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David Stephen V SV Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, and Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland - - 2013
Speech and other natural vocalizations are characterized by large modulations in their sound envelope. The timing of these modulations contains critical information for discrimination of important features, such as phonemes. We studied how depression of synaptic inputs, a mechanism frequently reported in cortex, can contribute to the encoding of envelope ...
Herskowitz Jeremy H JH Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, and Departments of Neurology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, Medicinal Chemistry, Translational Research Institute, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida 33458, Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, Departments of Pathology and Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, and Unit of Clinical and Translational Neuroscience and Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and has no cure. Genetic, cell biological, and biochemical studies suggest that reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) production may serve as a rational therapeutic avenue to delay or prevent AD progression. Inhibition of RhoA, a Rho GTPase family member, is proposed to curb ...
Matsen Frederick A FA 3rd Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Box 356500, 1959 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail address for F.A. Matsen III: - - 2013
To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than ...
Mullin Caitlin R - - 2013
The human visual system is capable of recognizing an infinite number of scenes containing an abundance of rich visual information. There are several cortical regions associated with the representation of a scene, including those specialized for object processing (the lateral occipital area [LO]) and for the spatial layout of scenes ...
Won Yu-Jin YJ Section on Transmitter Signaling, Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland - - 2013
Free fatty acids receptor 3 (FFA3, GPR41) and 2 (FFA2, GPR43), for which the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate are agonist, have emerged as important G-protein-coupled receptors influenced by diet and gut flora composition. A recent study (Kimura et al., 2011) demonstrated functional expression of FFA3 in the ...
Xu Qian - - 2013
Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. TGF-β, a major bone-derived growth factor, is largely released by osteoclast bone resorption during the progression of bone cancer and contributes to proliferation, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we further show that TGF-β1 is critical for bone cancer-induced pain sensitization. ...
Jacobsen Nis S - - 2014
Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish community structure and yield. We ...
Escott Benjamin G - - 2013
Children with lower-limb-length discrepancy require repeated radiographic assessment for monitoring and as a guide for management. The need for accurate assessment of length and alignment is balanced by the need to minimize radiation exposure. We compared the accuracy, reliability, and radiation dose of EOS, a novel low-dose upright biplanar radiographic ...
Dieni Cristina V CV McKnight Brain Institute and Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, and Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, - - 2013
Adult neurogenesis continually produces a small population of immature granule cells (GCs) within the dentate gyrus. The physiological properties of immature GCs distinguish them from the more numerous mature GCs and potentially enables distinct network functions. To test how the changing properties of developing GCs affect spiking behavior, we examined ...
Persson Anna-Karin - - 2013
Axonal degeneration occurs in multiple neurodegenerative disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. Although the underlying molecular pathways leading to axonal degeneration are incompletely understood, accumulating evidence suggests contributions of impaired mitochondrial function, disrupted axonal transport, and/or dysfunctional intracellular Ca(2+)-homeostasis in the injurious cascade associated with axonal degeneration. Utilizing ...
Schlosburg Joel E JE Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California - - 2013
The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to ...
Rosenberg Ari A Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland - - 2013
An accurate representation of three-dimensional (3D) object orientation is essential for interacting with the environment. Where and how the brain visually encodes 3D object orientation remains unknown, but prior studies suggest the caudal intraparietal area (CIP) may be involved. Here, we develop rigorous analytical methods for quantifying 3D orientation tuning ...
Deuker Lorena - - 2013
Memory consolidation transforms initially labile memory traces into more stable representations. One putative mechanism for consolidation is the reactivation of memory traces after their initial encoding during subsequent sleep or waking state. However, it is still unknown whether consolidation of individual memory contents relies on reactivation of stimulus-specific neural representations ...
Castro L Filipe C - - 2014
The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, ...
Ellington J Kent - - 2013
Few studies have focused on treatment following failed total ankle replacement. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of patients undergoing revision total ankle replacement and to propose a talar component subsidence grading system that may be helpful in making decisions regarding how to revise failed total ...
Klatt Björn K - - 2014
Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments ...
Christensen Christian P - - 2013
Assessments of the synovial fluid white blood-cell (WBC) count and percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) have been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to evaluate the natural progression of the synovial fluid WBC count, PMN percentage, and ...
Moubarak Rana S - - 2013
The neuronal long isoform of Fas Apoptotic Inhibitory Molecule (FAIM-L) protects from death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis, yet its mechanism of protection remains unknown. Here, we show that FAIM-L protects rat neuronal Type II cells from Fas-induced apoptosis. XIAP has previously emerged as a molecular discriminator that is upregulated in Type ...
Wang Yunyan Y Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York - - 2013
Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons ...
Wielgoss Arno - - 2014
Owing to complex direct and indirect effects, impacts of higher trophic levels on plants is poorly understood. In tropical agroecosystems, ants interact with crop mutualists and antagonists, but little is known about how this integrates into the final ecosystem service, crop yield. We combined ant exclusion and introduction of invasive ...
Peltola Mikko - - 2013
The risk of early revision is increased for the first patients operatively treated with a newly introduced knee prosthesis. In this study, we explored the learning curves associated with ten knee implant models to determine their effect on early revision risk. We studied register data from all seventy-five surgical units ...
Yin Dong-Min DM Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912, Department of Neurobiology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912, and Charlie Norwood Veterans Administration Medical Center, Augusta, Georgia - - 2013
The trophic factor neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia candidate genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling was thought to regulate spine formation and function in a cell-autonomous manner. Yet, recent studies indicate that ErbB4 expression is largely restricted to GABAergic interneurons and is very low or absent in pyramidal cells. ...
Weng Wen-Kai - - 2013
Mycosis fungoides (MF) and the leukemic presentation Sézary syndrome (SS) are clonal T cell lymphomas arising from the skin and are considered noncurable with standard therapies. To develop a specific and sensitive monitoring tool, we tested the ability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of T cell receptors (TCRB) to monitor minimal ...
Lyon Thomas - - 2013
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) applied on an absorbable collagen sponge improves open tibial fracture-healing as an adjunct to unreamed intramedullary nail fixation. We evaluated rhBMP-2 and a new, injectable calcium phosphate matrix (CPM) formulation in acute closed tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nail fixation. Patients were ...
Kanekiyo Takahisa T Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, Department of Neurology, Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, and Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, Institute of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia in the elderly population. Accumulation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides generated through proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are likely initiating events in the pathogenesis of AD. While Aβ production is accelerated in familial AD, increasing evidence ...
Onishi Keisuke K Neurobiology Section, Biological Sciences Division University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 and Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Neuroscience, Brussels, B-1348 - - 2013
How growth cones detect small concentration differences of guidance cues for correct steering remains a long-standing puzzle. Commissural axons engage planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling components to turn anteriorly in a Wnt gradient after midline crossing. We found here that Frizzled3, a Wnt receptor, undergoes endocytosis via filopodia tips. Wnt5a ...
Mori Francesco - - 2013
Neuroplasticity is essential to prevent clinical worsening despite continuing neuronal loss in several brain diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). The precise nature of the adaptation mechanisms taking place in MS brains, ensuring protection from disability appearance and accumulation, is however unknown. Here, we explored the hypothesis that long-term synaptic potentiation ...
Tennant Kelly A - - 2013
Stroke usually affects people with underlying medical conditions. In particular, diabetics are significantly more likely to have a stroke and the prognosis for recovery is poor. Because diabetes is associated with degenerative changes in the vasculature of many organs, we sought to determine how hyperglycemia affects blood flow dynamics after ...
Schaber Jörg - - 2014
Negative feedback control is a ubiquitous feature of biochemical systems, as is time delay between a signal and its response. Negative feedback in conjunction with time delay can lead to oscillations. In a cellular context, it might be beneficial to mitigate oscillatory behaviour to avoid recurring stress situations. This can ...
Fabricius K E - - 2014
The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many ...
Macwilliams Bruce A - - 2013
This study quantifies the three-dimensional motion of lumbar vertebrae during gait via direct in vivo measurement with the use of indwelling bone pins with retroreflective markers and motion capture. Two previous studies in which bone pins were used were limited to instrumentation of two vertebrae, and neither evaluated motions during ...
Papadopulos Andreas - - 2013
Regulated exocytosis in neurosecretory cells relies on the timely fusion of secretory granules (SGs) with the plasma membrane. Secretagogue stimulation leads to an enlargement of the cell footprint (surface area in contact with the coverslip), an effect previously attributed to exocytic fusion of SGs with the plasma membrane. Using total ...
Robins Harlan S - - 2013
Infiltrating T lymphocytes are frequently found in malignant tumors and are suggestive of a host cancer immune response. Multiple independent studies have documented that the presence and quantity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are strongly correlated with increased survival. However, because of methodological factors, the exact effect of TILs on prognosis ...
Garcia-Lazaro Jose A JA Ear Institute, University College London, London WC1X 8EE, United - - 2013
To understand the strategies used by the brain to analyze complex environments, we must first characterize how the features of sensory stimuli are encoded in the spiking of neuronal populations. Characterizing a population code requires identifying the temporal precision of spiking and the extent to which spiking is correlated, both ...
Woods Barrett I BI Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (B.I.W., A.C., W.D., J.K., and J.L.), Epidemiology (B.L.R.), and Anesthesiology (J.H.W.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Kaufmann Medical Building, Suite 1011, 3471 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA - - 2013
Perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is a risk factor for surgical site infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if the volume of perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion influences the risk of surgical site infection following lumbar spine procedures. A retrospective matched case control study was ...
Kerver A L A - - 2013
Iatrogenic injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve is a common complication of surgical approaches to the anteromedial side of the knee. A detailed description of the relative anatomic course of the nerve is important to define clinical guidelines and minimize iatrogenic damage during anterior knee surgery. In ...
Kenealy Brian P BP Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, and Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin - - 2013
Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH)/median eminence region (S-ME) is essential for normal reproductive function. GnRH release is profoundly regulated by the negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian estradiol (E2). Here we report that neuroestradiol, released in the S-ME, also directly influences GnRH ...
Fufa Duretti D Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8233, St. Louis, MO 63108. E-mail address for D. Fufa: - - 2013
Despite advances in microsurgery, digit replantation now is performed less frequently in the U.S. compared with fifteen years ago. There has been uncertainty regarding whether previously reported U.S. replantation success rates and results reported from other countries reflect the current experience in the U.S. We hypothesized that the success of ...
Moraes Davi J A - - 2013
The respiratory pattern generator modulates the sympathetic outflow, the strength of which is enhanced by challenges produced by hypoxia. This coupling is due to the respiratory-modulated presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), but the underlining electrophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. For a better understanding of the neural substrates responsible ...
Zapalski Mikolaj K - - 2014
Coral reefs form the most diverse of all marine ecosystems on the Earth. Corals are among their main components and owe their bioconstructing abilities to a symbiosis with algae (Symbiodinium). The coral-algae symbiosis had been traced back to the Triassic (ca 240 Ma). Modern reef-building corals (Scleractinia) appeared after the ...
Kanda Atsuhiro - - 2013
(Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], also known as Atp6ap2, has attracted growing attention as a key molecule for tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In addition to its role in tissue RAS activation, Atp6ap2/(P)RR was originally identified as an accessory subunit for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase), which is a multisubunit proton pump involved in diverse ...
Nishikawa Masatomo - - 2014
The objective of this study was to analyze the expression levels of multiple components in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in radical nephrectomy specimens from patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with mTOR inhibitors in order to identify factors predicting susceptibility to these agents. This study ...
Capogrosso Marco - - 2013
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of lumbosacral segments can restore a range of movements after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanisms and neural structures through which EES facilitates movement execution remain unclear. Here, we designed a computational model and performed in vivo experiments to investigate the type of fibers, neurons, and ...
Akçay Caglar - - 2014
Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they ...
Nagarathinam Amudha - - 2013
Pathological, genetic, and biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are linked to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation. Especially misfolded Aβ42 peptide is sufficient to promote amyloid plaque formation. However, the cellular compartment facilitating the conversion of monomeric Aβ to aggregated toxic Aβ species remains unknown. In vitro models suggest lipid membranes ...
Watkins Nicholas N - - 2013
Roughly 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV; disease burden is highest in resource-limited settings. One important diagnostic in HIV disease management is the absolute count of lymphocytes expressing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) receptors. The current diagnostic instruments and procedures require expensive equipment and trained technicians. In response, we ...
Griffin Justin W - - 2013
➤ When possible, direct repair remains the current standard of care for the repair of peripheral nerve lacerations.➤ In large nerve gaps, in which direct repair is not possible, grafting remains the most viable option.➤ Nerve scaffolds include autologous conduits, artificial nonbioabsorbable conduits, and bioabsorbable conduits and are options for ...
Weiss Peter H - - 2013
Gesture processing deficits constitute a key symptom of apraxia, a disorder of motor cognition frequently observed after left-hemispheric stroke. The clinical relevance of apraxia stands in stark contrast to the paucity of therapeutic options available. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for modulating disturbed network function after ...
Nunes Eric J EJ Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-1020, Universität Bonn, Pharma-Zentrum Bonn, Pharmazeutisches Institut, Pharmazeutische Chemie, 53121 Bonn, Germany, and Àrea de Psicobiologia, Campus de Riu Sec, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castelló, - - 2013
Motivated behaviors are often characterized by a high degree of behavioral activation, and work output and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon cost/benefit analyses. Moreover, people with major depression and other disorders often show effort-related motivational symptoms such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. It has been suggested that ...
Parruti Giustino - - 2013
Immunoglobulins are one major component of adaptive immunity to external and resident microorganisms, evolving very early in phylogenesis. They help eukaryotes in controlling infections, mainly through their neutralizing activity, which quenches both the cytopathic and inflammatory potential of invading microorganisms. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related disease is generally blunted in seropositive subjects with ...
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