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Jiao Yuchen Y Department of Oncology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinct pancreatic neoplasms with poor prognosis. Although recent whole-exome sequencing analyses have defined the somatic mutations that characterize the other major neoplasms of the pancreas, the molecular alterations underlying pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation ...
Matsui Jun J Washington University in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Ave. Campus, Box 8233, St. Louis, MO, 63110, - - 2014
There are many options for nonmicrosurgical soft tissue coverage of hand wounds, ranging from split thickness skin grafting to pedicled soft tissue transfer, depending on the size, location, blood supply, and depth of the wound. Although many of these techniques have been available for decades, recent advancements in wound management ...
Cortez Edwin Alan - - 2014
Edwin Cortez, Fred Fedok, and Devinder Mangat address questions for discussion and debate. Do you agree or disagree, and why, with the following: "The best method to improve moderate to deep rhytids is the croton oil-phenol peel." "There are no problems with cardiotoxicity with croton oil-phenol peels if done appropriately." ...
Adamson Peter A - - 2014
Should one use an open or closed rhinoplasty approach? How appropriate is the endonasal approach in modern-day rhinoplasty? Should the tip lobule be divided or preserved? Are alloplastic implants inferior to autologous implants? Does release and reduction of the upper lateral cartilages from the nasal dorsal septum always require spreader ...
Baker Shan - - 2014
What is the most frequent displeasing effect you see when performing lower eyelid blepharoplasty? What surgical approach do you most frequently use when performing lower eyelid blepharoplasty? How much skin removal of the lower eyelids? When performing lower lid blepharoplasty, what is your preferred method of managing pseudoherniated fat? If ...
Keller Greg - - 2014
What is the most efficient dissection plane to perform midface lift? What is the best incision/approach (preauricular, transtemporal, transoral)? Why? What specific technique do you use? Why? What is the best method/substance for adding volume to midface lifting? In approaching the midface, how do you see the relationship of blepharoplasty ...
Adamson Peter A - - 2014
What is the single most difficult challenge in revision rhinoplasty and how do you address it? During revision rhinoplasty, when dorsal augmentation is necessary and septal and ear cartilage is not available, what is the best substance for correcting the problem? If rib cartilage is used for dorsal augmentation during ...
Sidman James - - 2014
James Sidman, MD, and Sherard A. Tatum, MD, address the following questions for discussion and debate. Is neonatal distraction osteogenesis (DO) better than lip-tongue adhesion or tracheotomy for micrognathic airway compromise? What role does DO have in adult orthognathic surgery situations? In monobloc and Le Fort III procedures, are internal ...
Kirk Jonathan A - - 2014
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the application of biventricular stimulation to correct discoordinate contraction, is the only heart failure treatment that enhances acute and chronic systolic function, increases cardiac work, and reduces mortality. Resting myocyte function also increases after CRT despite only modest improvement in calcium transients, suggesting that CRT may ...
Bigorgne Amélie E - - 2014
Multiple intestinal atresia (MIA) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is sometimes associated with a combined immunodeficiency (CID), leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The factors underlying this rare disease are poorly understood. We characterized the immunological and intestinal features of 6 unrelated MIA-CID patients. All patients displayed ...
Glasauer Andrea - - 2014
Approximately 85% of lung cancers are non–small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), which are often diagnosed at an advanced stage and associated with poor prognosis. Currently, there are very few therapies available for NSCLCs due to the recalcitrant nature of this cancer. Mutations that activate the small GTPase KRAS are found in ...
Gibson Greg - - 2014
The WHOLE approach to personalized medicine represents an effort to integrate clinical and genomic profiling jointly into preventative health care and the promotion of wellness. Our premise is that genotypes alone are insufficient to predict health outcomes, since they fail to account for individualized responses to the environment and life ...
Hossary Sandy Hassan - - 2014
MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is still a rapidly evolving technique, but it has been already accepted as clinically useful and is widely used to evaluate biliary or pancreatic diseases. The advantages of this technique are that it does not use contrast media or ionizing radiation, it is noninvasive and complication free, ...
Sonavane Sushilkumar K - - 2014
The diagnosis of biliary diseases may be delayed or missed because of an unpredictable clinical course and presentation. Some biliary diseases carry the risk of morbidity and mortality and are difficult to treat. The purpose of this article is to revisit the various causes and the appearances of biliary strictures ...
Leyon Joe J - - 2014
Percutaneous vascular embolization is one of the major applications of interventional radiology. A wide variety of embolization agents are currently available for clinical use. The interventional radiologist needs to be up to date with the newer and different types of embolic agents available along with their biopharmaceutical characteristics, strengths, and ...
Bandeali Salman J - - 2014
Familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited disorder associated with early accelerated atherosclerosis with morbidity and mortality resulting from premature cardiovascular disease. Affected individuals have extreme elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Patients usually do not achieve target reductions in cholesterol levels with conventional antihyperlipidemic pharmacotherapy. This unmet need has resulted in ...
Patel Jaideep - - 2014
Pharmacogenetics uses the genetic variation in metabolic pathways to identify groups of patients who may respond differently in terms of therapeutic and adverse effects. Much clinical interest lies in drug metabolism and the opportunity to improve prescribing efficacy and safety. Owing to widespread use and increasing concern regarding side effects, ...
Jain Sonia - - 2014
Transesophageal echocardiography provides excellent visualization of the posteriorly located mitral valve. Over the last decade, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has emerged as an exciting imaging modality, particularly of the mitral valve. The current generation matrix array technology allows the operator to perform 2D and 3D imaging with a single ...
Hahn Rebecca T - - 2014
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has recently emerged as an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at "high risk" or deemed inoperable. Careful pre-procedural preparation requires multi-modality imaging. Intra-procedural imaging frequently relies on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This review will discuss the role ...
Eiland Leslie - - 2014
Hypoglycemia in the inpatient setting is a common occurrence with potentially harmful outcomes. Large trials in both the inpatient and outpatient settings have found a correlation between hypoglycemia and morbidity and mortality. The incidence of hypoglycemia is difficult to assess, due to a lack of standardized definitions and different methods ...
Bruce Kimberley D - - 2014
The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions. In 2010, it was estimated that 6.4 % of the adult population (285 million) have diabetes. In recent years, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a condition traditionally associated with aging, has been steadily increasing among younger individuals. It is ...
Vlassara Helen - - 2014
Despite new and effective drug therapies, insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and its complications remain major medical challenges. It is accepted that IR, often associated with over-nutrition and obesity, results from chronically elevated oxidant stress (OS) and chronic inflammation. Less acknowledged is that a major cause for ...
Strickler John H - - 2014
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually and remains a significant public health concern. Because of therapeutic advancements over the past two decades, patients with metastatic CRC are living longer with an improved quality of life. This review will highlight recent trial evidence that improves outcomes ...
Nashed Mina G - - 2014
Cancer pain is a well-documented and prevalent healthcare problem, with current treatment strategies often failing to achieve acceptable efficacy. One of the major difficulties in treating cancer pain owes to the complex interplay between the cancer microenvironment, cancer therapy, and the body's own responses to these biochemical changes. A better ...
Lohse Martin J - - 2014
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary interaction partners for arrestins. The visual arrestins, arrestin1 and arrestin4, physiologically bind to only very few receptors, i.e., rhodopsin and the color opsins, respectively. In contrast, the ubiquitously expressed nonvisual variants β-arrestin1 and 2 bind to a large number of receptors in a fairly ...
Kenakin Terry - - 2014
It is now established that agonists do not uniformly activate pleiotropic signaling mechanisms initiated by receptors but rather can bias signals according to the unique receptor conformations they stabilize. One of the important emerging signaling systems where this can occur is through β-arrestin. This chapter discusses biased signaling where emphasis ...
Chen Jeannie - - 2014
Arrestin-1 is the second most abundant protein in rod photoreceptors and is nearly equimolar to rhodopsin. Its well-recognized role is to "arrest" signaling from light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin, a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor. In doing so, arrestin-1 plays a key role in the rapid recovery of the light response. Arrestin-1 exists ...
Sommer Martha E - - 2014
The retinal rod cell is an exquisitely sensitive single-photon detector that primarily functions in dim light (e.g., moonlight). However, rod cells must routinely survive light intensities more than a billion times greater (e.g., bright daylight). One serious challenge to rod cell survival in daylight is the massive amount of all-trans-retinal ...
Craft Cheryl Mae - - 2014
Cone arrestin (Arr4) was discovered 20 years ago as a human X-chromosomal gene that is highly expressed in pinealocytes and cone photoreceptors. Subsequently, specific antibodies were developed to identify Arr4 and to distinguish cone photoreceptor morphology in health and disease states. These reagents were used to demonstrate Arr4 translocation from ...
Gurevich Vsevolod V - - 2014
A variety of heritable and acquired disorders is associated with excessive signaling by mutant or overstimulated GPCRs. Since any conceivable treatment of diseases caused by gain-of-function mutations requires gene transfer, one possible approach is functional compensation. Several structurally distinct forms of enhanced arrestins that bind phosphorylated and even non-phosphorylated active ...
Gimenez Luis E - - 2014
Numerous human diseases are caused by excessive signaling of mutant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptors that are overstimulated due to upstream signaling imbalances. The feasibility of functional compensation by arrestins with enhanced ability to quench receptor signaling was recently tested in the visual system. The results showed that even ...
Tian Xufan - - 2014
Nonvisual arrestins (β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2) are adaptor proteins that function to regulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and trafficking. β-arrestins are ubiquitously expressed and function to inhibit GPCR/G protein coupling, a process called desensitization, and promote GPCR trafficking and arrestin-mediated signaling. β-arrestin-mediated endocytosis of GPCRs requires the coordinated interaction of ...
Strungs Erik G - - 2014
The four members of the mammalian arrestin family, two visual and two nonvisual, share the property of stimulus-dependent docking to G protein-coupled receptors. This conformational selectivity permits them to function in receptor desensitization, as arrestin binding sterically inhibits G protein coupling. The two nonvisual arrestins further act as adapter proteins, ...
Willis Miranda J - - 2014
Many G-protein-coupled receptors trigger the synthesis of cAMP in order to transduce signals from the membrane into the cell cytoplasm. As stimulation of each receptor type results in a specific physiological outcome, compartmentalization of proteins that make, break, and are activated by cAMP underpin receptor-specific responses. Until 2002, it was ...
McGovern Kathryn W - - 2014
β-Arrestins play a crucial role in cell migration downstream of multiple G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) through multiple mechanisms. There is considerable evidence that β-arrestin-dependent scaffolding of actin assembly proteins facilitates the formation of a leading edge in response to a chemotactic signal. Conversely, there is substantial support for the hypothesis that ...
Cameron Ryan T - - 2014
The regulation of small GTPases by arrestins is a relatively new way by which arrestin can exert influence over cell signalling cascades, hence, molecular interactions and specific binding partners are still being discovered. A pathway showcasing the regulation of GTPase activity by β-arrestin was first elucidated in 2001. Since this ...
Penn Raymond B - - 2014
The obstructive lung disease asthma is treated by drugs that target, either directly or indirectly, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs coupled to Gq are the primary mediators of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and increased airway resistance, whereas the Gs-coupled beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) promotes pro-relaxant signaling in and relaxation of ASM ...
Enslen Hervé - - 2014
Non-visual arrestins were initially appreciated for the roles they play in the negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptors through the processes of desensitisation and endocytosis. The arrestins are also now known as protein scaffolding platforms that act downstream of multiple types of receptors, ensuring relevant transmission of information for an ...
Raehal Kirsten M - - 2014
Pain is a complex disorder with neurochemical and psychological components contributing to the severity, the persistence, and the difficulty in adequately treating the condition. Opioid and cannabinoids are two classes of analgesics that have been used to treat pain for centuries and are arguably the oldest of "pharmacological" interventions used ...
Madan Ichchha - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Human pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response and suppression of adaptive immunity. The former is thought to provide protection against infection for the mother, and the latter, tolerance against paternal antigens expressed in fetal cells. Acute pyelonephritis is associated with an increased risk of ...
Aydin Suleyman - - 2014
During the past 20 y, there has been much interest in sugars and especially fructose in relation to human health. Over the past decade, considerable scientific debate and controversy have arisen about the potential health effects of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and fructose itself. HFCS increasingly has been used as ...
Eyres Stacey L - - 2014
Anxiety is the most prevalent type of mental disorder and a significant health concern. Cross-sectional studies have detected a positive association between obesity and anxiety. What is less clear is whether weight loss can reduce anxiety. We sought to answer three questions: 1. Can weight loss improve symptoms of anxiety ...
Krupa-Kozak Urszula - - 2014
Low bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis are frequent complications of celiac disease (CD). The etiology of pathologic bone alterations in CD is multifactorial; however, two main mechanisms are involved: intestinal malabsorption and chronic inflammation. A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is thought to be the only effective treatment for ...
Jung Eun Young - - 2014
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yeast hydrolysate on the abdominal fat in obese humans. We observed the effects of yeast hydrolysate that had a molecular weight below 10 kDa on the anti-abdominal fat accumulation in obese men and women ages 20 to 50 y ...
Kelishadi Roya - - 2014
As the first, to our knowledge, nationwide study in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), this study aimed to investigate the association of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of the pediatric population in Iran. The second objective was ...
Ogonowski Jarosław - - 2014
It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective ...
Ríos-Castillo Israel - - 2014
Calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) are essential minerals for normal growth and development. Although previous studies have shown that Ca inhibits acute Fe absorption, there is no evidence of the possible long- or medium-term effects of Ca supplementation on Fe bioavailability. The aim of this study was to determine the ...
Kulovitz Michelle G - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric ...
Steyn Nelia Patricia - - 2014
The aim of this study was to determine the best dietary diversity indicator to measure dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy in children. A national representative cross-sectional survey of children ages 1 to 9 y (N = 2,200) was undertaken in all ethnic groups in South Africa. A 24-h recall was ...
Rajaie Somayeh - - 2014
Earlier studies on the management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have mostly focused on very low carbohydrate diets, whereas long-term adherence to such diets is difficult for apparently healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of moderate replacement of carbohydrates by dietary fats on insulin resistance ...
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