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Jiao Yuchen Y Department of Oncology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinct pancreatic neoplasms with poor prognosis. Although recent whole-exome sequencing analyses have defined the somatic mutations that characterize the other major neoplasms of the pancreas, the molecular alterations underlying pancreatic carcinomas with acinar differentiation ...
Matsui Jun J Washington University in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Ave. Campus, Box 8233, St. Louis, MO, 63110, - - 2014
There are many options for nonmicrosurgical soft tissue coverage of hand wounds, ranging from split thickness skin grafting to pedicled soft tissue transfer, depending on the size, location, blood supply, and depth of the wound. Although many of these techniques have been available for decades, recent advancements in wound management ...
Adamson Peter A - - 2014
What is the single most difficult challenge in revision rhinoplasty and how do you address it? During revision rhinoplasty, when dorsal augmentation is necessary and septal and ear cartilage is not available, what is the best substance for correcting the problem? If rib cartilage is used for dorsal augmentation during ...
Adamson Peter A - - 2014
Should one use an open or closed rhinoplasty approach? How appropriate is the endonasal approach in modern-day rhinoplasty? Should the tip lobule be divided or preserved? Are alloplastic implants inferior to autologous implants? Does release and reduction of the upper lateral cartilages from the nasal dorsal septum always require spreader ...
Sidman James - - 2014
James Sidman, MD, and Sherard A. Tatum, MD, address the following questions for discussion and debate. Is neonatal distraction osteogenesis (DO) better than lip-tongue adhesion or tracheotomy for micrognathic airway compromise? What role does DO have in adult orthognathic surgery situations? In monobloc and Le Fort III procedures, are internal ...
Umber Afia - - 2014
Sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) involves the use of standard dialysis machines for prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients. In this study we aimed to quantify dialysate amino acid (AA) and albumin losses in 5 patients who underwent successful SLED treatment. This was a prospective observational study. ...
Keller Greg - - 2014
What is the most efficient dissection plane to perform midface lift? What is the best incision/approach (preauricular, transtemporal, transoral)? Why? What specific technique do you use? Why? What is the best method/substance for adding volume to midface lifting? In approaching the midface, how do you see the relationship of blepharoplasty ...
Cortez Edwin Alan - - 2014
Edwin Cortez, Fred Fedok, and Devinder Mangat address questions for discussion and debate. Do you agree or disagree, and why, with the following: "The best method to improve moderate to deep rhytids is the croton oil-phenol peel." "There are no problems with cardiotoxicity with croton oil-phenol peels if done appropriately." ...
Baker Shan - - 2014
What is the most frequent displeasing effect you see when performing lower eyelid blepharoplasty? What surgical approach do you most frequently use when performing lower eyelid blepharoplasty? How much skin removal of the lower eyelids? When performing lower lid blepharoplasty, what is your preferred method of managing pseudoherniated fat? If ...
Light Kenneth M KM Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, USA. - - 2014
Non-heme Fe(II) enzymes exhibit a general mechanistic strategy where binding all cosubstrates opens a coordination site on the Fe(II) for O2 activation. This study shows that strong-donor ligands, steric interactions with the substrate and second-sphere H-bonding to the facial triad carboxylate allow for five-coordinate site formation in this enzyme superfamily.
Kirk Jonathan A - - 2014
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the application of biventricular stimulation to correct discoordinate contraction, is the only heart failure treatment that enhances acute and chronic systolic function, increases cardiac work, and reduces mortality. Resting myocyte function also increases after CRT despite only modest improvement in calcium transients, suggesting that CRT may ...
Bigorgne Amélie E - - 2014
Multiple intestinal atresia (MIA) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is sometimes associated with a combined immunodeficiency (CID), leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The factors underlying this rare disease are poorly understood. We characterized the immunological and intestinal features of 6 unrelated MIA-CID patients. All patients displayed ...
Glasauer Andrea - - 2014
Approximately 85% of lung cancers are non–small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), which are often diagnosed at an advanced stage and associated with poor prognosis. Currently, there are very few therapies available for NSCLCs due to the recalcitrant nature of this cancer. Mutations that activate the small GTPase KRAS are found in ...
Strickler John H - - 2014
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually and remains a significant public health concern. Because of therapeutic advancements over the past two decades, patients with metastatic CRC are living longer with an improved quality of life. This review will highlight recent trial evidence that improves outcomes ...
Gimenez Luis E - - 2014
Numerous human diseases are caused by excessive signaling of mutant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptors that are overstimulated due to upstream signaling imbalances. The feasibility of functional compensation by arrestins with enhanced ability to quench receptor signaling was recently tested in the visual system. The results showed that even ...
Zhou Xin - - 2014
Microglia activation and neuroinflammation have been associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-mediated signal pathways exert key modulating roles in the inflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether genistein (Gen) has a ...
Shenoy Sudha K SK Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, - - 2014
Arrestins constitute a small family of four homologous adaptor proteins (arrestins 1-4), which were originally identified as inhibitors of signal transduction elicited by the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Currently arrestins (especially arrestin2 and arrestin3; also called β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2) are known to be activators of cell signaling and modulators of ...
Simão Andréa Name Colado - - 2014
At the doses typically used to treat hypertriacylglycerolemia, fish oil may increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to verify whether soy could attenuate the effects of fish oil on blood lipids and carbohydrate metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-five ...
Mason Christopher E - - 2014
In today's biology, studies have shifted to analyzing systems over discrete biochemical reactions and pathways. These studies depend on combining the results from scores of experimental methods that analyze DNA; mRNA; noncoding RNAs, DNA, RNA, and protein interactions; and the nucleotide modifications that form the epigenome into global datasets that ...
Sonavane Sushilkumar K - - 2014
The diagnosis of biliary diseases may be delayed or missed because of an unpredictable clinical course and presentation. Some biliary diseases carry the risk of morbidity and mortality and are difficult to treat. The purpose of this article is to revisit the various causes and the appearances of biliary strictures ...
Marullo Stefano - - 2014
In the context of host-pathogen interaction, host cell receptors and signaling pathways are essential for both invading pathogens, which exploit them for their own profit, and the defending organism, which activates early mechanism of defense, known as innate immunity, to block the aggression. Because of their central role as scaffolding ...
Vlassara Helen - - 2014
Despite new and effective drug therapies, insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and its complications remain major medical challenges. It is accepted that IR, often associated with over-nutrition and obesity, results from chronically elevated oxidant stress (OS) and chronic inflammation. Less acknowledged is that a major cause for ...
Crescenzo Raffaella - - 2014
We assessed the alterations in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle that were elicited by short-term high-fat feeding in sedentary rats. Two groups of rats were pair-fed for 1 wk and received a low-fat or high-fat diet. Body composition, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis were measured. Mitochondrial mass, oxidative capacity, and ...
Willis Miranda J - - 2014
Many G-protein-coupled receptors trigger the synthesis of cAMP in order to transduce signals from the membrane into the cell cytoplasm. As stimulation of each receptor type results in a specific physiological outcome, compartmentalization of proteins that make, break, and are activated by cAMP underpin receptor-specific responses. Until 2002, it was ...
Kulovitz Michelle G - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric ...
Zhan Xuanzhi - - 2014
The activity of all mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is stimulated via phosphorylation by upstream MAPK kinases (MAPKK), which are in their turn activated via phosphorylation by MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs). The cells ensure the specificity of signaling in these cascades by employing a variety of scaffolding proteins that bind matching MAPKKKs, ...
Ogonowski Jarosław - - 2014
It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective ...
Zhu Cheng C Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2014
While candidate gene association studies continue to be the most practical and frequently employed approach in disease gene investigation for complex disorders, selecting suitable genes to test is a challenge. There are several computational approaches available for selecting and prioritizing disease candidate genes. A majority of these tools are based ...
Strungs Erik G - - 2014
The four members of the mammalian arrestin family, two visual and two nonvisual, share the property of stimulus-dependent docking to G protein-coupled receptors. This conformational selectivity permits them to function in receptor desensitization, as arrestin binding sterically inhibits G protein coupling. The two nonvisual arrestins further act as adapter proteins, ...
Kelishadi Roya - - 2014
As the first, to our knowledge, nationwide study in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), this study aimed to investigate the association of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of the pediatric population in Iran. The second objective was ...
Kook Seunghyi - - 2014
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a coordinated set of events eventually leading to the massive activation of specialized proteases (caspases) that cleave numerous substrates, orchestrating fairly uniform biochemical changes than culminate in cellular suicide. Apoptosis can be triggered by a variety of stimuli, from external signals or growth factor withdrawal ...
Raehal Kirsten M - - 2014
Pain is a complex disorder with neurochemical and psychological components contributing to the severity, the persistence, and the difficulty in adequately treating the condition. Opioid and cannabinoids are two classes of analgesics that have been used to treat pain for centuries and are arguably the oldest of "pharmacological" interventions used ...
Krupa-Kozak Urszula - - 2014
Low bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis are frequent complications of celiac disease (CD). The etiology of pathologic bone alterations in CD is multifactorial; however, two main mechanisms are involved: intestinal malabsorption and chronic inflammation. A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is thought to be the only effective treatment for ...
Sulakhe Dinanath D Computation Institute, University of Chicago/Argonne National Laboratory, 5735 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA, - - 2014
Recent technological advances in genomics now allow producing biological data at unprecedented tera- and petabyte scales. Yet, the extraction of useful knowledge from this voluminous data presents a significant challenge to a scientific community. Efficient mining of vast and complex data sets for the needs of biomedical research critically depends ...
Enslen Hervé - - 2014
Non-visual arrestins were initially appreciated for the roles they play in the negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptors through the processes of desensitisation and endocytosis. The arrestins are also now known as protein scaffolding platforms that act downstream of multiple types of receptors, ensuring relevant transmission of information for an ...
Eiland Leslie - - 2014
Hypoglycemia in the inpatient setting is a common occurrence with potentially harmful outcomes. Large trials in both the inpatient and outpatient settings have found a correlation between hypoglycemia and morbidity and mortality. The incidence of hypoglycemia is difficult to assess, due to a lack of standardized definitions and different methods ...
Steyn Nelia Patricia - - 2014
The aim of this study was to determine the best dietary diversity indicator to measure dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy in children. A national representative cross-sectional survey of children ages 1 to 9 y (N = 2,200) was undertaken in all ethnic groups in South Africa. A 24-h recall was ...
Madan Ichchha - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Human pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response and suppression of adaptive immunity. The former is thought to provide protection against infection for the mother, and the latter, tolerance against paternal antigens expressed in fetal cells. Acute pyelonephritis is associated with an increased risk of ...
Jung Eun Young - - 2014
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yeast hydrolysate on the abdominal fat in obese humans. We observed the effects of yeast hydrolysate that had a molecular weight below 10 kDa on the anti-abdominal fat accumulation in obese men and women ages 20 to 50 y ...
Chavkin Charles - - 2014
Studies of kappa opioid receptor signaling mechanisms during the last decade have demonstrated that agonist activation of the receptor results in Gβγ-dependent signaling and distinct arrestin-dependent signaling events. Gβγ-dependent signaling results in ion channel regulation causing neuronal inhibition, inhibition of transmitter release, and subsequent analgesic responses. In contrast, arrestin-dependent signaling ...
Jain Sonia - - 2014
Transesophageal echocardiography provides excellent visualization of the posteriorly located mitral valve. Over the last decade, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has emerged as an exciting imaging modality, particularly of the mitral valve. The current generation matrix array technology allows the operator to perform 2D and 3D imaging with a single ...
Patel Jaideep - - 2014
Pharmacogenetics uses the genetic variation in metabolic pathways to identify groups of patients who may respond differently in terms of therapeutic and adverse effects. Much clinical interest lies in drug metabolism and the opportunity to improve prescribing efficacy and safety. Owing to widespread use and increasing concern regarding side effects, ...
Gurevich Eugenia V - - 2014
Virtually all currently used therapeutic agents are small molecules, largely because the development and delivery of small molecule drugs is relatively straightforward. Small molecules have serious limitations: drugs of this type can be fairly good enzyme inhibitors, receptor ligands, or allosteric modulators. However, most cellular functions are mediated by protein ...
Gibson Greg - - 2014
The WHOLE approach to personalized medicine represents an effort to integrate clinical and genomic profiling jointly into preventative health care and the promotion of wellness. Our premise is that genotypes alone are insufficient to predict health outcomes, since they fail to account for individualized responses to the environment and life ...
Craft Cheryl Mae - - 2014
Cone arrestin (Arr4) was discovered 20 years ago as a human X-chromosomal gene that is highly expressed in pinealocytes and cone photoreceptors. Subsequently, specific antibodies were developed to identify Arr4 and to distinguish cone photoreceptor morphology in health and disease states. These reagents were used to demonstrate Arr4 translocation from ...
Tian Xufan - - 2014
Nonvisual arrestins (β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2) are adaptor proteins that function to regulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and trafficking. β-arrestins are ubiquitously expressed and function to inhibit GPCR/G protein coupling, a process called desensitization, and promote GPCR trafficking and arrestin-mediated signaling. β-arrestin-mediated endocytosis of GPCRs requires the coordinated interaction of ...
Eyres Stacey L - - 2014
Anxiety is the most prevalent type of mental disorder and a significant health concern. Cross-sectional studies have detected a positive association between obesity and anxiety. What is less clear is whether weight loss can reduce anxiety. We sought to answer three questions: 1. Can weight loss improve symptoms of anxiety ...
Arnal Nathalie - - 2014
Copper (Cu) is widely used in industry for the manufacture of a vast range of goods including Cu-intrauterine devices (IUDs), electronic products, agrochemicals, and many others. It is also one of the trace elements essential to human health in the right measure and is used as a parenteral supplement in ...
Bandeali Salman J - - 2014
Familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited disorder associated with early accelerated atherosclerosis with morbidity and mortality resulting from premature cardiovascular disease. Affected individuals have extreme elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Patients usually do not achieve target reductions in cholesterol levels with conventional antihyperlipidemic pharmacotherapy. This unmet need has resulted in ...
Choi Hyun-Gyu - - 2014
Miglitol is an α-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI) used as an antihyperglycemic agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism is that miglitol binds to and inhibits the α-glucosidase reversibly in the proximal intestine. Thus, carbohydrates not digested in the upper small intestine are transported to the lower intestine ...
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