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Results 301 - 350 of 3165
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Heck Matthias M - - 2013
The aim of this study was to prospectively compare diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and [(11)C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with computed tomography (CT) for preoperative lymph node (LN) staging in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Between June 2010 and May 2012, CT, DWI and [(11)C]choline PET/CT were performed preoperatively ...
Zhang Wanjun - - 2013
Molecular imaging enables in situ visualization of biomolecules in living organisms and creates numerous opportunities for basic biological research and early disease diagnosis. As luminescent probes for molecular imaging, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) exhibit superior performance compared to conventional fluorescent dyes in many ways, including high tissue penetration depth and ...
Ge Xuemei - - 2013
Aim: The nonviral carrier system based on the triblock copolymer PEG-PCL-DEX (PPD) and protamine was developed for nucleic acid delivery. Materials & methods: Self-assembly occurred in the PEG continuous phase to form 'dextran-interior' polymersomes. siRNA can be condensed by protamine and encapsulated into PPD polymersomes in order to form the ...
Beltrami Sarah - - 2013
The ubiquitous human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is the established etiological agent of the debilitating and often fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Most healthy individuals have been infected with JCV and generate an immune response to the virus, yet remain persistently infected at subclinical levels. The onset of ...
Becker Katherine M - - 2013
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy significantly reduced the prevalence of the most severe form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Despite this decline, 35-70 % of HIV-infected patients continue to develop mild motor and cognitive impairments. Although neuropsychological studies have shown that HAND affects a wide array of cognitive functions, a ...
Choi Dong-Hee - - 2013
Aims: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common pathological factor that contributes to neurodegenerative diseases such as vascular dementia (VaD). Although oxidative stress has been implicated strongly in the pathogenesis of VaD, the molecular mechanism underlying the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to oxidative damage remains unknown. We assessed whether ...
Chung Yeon Soo - - 2013
Possible cross-transmission of hospital-associated Enterococci between human patients, medical staff, and hospital environment has been extensively studied. However, limited information is available for veterinary hospital-associated Enterococcus isolates. This study investigated the possibility of cross-transmission of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci between dog patients, their owners, veterinary staff, and hospital environment. Swab samples (n=465) ...
Yuan Cailei - - 2013
The influence of compressive strain on the deformation of GaAs nanoparticles embedded in different host matrices is investigated. The simulation results indicate that it can be easier to deform GaAs nanoparticles grown in an Al2O3 film than those in an SiO2 film. The deformation induced by the applied compressive strain ...
Mbah Chukwuemeka C - - 2013
Introduction: The application of vesicular carrier formulations has generated promise of overcoming some problems associated with drug delivery arising from not only the physicochemical properties of the drug but also those of the biological barriers, such as the membrane linings of various body tissues and the skin. This review article ...
Cho Myounglae - - 2013
The chlorophyll related compound, pheophorbide a (Pa) was successively purified from an edible red seaweed, Grateloupia elliptica, using silica, octadecyl silica (ODS) column chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), as well as the cell cycle inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Pa were investigated in U87MG glioblastoma cells. ...
Nazer Babak - - 2013
Ultrasound (US) has gained widespread use in diagnostic cardiovascular applications. At amplitudes and frequencies typical of diagnostic use, its biomechanical effects on tissue are largely negligible. However, these parameters can be altered to harness US's thermal and non-thermal effects for therapeutic indications. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and extracorporeal shock wave ...
Kim Baek-Joong - - 2013
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), as a mammalian biologically active metabolite, has anti-carcinogenic effect. The conditions of producing 15-HETE from arachidonic acid by using soybean lipoxygenase were optimal at pH 8.5 and 20°C with 9 g/l arachidonic acid, 54.4 U/ml soybean lipoxygenase, and 4% methanol. Under these optimized conditions, the enzyme produced ...
Xu Liang - - 2013
PARK2 (PARKIN) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in multiple signaling pathways and cellular processes. Activity of PARK2 is tightly regulated through inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Dysfunction of PARK2 is associated with the progression of parkinsonism. Notably, frequent PARK2 inactivation has been identified in various human cancers. Park2-deficient mice are ...
Li Yuanyuan - - 2013
Significant alteration in the microbial community can occur across reclamation areas suffering subsidence from mining. A reclamation site undergoing fertilization practices and an adjacent coal-excavated subsidence site (sites A and B, respectively) were examined to characterize bacterial diversity using 454 high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. The dominant taxonomic groups in both ...
Sakoulas George - - 2013
Based on in vitro synergy studies, the addition of nafcillin to daptomycin was used to treat refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. Daptomycin is a de facto cationic antimicrobial peptide in vivo, with antistaphylococcal mechanisms reminiscent of innate host defense peptides (HDPs). In this study, the effects of nafcillin on ...
Kinney Melissa A - - 2013
The physiochemical stem cell microenvironment regulates the delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The three-dimensional assembly of stem cells facilitates cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis, analogous to the multicellular, heterotypic tissue organization that accompanies embryogenesis. Therefore, expansion and differentiation of stem cells as multicellular aggregates provides a controlled platform for ...
Tong Sheng - - 2013
Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale ...
Hyde Eoin R - - 2013
A method to extract myocardial coronary permeabilities appropriate to parameterise a continuum porous perfusion model using the underlying anatomical vascular network is developed. Canine and porcine whole-heart discrete arterial models were extracted from high-resolution cryomicrotome vessel image stacks. Five parameterisation methods were considered that are primarily distinguished by the level ...
Mokarram Nassir - - 2013
An immune response involves the action of all types of macrophages, classically activated subtype (M1) in the early inflammatory phase and regulatory and wound-healing subtypes (M2) in the resolution phase. The remarkable plasticity of macrophages makes them an interesting target in the context of immunomodulation. Here, we reviewed the current ...
Baron-Epel Orna - - 2013
Minority children have often been reported to be at high risk of injury. The higher levels of reported unintentional injuries among Arab children compared to Jewish children in Israel are mainly due to pedestrian traffic crashes, falls and burns. Arab children aged 1-4 years have a higher relative risk of injury ...
Yebra Gonzalo - - 2013
The presence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) threatens the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. We aimed to assess the changes in TDR prevalence over the last decade in Madrid, Spain, to verify the role of the patients' risk groups in these changes. We analysed the trends of TDR between 2000 ...
Chen Shilong - - 2013
Tembusu virus (TMUV) has been a causative agent of an acute egg-drop syndrome found in Chinese duck populations since at least 2010. In this paper, we report the characterization of a TMUV-like flavivirus (named CJD05) isolated from naturally infected egg-laying fowl. The virus was identified and then isolated from hens ...
Xia Qiuling - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory tract infection, particularly acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI), in early childhood. The RSV fusion protein (F protein) is an important surface protein, and it is the target of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and neutralizing antibodies; thus, it may be useful as a ...
Brueton Valerie C - - 2013
Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the ...
Hu Shengbiao - - 2013
Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely used as a tool for transgenesis in plants. The availability of its genome sequence should facilitate the directed engineering of improved properties; however, the current genome engineering options are laborious. Here, we investigated whether the lambda R ed operon can be applied for recombineering of ...
Ko Kyung-Seok - - 2013
The potential environmental toxicities of several metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; CuO, TiO2, NiO, Fe2O3, ZnO, and Co3O4) were evaluated in the context of bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and bacterial gene mutation. The bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., each kind of NP exhibited a different level of toxicity in each of ...
Wang Han - - 2013
Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine, C3H6N6), belonging to the s-triazine family, is an anthropogenic and versatile raw material for a large number of consumer products and its extensive use has resulted in the contamination of melamine in the environment. A novel melamine-degrading bacterium strain CY1 was isolated from a melamine-manufacturing factory in China. ...
Lane Kathryn - - 2013
Heat waves can be lethal and routinely prompt public warnings about the dangers of heat. With climate change, extreme heat events will become more frequent and intense. However, little is known about public awareness of heat warnings or behaviors during hot weather. Awareness of heat warnings, prevention behaviors, and air ...
Snyder Robert E - - 2013
Urban informal settlements are often under-recognized in national and regional surveys. A lack of quality intra-urban data frequently contributes to a one-size-fits-all public health intervention and clinical strategies that rarely address the variegated socioeconomic disparities across and within different informal settlements in a city. The 2010 Brazilian census gathered detailed ...
Des Jarlais Don C - - 2013
We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program ...
Bothiraja Chellampillai - - 2013
Background: The natural flavonoid fisetin has shown anticancer properties but its in vivo administration remains challenging due its poor aqueous solubility and extensive in vivo metabolism. This juncture demands an effective, controlled release and safe formulation of fisetin would be a significant advance for the treatment of cancer. Objectives: Nanocochleates ...
Konda Chiharu - - 2013
Obtaining unambiguous linkage information between sugars in oligosaccharides is an important step in their detailed structural analysis. An approach is described that provides greater confidence in linkage determination for linear oligosaccharides based on multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n >2) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of Z1 ions in the negative ...
Yong Mei - - 2013
Shift work is widely considered to be a health risk. In a previous study, we observed no elevated risk of total mortality in BASF shift workers followed up until the end of 2006. The present study aims to investigate non-cancer mortality, especially mortality caused by ischaemic heart disease (IHD), relative ...
Popa-Wagner Aurel - - 2013
The circadian clock coordinates the internal physiology to increase the homeostatic capacity thereby providing both a survival advantage to the system and an optimization of energy budgeting. Multiple-oscillator circadian mechanisms are likely to play a role in regulating human health and may contribute to the aging process. Our aim is ...
Hu Ying - - 2013
There is a lack of information on the interactive relationship of absorption and transformation between two inorganic arsenic (As) species and two inorganic selenium (Se) species in rice grown under hydroponic condition. Interactive effects of inorganic As (As(III)) and (As(V)) and Se (Se(IV)and Se(VI)) species on their uptake, accumulation, and ...
Aly Zaynab - - 2013
Economic adsorbents in bead form were fabricated and utilised for the adsorption of Al(3+) from aqueous solutions. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads, PAN powder and the thermally treated PAN beads (250 °C/48 h/Ar and 600 °C/48 h/Ar-H2) were characterised using different techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface analysis (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), thermogravimetric analysis as ...
Tsang Daniel C W - - 2013
Biodegradable chelating agents ([S,S]-ethylenediamine-N,N-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic-N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA)) and natural humic substances (lignite-derived, standard, and commercially available humic acids) are potentially useful for enhancing soil remediation of timber treatment sites. This study integrated macroscopic and spectroscopic analyses to assess their influence on the distribution and chemical speciation of ...
Revitt D Michael - - 2013
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted from a variety of sources and can accumulate on and within surface soil layers. To investigate the level of potential risk posed by surface contaminated soils, vertical soil column experiments were conducted to assess the mobility, when leached with simulated rainwater, of six selected PAHs ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2013
This is an update of the original Cochrane review entitled Lamotrigine for acute and chronic pain published in Issue 2, 2007, and updated in Issue 2, 2011. Some antiepileptic medicines have a place in the treatment of neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). This updated review adds no new ...
Wang Kai - - 2013
We present a method to identify small molecule ligand binding sites and poses within a given protein crystal structure using GPU-accelerated Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. The Hamiltonians used vary from the physical end state of protein interacting with the ligand to an unphysical end state where the ligand ...
Kumagai Takashi - - 2013
Lymphocytosis in response to dasatinib for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) may be associated with favorable response. However, it occurs at varying times and in a limited subset of patients. To identify early clinical markers for favorable responses applicable to all patients with or without lymphocytosis, we prospectively analyzed lymphocyte profiles ...
Bordbar Narges - - 2013
Abstract Various studies have described glycyrrhizin (GL), an active triterpenoic saponin extract of licorice roots, as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-tumor and immunomodulating agent. The activity of GL has been mainly attributed to its metabolites, 18-alpha (GA) and 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GB), which their mechanism of action on the immune system ...
Louvet Emilie - - 2013
In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis occurs in the nucleolus, a membraneless nuclear compartment. Noticeably, the nucleolus is also involved in several nuclear functions, such as cell cycle regulation, non-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complex assembly, aggresome formation and some virus assembly. The most intriguing question about the nucleolus is how such dynamics processes ...
Lv Shuang - - 2013
Abstract Context: Ginsenoside Rh2, an active component of ginseng, exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Rh2-B1, a sulfated derivative, was prepared to enhance its water solubility. We studied the effect of Rh2-B1 on CTLL-2, a CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell line that was known for protecting against viral infection. Objective: We aimed ...
Záme─Źníkova Adriana - - 2013
Introduction: Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently one of the most important classes of cancer drugs and one of the most impressive approaches of targeted cancer therapy. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinase pathways is among the most dysregulated molecular pathways in human cancers; therefore, a large number of tyrosine kinases ...
Böckenholt Ulf - - 2013
Asking sensitive or personal questions in surveys or experimental studies can both lower response rates and increase item non-response and misreports. Although non-response is easily diagnosed, misreports are not. However, misreports cannot be ignored because they give rise to systematic bias. The purpose of this paper is to present a ...
Nikoloulopoulos Aristidis K - - 2013
Factor or conditional independence models based on copulas are proposed for multivariate discrete data such as item responses. The factor copula models have interpretations of latent maxima/minima (in comparison with latent means) and can lead to more probability in the joint upper or lower tail compared with factor models based ...
Turner Brandon M - - 2013
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful technique for estimating the posterior distribution of a model's parameters. It is especially important when the model to be fit has no explicit likelihood function, which happens for computational (or simulation-based) models such as those that are popular in cognitive neuroscience and other ...
Tutz Gerhard - - 2013
A new diagnostic tool for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) is proposed. Classical approaches to DIF allow to consider only few subpopulations like ethnic groups when investigating if the solution of items depends on the membership to a subpopulation. We propose an explicit model for differential item functioning ...
Wang Shiyu - - 2013
Latent class models for cognitive diagnosis have been developed to classify examinees into one of the 2 (K) attribute profiles arising from a K-dimensional vector of binary skill indicators. These models recognize that response patterns tend to deviate from the ideal responses that would arise if skills and items generated ...
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