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Darton Thomas C - - 2014
Infection caused by ingestion of human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi predominantly affects the most impoverished sections of society. In this review, we describe recent advances made in estimating the burden of illness and the important role improved diagnostic tests may have in controlling infection and report the development ...
Tong Xiuli - - 2014
Poor comprehenders have intact word-reading skills but struggle specifically with understanding what they read. We investigated whether two metalinguistic skills, morphological and syntactic awareness, are specifically related to poor reading comprehension by including separate and combined measures of each. We identified poor comprehenders (n = 15) and average comprehenders (n ...
Mukherjee Joy - - 2013
Calcifying marine invertebrates with complex life cycles are particularly at risk to climate changes as they undergo an abrupt ontogenetic shift during larval metamorphosis. Although our understanding of the larval response to climate changes is rapidly advancing, the proteome plasticity involved in a compensatory response to climate change is still ...
Mongeau Jean-Michel - - 2013
Animals can expend energy to acquire sensory information by emitting signals and/or moving sensory structures. We propose that the energy from locomotion itself could permit control of a sensor, whereby animals use the energy from movement to reconfigure a passive sensor. We investigated high-speed, antenna-mediated tactile navigation in the cockroach ...
Adamo Shelley A - - 2013
Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent ...
Martinez Bridget - - 2013
Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the ...
Siegert M E - - 2013
We examined acoustic masking in a chirping katydid species of the Mecopoda elongata complex due to interference with a sympatric Mecopoda species where males produce continuous trills at high amplitudes. Frequency spectra of both calling songs range from 1 to 80 kHz; the chirper species has more energy in a ...
- - 2013
On January 8, 2013, the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene notified the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH) of two patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 clinical isolates that had indistinguishable, but commonly identified, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. The two patients were interviewed by local health departments within 1 day ...
- - 2013
On May 24, 2010, a cluster of 17 human Salmonella enterica serotype Chester clinical isolates with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns was reported to PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. This PFGE pattern had not been reported previously. Subsequently, CDC conducted an investigation that identified ...
- - 2013
Rubella virus usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults. However, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred ...
- - 2013
Asthma was the most common underlying condition among persons hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009. Although persons with asthma are not more likely than others to get influenza, influenza can make asthma symptoms worse, trigger asthma attacks, and lead to pneumonia or other complications that result ...
McNulty Reginald - - 2013
Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen's periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI ...
Kirwan Matthew L - - 2013
Coastal populations and wetlands have been intertwined for centuries, whereby humans both influence and depend on the extensive ecosystem services that wetlands provide. Although coastal wetlands have long been considered vulnerable to sea-level rise, recent work has identified fascinating feedbacks between plant growth and geomorphology that allow wetlands to actively ...
Liao Maofu M 1] Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517, USA - - 2013
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals, but elucidating how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information. Here we exploit advances in electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of a ...
Luo Yunzi - - 2013
Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) are a widely distributed class of natural products with important biological activities. However, many of these PTMs have not been characterized. Here we apply a plug-and-play synthetic biology strategy to activate a cryptic PTM biosynthetic gene cluster SGR810-815 from Streptomyces griseus and discover three new PTMs. ...
Straneo Fiammetta - - 2013
Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and ...
Kulkarni Aniket D AD From the Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (A.D.K., D.J.J., D.M.K., M.F.G.); the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (H.W.J.); the Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (H.W.J.); the Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (M.M.); and the Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI - - 2013
The advent of fertility treatments has led to an increase in the rate of multiple births in the United States. However, the trends in and magnitude of the contribution of fertility treatments to the increase are uncertain. We derived the rates of multiple births after natural conception from data on ...
Bauer James E - - 2013
The carbon cycle of the coastal ocean is a dynamic component of the global carbon budget. But the diverse sources and sinks of carbon and their complex interactions in these waters remain poorly understood. Here we discuss the sources, exchanges and fates of carbon in the coastal ocean and how ...
Wilson Kerry - - 2013
While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 ...
Smetacek Victor - - 2013
Sudden beaching of huge seaweed masses smother the coastline and form rotting piles on the shore. The number of reports of these events in previously unaffected areas has increased worldwide in recent years. These 'seaweed tides' can harm tourism-based economies, smother aquaculture operations or disrupt traditional artisanal fisheries. Coastal eutrophication ...
Yan Hongjiang - - 2014
Patients with esophageal small cell carcinoma undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) seem to have disparity in tumor response. The identification of CRT sensitivity-related tumor markers would be helpful for selecting patients most likely to benefit from CRT. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of biological markers ...
Barni S - - 2014
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a severe dose-limiting side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with solid tumors. Clinical practice guidelines recommend primary prophylaxis with G-CSF in patients with an overall ≥20 % risk of FN. AIOM Italian guidelines recommend starting G-CSF within 24-72 h after chemotherapy; for daily G-CSF, administration should continue ...
Mayer Benedikt - - 2013
Semiconductor nanowires are widely considered to be the next frontier in the drive towards ultra-small, highly efficient coherent light sources. While NW lasers in the visible and ultraviolet have been widely demonstrated, the major role of surface and Auger recombination has hindered their development in the near infrared. Here we ...
Woodruff Jonathan D - - 2013
The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient ...
Khazendar A - - 2013
Analysis of ICESat-1 data (2003-2008) shows significant surface lowering of Totten Glacier, the glacier discharging the largest volume of ice in East Antarctica, and less change on nearby Moscow University Glacier. After accounting for firn compaction anomalies, the thinning appears to coincide with fast-flowing ice indicating a dynamical origin. Here, ...
Min Changjun - - 2013
Scattering forces in focused light beams push away metallic particles. Thus, trapping metallic particles with conventional optical tweezers, especially those of Mie particle size, is difficult. Here we investigate a mechanism by which metallic particles are attracted and trapped by plasmonic tweezers when surface plasmons are excited and focused by ...
Chiribella Giulio - - 2013
No process in nature can perfectly clone an arbitrary quantum state. But is it possible to engineer processes that replicate quantum information with vanishingly small error? Here we demonstrate the possibility of probabilistic super-replication phenomena where N equally prepared quantum clocks are transformed into a much larger number of M ...
Yao Zi-Xiang - - 2014
Discordance of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary breast cancer, metastatic lesion and synchronous axillary lymph node metastasis has been reported in the series studies. Systemic treatment of primary invasive breast cancer patients with synchronous axillary metastasis is currently ...
Cao Erhu E 1] Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517, USA - - 2013
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal signal detectors that respond to a wide range of physical and chemical stimuli. Elucidating how these channels integrate and convert physiological signals into channel opening is essential to understanding how they regulate cell excitability under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Here we exploit pharmacological ...
Grumelli Doris - - 2013
Electrochemical conversions at fuel cell electrodes are complex processes. In particular, the oxygen reduction reaction has substantial overpotential limiting the electrical power output efficiency. Effective and inexpensive catalytic interfaces are therefore essential for increased performance. Taking inspiration from enzymes, earth-abundant metal centres embedded in organic environments present remarkable catalytic active ...
Temmerman Stijn - - 2013
The risk of flood disasters is increasing for many coastal societies owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions, sea-level rise, land subsidence and sediment supply. At the same time, in many locations, conventional coastal engineering solutions such as sea walls are increasingly challenged by these changes and their ...
Mundell C G - - 2013
After the initial burst of γ-rays that defines a γ-ray burst (GRB), expanding ejecta collide with the circumburst medium and begin to decelerate at the onset of the afterglow, during which a forward shock travels outwards and a reverse shock propagates backwards into the oncoming collimated flow, or 'jet'. Light ...
Post Vincent E A - - 2013
The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. ...
Cui Xiao-Bin - - 2014
This study investigated the expression of the phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-related proteins in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Tissue microarrays of 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and exhibiting clinical characteristics were analyzed for protein expression of PLCE1, IKKβ, IKBα, p50, and ...
Jagoutz Oliver - - 2013
A long-standing theory for the genesis of continental crust is that it is formed in subduction zones. However, the observed seismic properties of lower crust and upper mantle in oceanic island arcs differ significantly from those in the continental crust. Accordingly, significant modifications of lower arc crust must occur, if ...
Kitayama Yohko - - 2013
The cyanobacterial circadian clock is the only model clock to have been reconstituted in vitro. KaiC, the central clock component, is a homohexameric ATPase with autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Changes in phosphorylation state have been proposed to switch KaiC's activity between autokinase and autophosphatase. Here we analyse the molecular mechanism ...
Rao Srinivasa P S - - 2013
New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified and characterized the indolcarboxamides as a new class of antitubercular bactericidal agent. Genetic and lipid profiling studies identified the likely molecular target of indolcarboxamides as MmpL3, a transporter of ...
Kentish Stephen J - - 2013
Food intake is coordinated to cellular metabolism by clock gene expression with a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronized by light exposure. Gastric vagal afferents play a role in regulating food intake, but it is unknown whether they exhibit circadian variation in their mechanosensitivity. We aimed to determine whether ...
Lazaro Lionel E - - 2013
The purpose of the present study was to quantify perfusion to the femoral head and head-neck junction using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following three surgical dislocations of the hip (trochanteric flip osteotomy, standard posterior approach, and modified posterior approach). The medial femoral circumflex artery was cannulated in fifty fresh-frozen cadaveric ...
Pagès Franck - - 2013
The implementation of a robust technology adapted to clinical practice for the evaluation of the tumor-immune infiltrate is required to exploit its prognostic and theranostic value (Robins et al., this issue).
Fleming Stephen M SM Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United - - 2013
Perception is often categorical: the perceptual system selects one interpretation of a stimulus even when evidence in favor of other interpretations is appreciable. Such categorization is potentially in conflict with normative decision theory, which mandates that the utility of various courses of action should depend on the probabilities of all ...
Schumacher Julia - - 2014
To assess the relative impact of functional constraint and post-mating sexual selection on sequence evolution of reproductive proteins, we examined 169 primate sperm proteins. In order to recognize potential genome-wide trends, we additionally analysed a sample of altogether 318 non-reproductive (brain and postsynaptic) proteins. Based on cDNAs of eight primate ...
Walz Jennifer M JM Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, and Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina - - 2013
Cortical and subcortical networks have been identified that are commonly associated with attention and task engagement, along with theories regarding their functional interaction. However, a link between these systems has not yet been demonstrated in healthy humans, primarily because of data acquisition and analysis limitations. We recorded simultaneous EEG-fMRI while ...
Coe Jeffrey D - - 2013
Lateral mass screw fixation with plates or rods has become the standard method of posterior cervical spine fixation and stabilization for a variety of surgical indications. Despite ubiquitous usage, the safety and efficacy of this technique have not yet been established sufficiently to permit "on-label" U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
Hein Catherine L - - 2014
A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated ...
Koehler Ryan J RJ Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail address for G.T. Nicandri: - - 2013
Examination of arthroscopic skill requires evaluation tools that are valid and reliable with clear criteria for passing. The Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool was developed as a video-based assessment of technical skill with criteria for passing established by a panel of experts. The purpose of this study was to test ...
Tooker Ryan E RE Department of Biomedical Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado - - 2013
Coding a wide range of light intensities in natural scenes poses a challenge for the retina: adaptation to bright light should not compromise sensitivity to dim light. Here we report a novel form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, specifically, a "weighted potentiation" that selectively increases output of Mb-type bipolar cells in ...
Villaverde Alejandro F - - 2014
The interplay of mathematical modelling with experiments is one of the central elements in systems biology. The aim of reverse engineering is to infer, analyse and understand, through this interplay, the functional and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Reverse engineering is not exclusive of systems biology and has been studied ...
Sherrill Katherine R KR Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, and Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts - - 2013
The current study used fMRI in humans to examine goal-directed navigation in an open field environment. We designed a task that required participants to encode survey-level spatial information and subsequently navigate to a goal location in either first person, third person, or survey perspectives. Critically, no distinguishing landmarks or goal ...
Taylor Brett M - - 2014
The influence of social demography on sex change schedules in protogynous reef fishes is well established, yet effects across spatial scales (in particular, the magnitude of natural variation relative to size-selective fishing effects) are poorly understood. Here, I examine variation in timing of sex change for exploited parrotfishes across a ...
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