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Steinbrecher Kris A KA Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2014
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) is a transmembrane receptor that is expressed primarily on intestinal epithelial cells. Activation of this receptor by its endogenous peptide ligands initiates cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent (cGMP) salt and water movement in the intestine. GC-C is targeted by the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa, which deregulates ...
Larrieu Antoine P AP Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, - - 2014
Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a useful nondestructive approach for the visualization of fluorescent reporters in planta. Samples are usually placed between a slide and a cover slip which, although suited to single time-point imaging, does not allow long-term observation. Here, we describe a technique to monitor changes in fluorescence ...
Mongeau Jean-Michel - - 2013
Animals can expend energy to acquire sensory information by emitting signals and/or moving sensory structures. We propose that the energy from locomotion itself could permit control of a sensor, whereby animals use the energy from movement to reconfigure a passive sensor. We investigated high-speed, antenna-mediated tactile navigation in the cockroach ...
Adamo Shelley A - - 2013
Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent ...
Martinez Bridget - - 2013
Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the ...
Mukherjee Joy - - 2013
Calcifying marine invertebrates with complex life cycles are particularly at risk to climate changes as they undergo an abrupt ontogenetic shift during larval metamorphosis. Although our understanding of the larval response to climate changes is rapidly advancing, the proteome plasticity involved in a compensatory response to climate change is still ...
Siegert M E - - 2013
We examined acoustic masking in a chirping katydid species of the Mecopoda elongata complex due to interference with a sympatric Mecopoda species where males produce continuous trills at high amplitudes. Frequency spectra of both calling songs range from 1 to 80 kHz; the chirper species has more energy in a ...
- - 2013
Asthma was the most common underlying condition among persons hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009. Although persons with asthma are not more likely than others to get influenza, influenza can make asthma symptoms worse, trigger asthma attacks, and lead to pneumonia or other complications that result ...
- - 2013
On May 24, 2010, a cluster of 17 human Salmonella enterica serotype Chester clinical isolates with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns was reported to PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. This PFGE pattern had not been reported previously. Subsequently, CDC conducted an investigation that identified ...
- - 2013
On January 8, 2013, the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene notified the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH) of two patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 clinical isolates that had indistinguishable, but commonly identified, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. The two patients were interviewed by local health departments within 1 day ...
- - 2013
Rubella virus usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults. However, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred ...
Mayer Benedikt - - 2013
Semiconductor nanowires are widely considered to be the next frontier in the drive towards ultra-small, highly efficient coherent light sources. While NW lasers in the visible and ultraviolet have been widely demonstrated, the major role of surface and Auger recombination has hindered their development in the near infrared. Here we ...
Khazendar A - - 2013
Analysis of ICESat-1 data (2003-2008) shows significant surface lowering of Totten Glacier, the glacier discharging the largest volume of ice in East Antarctica, and less change on nearby Moscow University Glacier. After accounting for firn compaction anomalies, the thinning appears to coincide with fast-flowing ice indicating a dynamical origin. Here, ...
Straneo Fiammetta - - 2013
Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and ...
Woodruff Jonathan D - - 2013
The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient ...
Kirwan Matthew L - - 2013
Coastal populations and wetlands have been intertwined for centuries, whereby humans both influence and depend on the extensive ecosystem services that wetlands provide. Although coastal wetlands have long been considered vulnerable to sea-level rise, recent work has identified fascinating feedbacks between plant growth and geomorphology that allow wetlands to actively ...
Bauer James E - - 2013
The carbon cycle of the coastal ocean is a dynamic component of the global carbon budget. But the diverse sources and sinks of carbon and their complex interactions in these waters remain poorly understood. Here we discuss the sources, exchanges and fates of carbon in the coastal ocean and how ...
Post Vincent E A - - 2013
The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. ...
Temmerman Stijn - - 2013
The risk of flood disasters is increasing for many coastal societies owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions, sea-level rise, land subsidence and sediment supply. At the same time, in many locations, conventional coastal engineering solutions such as sea walls are increasingly challenged by these changes and their ...
Smetacek Victor - - 2013
Sudden beaching of huge seaweed masses smother the coastline and form rotting piles on the shore. The number of reports of these events in previously unaffected areas has increased worldwide in recent years. These 'seaweed tides' can harm tourism-based economies, smother aquaculture operations or disrupt traditional artisanal fisheries. Coastal eutrophication ...
Mundell C G - - 2013
After the initial burst of γ-rays that defines a γ-ray burst (GRB), expanding ejecta collide with the circumburst medium and begin to decelerate at the onset of the afterglow, during which a forward shock travels outwards and a reverse shock propagates backwards into the oncoming collimated flow, or 'jet'. Light ...
Jagoutz Oliver - - 2013
A long-standing theory for the genesis of continental crust is that it is formed in subduction zones. However, the observed seismic properties of lower crust and upper mantle in oceanic island arcs differ significantly from those in the continental crust. Accordingly, significant modifications of lower arc crust must occur, if ...
Grumelli Doris - - 2013
Electrochemical conversions at fuel cell electrodes are complex processes. In particular, the oxygen reduction reaction has substantial overpotential limiting the electrical power output efficiency. Effective and inexpensive catalytic interfaces are therefore essential for increased performance. Taking inspiration from enzymes, earth-abundant metal centres embedded in organic environments present remarkable catalytic active ...
Chiribella Giulio - - 2013
No process in nature can perfectly clone an arbitrary quantum state. But is it possible to engineer processes that replicate quantum information with vanishingly small error? Here we demonstrate the possibility of probabilistic super-replication phenomena where N equally prepared quantum clocks are transformed into a much larger number of M ...
Cui Xiao-Bin - - 2014
This study investigated the expression of the phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-related proteins in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Tissue microarrays of 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and exhibiting clinical characteristics were analyzed for protein expression of PLCE1, IKKβ, IKBα, p50, and ...
Yan Hongjiang - - 2014
Patients with esophageal small cell carcinoma undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) seem to have disparity in tumor response. The identification of CRT sensitivity-related tumor markers would be helpful for selecting patients most likely to benefit from CRT. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of biological markers ...
Barni S - - 2014
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a severe dose-limiting side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with solid tumors. Clinical practice guidelines recommend primary prophylaxis with G-CSF in patients with an overall ≥20 % risk of FN. AIOM Italian guidelines recommend starting G-CSF within 24-72 h after chemotherapy; for daily G-CSF, administration should continue ...
Yao Zi-Xiang - - 2014
Discordance of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary breast cancer, metastatic lesion and synchronous axillary lymph node metastasis has been reported in the series studies. Systemic treatment of primary invasive breast cancer patients with synchronous axillary metastasis is currently ...
Kitayama Yohko - - 2013
The cyanobacterial circadian clock is the only model clock to have been reconstituted in vitro. KaiC, the central clock component, is a homohexameric ATPase with autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Changes in phosphorylation state have been proposed to switch KaiC's activity between autokinase and autophosphatase. Here we analyse the molecular mechanism ...
McNulty Reginald - - 2013
Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen's periplasm. Urea uptake is greatly enhanced and regulated by HpUreI, a proton-gated inner membrane channel protein essential for gastric survival of H. pylori. The crystal structure of HpUreI ...
Min Changjun - - 2013
Scattering forces in focused light beams push away metallic particles. Thus, trapping metallic particles with conventional optical tweezers, especially those of Mie particle size, is difficult. Here we investigate a mechanism by which metallic particles are attracted and trapped by plasmonic tweezers when surface plasmons are excited and focused by ...
Wilson Kerry - - 2013
While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 ...
Kulkarni Aniket D AD From the Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (A.D.K., D.J.J., D.M.K., M.F.G.); the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (H.W.J.); the Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (H.W.J.); the Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (M.M.); and the Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI - - 2013
The advent of fertility treatments has led to an increase in the rate of multiple births in the United States. However, the trends in and magnitude of the contribution of fertility treatments to the increase are uncertain. We derived the rates of multiple births after natural conception from data on ...
Luo Yunzi - - 2013
Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) are a widely distributed class of natural products with important biological activities. However, many of these PTMs have not been characterized. Here we apply a plug-and-play synthetic biology strategy to activate a cryptic PTM biosynthetic gene cluster SGR810-815 from Streptomyces griseus and discover three new PTMs. ...
Cao Erhu E 1] Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517, USA - - 2013
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal signal detectors that respond to a wide range of physical and chemical stimuli. Elucidating how these channels integrate and convert physiological signals into channel opening is essential to understanding how they regulate cell excitability under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Here we exploit pharmacological ...
Liao Maofu M 1] Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517, USA - - 2013
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals, but elucidating how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information. Here we exploit advances in electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of a ...
Christensen Christian P - - 2013
Assessments of the synovial fluid white blood-cell (WBC) count and percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) have been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to evaluate the natural progression of the synovial fluid WBC count, PMN percentage, and ...
Lyon Thomas - - 2013
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) applied on an absorbable collagen sponge improves open tibial fracture-healing as an adjunct to unreamed intramedullary nail fixation. We evaluated rhBMP-2 and a new, injectable calcium phosphate matrix (CPM) formulation in acute closed tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nail fixation. Patients were ...
Peltola Mikko - - 2013
The risk of early revision is increased for the first patients operatively treated with a newly introduced knee prosthesis. In this study, we explored the learning curves associated with ten knee implant models to determine their effect on early revision risk. We studied register data from all seventy-five surgical units ...
Ellington J Kent - - 2013
Few studies have focused on treatment following failed total ankle replacement. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of patients undergoing revision total ankle replacement and to propose a talar component subsidence grading system that may be helpful in making decisions regarding how to revise failed total ...
Kerver A L A - - 2013
Iatrogenic injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve is a common complication of surgical approaches to the anteromedial side of the knee. A detailed description of the relative anatomic course of the nerve is important to define clinical guidelines and minimize iatrogenic damage during anterior knee surgery. In ...
Coe Jeffrey D - - 2013
Lateral mass screw fixation with plates or rods has become the standard method of posterior cervical spine fixation and stabilization for a variety of surgical indications. Despite ubiquitous usage, the safety and efficacy of this technique have not yet been established sufficiently to permit "on-label" U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
Lazaro Lionel E - - 2013
The purpose of the present study was to quantify perfusion to the femoral head and head-neck junction using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following three surgical dislocations of the hip (trochanteric flip osteotomy, standard posterior approach, and modified posterior approach). The medial femoral circumflex artery was cannulated in fifty fresh-frozen cadaveric ...
Escott Benjamin G - - 2013
Children with lower-limb-length discrepancy require repeated radiographic assessment for monitoring and as a guide for management. The need for accurate assessment of length and alignment is balanced by the need to minimize radiation exposure. We compared the accuracy, reliability, and radiation dose of EOS, a novel low-dose upright biplanar radiographic ...
Macwilliams Bruce A - - 2013
This study quantifies the three-dimensional motion of lumbar vertebrae during gait via direct in vivo measurement with the use of indwelling bone pins with retroreflective markers and motion capture. Two previous studies in which bone pins were used were limited to instrumentation of two vertebrae, and neither evaluated motions during ...
Xu Qian - - 2013
Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. TGF-β, a major bone-derived growth factor, is largely released by osteoclast bone resorption during the progression of bone cancer and contributes to proliferation, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we further show that TGF-β1 is critical for bone cancer-induced pain sensitization. ...
Mori Francesco - - 2013
Neuroplasticity is essential to prevent clinical worsening despite continuing neuronal loss in several brain diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). The precise nature of the adaptation mechanisms taking place in MS brains, ensuring protection from disability appearance and accumulation, is however unknown. Here, we explored the hypothesis that long-term synaptic potentiation ...
Tennant Kelly A - - 2013
Stroke usually affects people with underlying medical conditions. In particular, diabetics are significantly more likely to have a stroke and the prognosis for recovery is poor. Because diabetes is associated with degenerative changes in the vasculature of many organs, we sought to determine how hyperglycemia affects blood flow dynamics after ...
Weiss Peter H - - 2013
Gesture processing deficits constitute a key symptom of apraxia, a disorder of motor cognition frequently observed after left-hemispheric stroke. The clinical relevance of apraxia stands in stark contrast to the paucity of therapeutic options available. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for modulating disturbed network function after ...
Kentish Stephen J - - 2013
Food intake is coordinated to cellular metabolism by clock gene expression with a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronized by light exposure. Gastric vagal afferents play a role in regulating food intake, but it is unknown whether they exhibit circadian variation in their mechanosensitivity. We aimed to determine whether ...
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