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Blume Peter A - - 2014
This article reviews current literature discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and imaging, and conservative and surgical treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy. The treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy with concurrent osteomyelitis is also discussed.
Chitragari Gautham - - 2014
Although the rate of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes is decreasing, amputation still remains a major complication of diabetes. Prosthetics have been long used to help amputees ambulate. The last decade has seen many advances in prostheses with the enhanced understanding of the mechanics of ambulation and improved ...
Arredondo Elva M - - 2014
Physical activity (PA) rates in young Latina girls are low. This study examined acceptability and feasibility of implementing a mother-daughter intervention targeting individual and family-level correlates of PA. Eleven mother-daughter dyads participated in an 8-week intervention promoting PA in preadolescents. Preliminary data suggest increases in self-report PA, reductions in television ...
Weaver Sally P - - 2014
Childhood obesity has become a significant problem in the United States, especially in poor communities, and we know that children who have at least 1 obese parent have a much higher risk of being obese. Combined behavioral lifestyle interventions and family-based intervention programs to address pediatric obesity have the strongest ...
Grow H Mollie Greves - - 2014
Sustaining community-based obesity interventions for families represents an ongoing challenge. Many initially grant-funded initiatives lack a sustainable model to continue. After initial grant funding ended, we continued a partnership between Seattle Children's Hospital and YMCA of Greater Seattle to enhance and expand a community-based family obesity program, "ACT! Actively Changing ...
Halliday Jennifer A - - 2014
Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop participants prioritized health behaviors, skill and knowledge gaps, and ...
Olson Christine M - - 2014
This article investigates the impact of community-based interventions developed by the Healthy Start Partnership (HSP) to promote healthy body weights in families. Intercept surveys were conducted to monitor community exposure. A nonconcurrent, no treatment control design was used to assess population-level weight outcomes. Control (n = 219) and intervention (n ...
Paek Hye-Jin - - 2014
This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two ...
Shriki Jesse - - 2014
Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The ...
Enriquez J Luis - - 2014
The use of ultrasonography in medical practice has evolved dramatically over the last few decades and will continue to improve as technological advances are incorporated into daily medical practice. Although ultrasound machine size and equipment have evolved, the basic principles and fundamental functions have remained essentially the same. This article ...
Perera Phillips - - 2014
Focused cardiac echocardiography has become a critical diagnostic tool for the emergency physician and critical care physician caring for patients in shock and following trauma to the chest, and those presenting with chest pain and shortness of breath,. Cardiac echocardiography allows for immediate diagnosis of pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade, ...
Lobo Viveta - - 2014
Thoracic ultrasonography (US) has proved to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of the patient with shortness of breath, chest pain, hypoxia, or after chest trauma. Its sensitivity and specificity for detecting disease is higher than that of a chest radiograph, and it can expedite the diagnosis for many ...
Kohan Emil J - - 2014
The neck is the region of the body between the clavicle and the mandible. It contains several vital structures and serves to separate the head from the torso. A detailed discussion of surgical neck anatomy is presented, including comments relevant to aesthetic surgery. This discussion begins by describing the divisions ...
Luz Dilson - - 2014
The author describes 13 years of experience in the application of a new and simple method of facial cutaneous detachment using specially designed bifaceted rigid steel wands called Dilson Luz Vascular Dilation Wands. This technique, termed progressive tunnelizations, involves stretching the blood vessels to the point of rupture by inserting progressively ...
Athanasiou Athanasios - - 2014
Anchoring platysma muscle on fixed points of the face is not new. Revolutionary high superficial muscular aponeurotic system techniques and a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the tympanomastoid fascia give us a stabile anatomic point to fixate platysma muscle. This structure combined with supraplatysmal or subplatysmal defatting, partial resection ...
De Castro Claudio Cardoso - - 2014
The authors deal with different kinds of patients exhibiting different anatomic arrangements of the structures in their neck, different ages, and different expectations; there are several techniques from which to choose. Patients have no idea of the deformity they show. They demand a fast recovery with the best possible result ...
Philip Vivek M - - 2014
Global transcript expression experiments are commonly used to investigate the biological processes that underlie complex traits. These studies can exhibit complex patterns of pleiotropy when trans-acting genetic factors influence overlapping sets of multiple transcripts. Dissecting these patterns into biological modules with distinct genetic etiology can provide models of how genetic ...
Daneshjou Roxana - - 2014
The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recently released guidelines regarding the reporting of incidental findings in sequencing data. Given the availability of Direct to Consumer (DTC) genetic testing and the falling cost of whole exome and genome sequencing, individuals will increasingly have the opportunity to analyze their ...
Martin Alicia R - - 2014
A striking finding from recent large-scale sequencing efforts is that the vast majority of variants in the human genome are rare and found within single populations or lineages. These observations hold important implications for the design of the next round of disease variant discovery efforts-if genetic variants that influence disease ...
Oetjens Matthew - - 2014
Calcineurin-inhibitors CI are immunosuppressive agents prescribed to patients after solid organ transplant to prevent rejection. Although these drugs have been transformative for allograft survival, long-term use is complicated by side effects including nephrotoxicity. Given the narrow therapeutic index of CI, therapeutic drug monitoring is used to prevent acute rejection from ...
Patwardhan Anil - - 2014
In case-control studies of rare Mendelian disorders and complex diseases, the power to detect variant and gene-level associations of a given effect size is limited by the size of the study sample. Paradoxically, low statistical power may increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding is also a false positive. ...
Han Henry - - 2014
Mass spectrometry based proteomics technologies have allowed for a great progress in identifying disease biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. However, they face acute challenges from a data reproducibility standpoint, in that no two independent studies have been found to produce the same proteomic patterns. Such reproducibility issues cause the ...
Ravikumar K E - - 2014
The creation of biological pathway knowledge bases is largely driven by manual effort to curate based on evidences from the scientific literature. It is highly challenging for the curators to keep up with the literature. Text mining applications have been developed in the last decade to assist human curators to ...
Liu Yashu - - 2014
Complex diseases such as major depression affect people over time in complicated patterns. Longitudinal data analysis is thus crucial for understanding and prognosis of such diseases and has received considerable attention in the biomedical research community. Traditional classification and regression methods have been commonly applied in a simple (controlled) clinical ...
Zitnik Marinka - - 2014
The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, ...
Cheng Chao - - 2014
The human genome encodes a large number of non-coding RNAs, which employ a new and crucial layer of biological regulation in addition to proteins. Technical advancement in recent years, particularly, the wide application of next generation sequencing analysis, provide an unprecedented opportunity to identify new non-coding RNAs and investigate their ...
Manna Arunava - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are attractive, as compared to other classes of oligonucleotides that have been developed to date, in that they are relatively easy to synthesize and modify, hybridize to DNA and RNA with high affinity and sequence selectivity, and are resistant to enzymatic degradation by proteases and nucleases; ...
Pattin Kristine A - - 2014
Many colleges and universities across the globe now offer bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees, along with certificate programs in bioinformatics. While there is some consensus surrounding curricula competencies, programs vary greatly in their core foci, with some leaning heavily toward the biological sciences and others toward quantitative areas. This allows ...
Englund Ethan A - - 2014
Incorporating a cyclopentane ring into the two-carbon unit of a peptide nucleic acid backbone increases its binding affinity to complementary nucleic acid sequences. This approach is a general method to improve binding and can be applied at either purine or pyrimidine bases.
Pendergrass Sarah - - 2014
A clear and predictive understanding of the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by varying deficits in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive behaviors, has not yet been achieved. There remains active debate about the origins of autism, and the degree to ...
Corradini Roberto - - 2014
Chiral open-chain PNAs have been shown to have improved properties in terms of control of helical handedness, DNA affinity, sequence selectivity, and cellular uptake. They can be synthesized either using preformed chiral monomers or by means of a submonomeric strategy. The former is preferred when only a stereogenic center is ...
Stephan Holger - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have very attractive properties for applications in nuclear medicine. Because PNAs have high selectivity for DNA/RNA recognition, resistance to nuclease/protease degradation, and high thermal and radiolytic stabilities, PNA bioconjugates could transform the areas of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. In this book chapter, we report on ...
Gasser Gilles - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are a class of artificial DNA/RNA analogues that have unique physicochemical properties, which include a high chemical stability, resistance to nucleases and proteases, and higher mismatch sensitivity than DNA. PNAs were initially anticipated to be useful for application in antisense and antigene therapies; however, their poor ...
Armitage Bruce A - - 2014
The guanine quadruplex is a secondary structure formed by DNA and RNA that has been implicated in regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. Guanine-rich PNA oligomers can invade DNA or RNA quadruplex targets to form heteroquadruplex structures. Affinities in the low nanomolar range are routinely observed, making ...
Zengeya Thomas - - 2014
Noncoding RNAs are attractive targets for molecular recognition because of the central role they play in gene expression. Since most noncoding RNAs are in a double-helical conformation, recognition of such structures is a formidable problem. Herein, we describe a method for sequence-selective recognition of biologically relevant double-helical RNA (illustrated on ...
Winssinger Nicolas - - 2014
The biochemical stability and desirable hybridization properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) coupled to the robustness of the peptidic chemistry involved in their oligomerization make them an attractive nucleic acid tag to encode molecules and program their assembly into higher order oligomers. The ability to program the dimerization of ligands ...
Smolina Irina V - - 2014
The unique ability of triplex-forming PNAs to invade the double helix has made it possible to develop a highly specific and sensitive approach for bacterial detection. The method uses short, about 20-bp-long, signature sequences presented as a single copy in the bacterial genome. Bacterial cells are fixed on slides and ...
Roloff Alexander - - 2014
Single base-specific detection of DNA/RNA sequences is of importance in the diagnosis of disease-associated genetic disorders or early stage cancer. This chapter introduces DNA-templated native chemical PNA ligation as a potentially useful tool for the sequence specific detection of nucleic acids. The template-induced alignment of PNA-thioesters and 1,2-aminothiol-PNAs in close ...
Sforza Stefano - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic oligonucleotide analogues based on a pseudopeptide backbone that bind complementary DNA or RNA with high affinity and specificity. In this chapter, three PNA-based genotyping assays are described: PCR clamping, fluorescence-based recognition, and microarray platform. The first two methods are performed in solution, while the ...
Armitage Bruce A - - 2014
Reactions templated by a specific nucleic acid sequence have emerged as an attractive strategy for nucleic acid sensing. The Staudinger reaction using an azide-quenched fluorophore and a phosphine is particularly well suited by virtue of its bioorthogonality and biocompatibility. The reaction is promoted by a complementary nucleic acid that aligns ...
Gorska Katarzyna - - 2014
Reactions templated by a specific nucleic acid sequence have emerged as an attractive strategy for nucleic acid sensing. The Staudinger reaction using an azide-quenched fluorophore and a phosphine is particularly well suited by virtue of its bioorthogonality and biocompatibility. The reaction is promoted by a complementary nucleic acid that aligns ...
Shiraishi Takehiko - - 2014
Cellular delivery methods are a prerequisite for cellular studies with PNA. This chapter describes PNA cellular delivery using cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-PNA conjugates and transfection of PNA-ligand conjugates mediated by cationic lipids. Furthermore, two endosomolytic procedures employing chloroquine treatment or photochemical internalization (PCI) for significantly improving PNA delivery efficacy are described.
Schleifman Erica B - - 2014
The ability to directly manipulate the human genome to correct a disease-related mutation, introduce a sequence change that would lead to site-specific gene knockout, or increase gene expression is a very powerful tool with tremendous clinical value. Triplex formation by synthetic DNA-binding molecules such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) has ...
Goh Shan - - 2014
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are a class of artificial DNA/RNA analogues that have unique physicochemical properties, which include a high chemical stability, resistance to nucleases and proteases and higher mismatch sensitivity than DNA. PNAs were initially anticipated to be useful for application in antisense and antigene therapies; however, their poor ...
Lee Wong Cheng - - 2014
The development of mammalian cell cycle synchronization techniques has greatly advanced our understanding of many cellular regulatory events and mechanisms specific to different phases of the cell cycle. In this chapter, we describe a high-throughput microfluidic-based approach for cell cycle synchronization. By exploiting the relationship between cell size and its ...
Vidigal João - - 2014
Traditional cell line development is quite laborious and time-consuming as it is based on the random integration of the gene of interest which leads to unpredictable expression behavior. In opposition, recombinase-mediated cassette exchange systems represent a powerful genetic engineering approach, allowing site-specific insertion of recombinant genes into pre-tagged genomic loci ...
Fliedl Lukas - - 2014
Transient gene expression (TGE) has become a powerful tool over the last decade, as time to market is a key factor in biopharmaceutical industry. TGE is used to produce small amounts of recombinant protein for functional and structural studies. To broaden the applicability of the method, the scale-up of TGE ...
Chiou Henry C - - 2014
Transient transfection is a well-established method to rapidly express recombinant proteins from mammalian cells. Accelerating activity in biotherapeutic drug development, demand for protein-based reagents, vaccine research, and large initiatives in structural and functional studies of proteins have propelled the need to generate moderate to high amounts of recombinant proteins and ...
Jordan Martin - - 2014
Shaking technology in combination with small-scale disposable plastic vessels has become a notable bioprocess optimization tool widely exploited for cells grown in suspension. This chapter focuses on the two most accommodating culture systems: 50 mL centrifugation tubes and 96-deepwell plates. Used by many laboratories for routine passaging of suspension cultures ...
Landauer Karlheinz - - 2014
The success of culturing CHO cells solely depends on functionality of the used media. Cell culture technology is more than 50 years old, and the knowledge of cell requirements increased steadily. In the beginning, animal-sourced components were the key to growth. Nowadays state-of-the-art media do not contain any animal or ...
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