae that ...
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