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Patwardhan Anil - - 2014
In case-control studies of rare Mendelian disorders and complex diseases, the power to detect variant and gene-level associations of a given effect size is limited by the size of the study sample. Paradoxically, low statistical power may increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding is also a false positive. ...
Armitage Bruce A - - 2014
Reactions templated by a specific nucleic acid sequence have emerged as an attractive strategy for nucleic acid sensing. The Staudinger reaction using an azide-quenched fluorophore and a phosphine is particularly well suited by virtue of its bioorthogonality and biocompatibility. The reaction is promoted by a complementary nucleic acid that aligns ...
Manna Arunava - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are attractive, as compared to other classes of oligonucleotides that have been developed to date, in that they are relatively easy to synthesize and modify, hybridize to DNA and RNA with high affinity and sequence selectivity, and are resistant to enzymatic degradation by proteases and nucleases; ...
Ramirez Oscar M - - 2014
Correction of aesthetic and anatomic deformities of the neck due to aging is a complex proposition, and the planning and approach depends on the findings during your initial examination. More than any area of the body, an in-depth knowledge of the anatomy is mandatory. The surgery can be very simple ...
Halliday Jennifer A - - 2014
Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop participants prioritized health behaviors, skill and knowledge gaps, and ...
Goudar Chetan T - - 2014
Metabolic flux analysis with its ability to quantify cellular metabolism is an attractive tool for accelerating cell line selection, medium optimization, and other bioprocess development activities. In the stoichiometric flux estimation approach, unknown fluxes are determined using intracellular metabolite mass balance expressions and measured extracellular rates. The simplicity of the ...
Landauer Karlheinz - - 2014
The success of culturing CHO cells solely depends on functionality of the used media. Cell culture technology is more than 50 years old, and the knowledge of cell requirements increased steadily. In the beginning, animal-sourced components were the key to growth. Nowadays state-of-the-art media do not contain any animal or ...
Chitragari Gautham - - 2014
Although the rate of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes is decreasing, amputation still remains a major complication of diabetes. Prosthetics have been long used to help amputees ambulate. The last decade has seen many advances in prostheses with the enhanced understanding of the mechanics of ambulation and improved ...
Kohan Emil J - - 2014
The neck is the region of the body between the clavicle and the mandible. It contains several vital structures and serves to separate the head from the torso. A detailed discussion of surgical neck anatomy is presented, including comments relevant to aesthetic surgery. This discussion begins by describing the divisions ...
Malinowski Jennifer - - 2014
Electronic medical records (EMRs) are becoming more widely implemented following directives from the federal government and incentives for supplemental reimbursements for Medicare and Medicaid claims. Replete with rich phenotypic data, EMRs offer a unique opportunity for clinicians and researchers to identify potential research cohorts and perform epidemiologic studies. Notable limitations ...
Chiou Henry C - - 2014
Transient transfection is a well-established method to rapidly express recombinant proteins from mammalian cells. Accelerating activity in biotherapeutic drug development, demand for protein-based reagents, vaccine research, and large initiatives in structural and functional studies of proteins have propelled the need to generate moderate to high amounts of recombinant proteins and ...
Hu Hao - - 2014
The two-hit model of carcinogenesis provides a valuable framework for understanding the role of DNA repair and tumor suppressor genes in cancer development and progression. Under this model, tumor development can initiate from a single somatic mutation in individuals that inherit an inactivating germline variant. Although the two-hit model can ...
Olson Christine M - - 2014
This article investigates the impact of community-based interventions developed by the Healthy Start Partnership (HSP) to promote healthy body weights in families. Intercept surveys were conducted to monitor community exposure. A nonconcurrent, no treatment control design was used to assess population-level weight outcomes. Control (n = 219) and intervention (n ...
Philip Vivek M - - 2014
Global transcript expression experiments are commonly used to investigate the biological processes that underlie complex traits. These studies can exhibit complex patterns of pleiotropy when trans-acting genetic factors influence overlapping sets of multiple transcripts. Dissecting these patterns into biological modules with distinct genetic etiology can provide models of how genetic ...
Wahrheit Judith - - 2014
Sampling and quenching methods for intracellular metabolite analysis in mammalian cells in adherent and suspension culture are described. Quenching of adherent cells is achieved by application of hot air after removal of the supernatant by suction. For suspension cultures, the addition of excess ice-cold saline results in a rapid inactivation ...
Parikh Ankur P - - 2014
Simultaneously reverse engineering a collection of condition-specific gene networks from gene expression microarray data to uncover dynamic mechanisms is a key challenge in systems biology. However, existing methods for this task are very sensitive to variations in the size of the microarray samples across different biological conditions (which we term ...
Sforza Stefano - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic oligonucleotide analogues based on a pseudopeptide backbone that bind complementary DNA or RNA with high affinity and specificity. In this chapter, three PNA-based genotyping assays are described: PCR clamping, fluorescence-based recognition, and microarray platform. The first two methods are performed in solution, while the ...
Hattori Koji - - 2014
Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion ...
Yera Emmanuel R ER Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2014
We present a probabilistic data fusion framework that combines multiple computational approaches for drawing relationships between drugs and targets. The approach has special relevance to identifying surprising unintended biological targets of drugs. Comparisons between molecules are made based on 2D topological structural considerations, based on 3D surface characteristics, and based ...
Corradini Roberto - - 2014
Chiral open-chain PNAs have been shown to have improved properties in terms of control of helical handedness, DNA affinity, sequence selectivity, and cellular uptake. They can be synthesized either using preformed chiral monomers or by means of a submonomeric strategy. The former is preferred when only a stereogenic center is ...
Brubaker Douglas - - 2014
The revolution in sequencing techniques in the past decade has provided an extensive picture of the molecular mechanisms behind complex diseases such as cancer. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and The Cancer Genome Project (CGP) have provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine copy number, gene expression, and mutational information ...
Stephan Holger - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have very attractive properties for applications in nuclear medicine. Because PNAs have high selectivity for DNA/RNA recognition, resistance to nuclease/protease degradation, and high thermal and radiolytic stabilities, PNA bioconjugates could transform the areas of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. In this book chapter, we report on ...
Neto Elias Chaibub - - 2014
Computational efficiency is important for learning algorithms operating in the "large p, small n" setting. In computational biology, the analysis of data sets containing tens of thousands of features ("large p"), but only a few hundred samples ("small n"), is nowadays routine, and regularized regression approaches such as ridge-regression, lasso, ...
Ellenbogen Richard - - 2014
After a visit to Bruce Connell in 1975, I realized I had seen the ultimate answer to neck correction in facelifts-the treatment of the muscles, the removal of fat both superficial and deep, and the skin tightening. I devised a neck-only lift using his principles. These consisted of submental incision, ...
Daneshjou Roxana - - 2014
The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recently released guidelines regarding the reporting of incidental findings in sequencing data. Given the availability of Direct to Consumer (DTC) genetic testing and the falling cost of whole exome and genome sequencing, individuals will increasingly have the opportunity to analyze their ...
Gitter Anthony - - 2014
Advances in experimental techniques resulted in abundant genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data that have the potential to reveal critical drivers of human diseases. Complementary algorithmic developments enable researchers to map these data onto protein-protein interaction networks and infer which signaling pathways are perturbed by a disease. Despite this progress, ...
Fridman Robert - - 2014
Complications from diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Nearly 85% of these amputations result from an infected foot ulcer. Osteomyelitis is present in approximately 20% of diabetic foot infections. It is imperative that clinicians make quick and successful diagnoses of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) because ...
Zhe Shandian - - 2014
A key step for Alzheimer's disease (AD) study is to identify associations between genetic variations and intermediate phenotypes (e.g., brain structures). At the same time, it is crucial to develop a noninvasive means for AD diagnosis. Although these two tasks-association discovery and disease diagnosis-have been treated separately by a variety ...
McCartan Brant L - - 2014
The diabetic foot is more susceptible than the non-diabetic foot to collapse. This frequently leads to bony prominences followed by ulceration. Offloading of areas of increased pressure is paramount to ulcer prevention and healing. Several devices and accommodations can aid practitioners in saving patients' extremities and allow them to ambulate. ...
Clark Wyatt T - - 2014
We propose a new kernel-based method for the classification of protein sequences and structures. We first represent each protein as a set of time series data using several structural, physicochemical, and predicted properties such as a sequence of consecutive dihedral angles, hydrophobicity indices, or predictions of disordered regions. A kernel ...
Gasser Gilles - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are a class of artificial DNA/RNA analogues that have unique physicochemical properties, which include a high chemical stability, resistance to nucleases and proteases, and higher mismatch sensitivity than DNA. PNAs were initially anticipated to be useful for application in antisense and antigene therapies; however, their poor ...
Schleifman Erica B - - 2014
The ability to directly manipulate the human genome to correct a disease-related mutation, introduce a sequence change that would lead to site-specific gene knockout, or increase gene expression is a very powerful tool with tremendous clinical value. Triplex formation by synthetic DNA-binding molecules such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) has ...
Cook Emily A - - 2014
Bioengineered alternative tissues (BATs) are heterogeneous processed materials used to aid in wound closure of diabetic foot ulcers. There has been significant progress in the development and clinical use of BATs in the last decade. BATs may be derived from an autograft, allograft, or xenograft source. They may be a ...
Lobo Viveta - - 2014
Thoracic ultrasonography (US) has proved to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of the patient with shortness of breath, chest pain, hypoxia, or after chest trauma. Its sensitivity and specificity for detecting disease is higher than that of a chest radiograph, and it can expedite the diagnosis for many ...
Funk Christopher S - - 2014
Identifying genetic variants that affect drug response or play a role in disease is an important task for clinicians and researchers. Before individual variants can be explored efficiently for effect on drug response or disease relationships, specific candidate genes must be identified. While many methods rank candidate genes through the ...
Goh Shan - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are a class of artificial DNA/RNA analogues that have unique physicochemical properties, which include a high chemical stability, resistance to nucleases and proteases and higher mismatch sensitivity than DNA. PNAs were initially anticipated to be useful for application in antisense and antigene therapies; however, their poor ...
Aguiar Derek - - 2014
The growing availability of inexpensive high-throughput sequence data is enabling researchers to sequence tumor populations within a single individual at high coverage. But, cancer genome sequence evolution and mutational phenomena like driver mutations and gene fusions are difficult to investigate without first reconstructing tumor haplotype sequences. Haplotype assembly of single ...
Wu Teresa S - - 2014
Critically ill patients require rapid, accurate assessments and appropriate therapeutic interventions to maximize their chances of recovery. Often the cause of a patient's decompensation is not readily apparent based solely on history and physical examination findings. The Concentrated Overview of Resuscitative Efforts (CORE scan) is a compilation of targeted bedside ...
Englund Ethan A - - 2014
Incorporating a cyclopentane ring into the two-carbon unit of a peptide nucleic acid backbone increases its binding affinity to complementary nucleic acid sequences. This approach is a general method to improve binding and can be applied at either purine or pyrimidine bases.
Matarasso Alan - - 2014
Isolated surgery of the neck without a facelift is increasingly in demand and a satisfying option for patients concerned with the aging appearance of the neck. It seems to be requested frequently in men and women and in patients who are satisfied with nonsurgical rejuvenation of the midface or who ...
Grow H Mollie Greves - - 2014
Sustaining community-based obesity interventions for families represents an ongoing challenge. Many initially grant-funded initiatives lack a sustainable model to continue. After initial grant funding ended, we continued a partnership between Seattle Children's Hospital and YMCA of Greater Seattle to enhance and expand a community-based family obesity program, "ACT! Actively Changing ...
Perera Phillips - - 2014
Focused cardiac echocardiography has become a critical diagnostic tool for the emergency physician and critical care physician caring for patients in shock and following trauma to the chest, and those presenting with chest pain and shortness of breath,. Cardiac echocardiography allows for immediate diagnosis of pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade, ...
Butler Michael - - 2014
The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume ...
Weyand Cornelia M CM aDivision of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California bDepartment of Medicine, Palo Alto Veteran Administration Healthcare System, Palo Alto, California, - - 2014
With progressive age, the immune system and the propensity for abnormal immunity change fundamentally. Individuals greater than 50 years of age are not only more susceptible to infection and cancer, but also at higher risk for chronic inflammation and immune-mediated tissue damage. The process of immunosenescence is accelerated in rheumatoid ...
Zhu Qian - - 2014
Computational drug repositioning leverages computational technology and high volume of biomedical data to identify new indications for existing drugs. Since it does not require costly experiments that have a high risk of failure, it has attracted increasing interest from diverse fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, and informatics areas. In this ...
Labbé Daniel - - 2014
The digastric corset is a new concept for open neck contouring, indicated in the treatment of difficult necks. We described a retaining ligament between the anterior belly of the digastric muscle and the mylo-hyoid muscle. After suprahyoid fat lipectomy, a digastric corset can be performed as a running suture between ...
Swamidass S Joshua - - 2014
Despite increasing investments in pharmaceutical R&D, there is a continuing paucity of new drug approvals. Drug discovery continues to be a lengthy and resource-consuming process in spite of all the advances in genomics, life sciences, and technology. Indeed, it is estimated that about 90% of the drugs fail during development ...
Mulholland R Stephen - - 2014
This article reviews the broad range of effective options for the nonexcisional rejuvenation of the neck. It discusses the relevant noninvasive anatomy of the neck, classification of the procedural options for the aesthetic cervical physician, and specific anatomic management strategies for each category of cosmetic cervical therapy. This article is ...
Zitnik Marinka - - 2014
The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, ...
Martens Dirk E - - 2014
Lab-scale stirred-tank bioreactors (0.2-20 l) are used for fundamental research on animal cells and in process development and troubleshooting for large-scale production. In this chapter, different configurations of bioreactor systems are shortly discussed and setting up these different configurations is described. In addition, online measurement and control of bioreactor parameters ...
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