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Nashed Mina G - - 2014
Cancer pain is a well-documented and prevalent healthcare problem, with current treatment strategies often failing to achieve acceptable efficacy. One of the major difficulties in treating cancer pain owes to the complex interplay between the cancer microenvironment, cancer therapy, and the body's own responses to these biochemical changes. A better ...
Sommer Martha E - - 2014
The retinal rod cell is an exquisitely sensitive single-photon detector that primarily functions in dim light (e.g., moonlight). However, rod cells must routinely survive light intensities more than a billion times greater (e.g., bright daylight). One serious challenge to rod cell survival in daylight is the massive amount of all-trans-retinal ...
Kenakin Terry - - 2014
It is now established that agonists do not uniformly activate pleiotropic signaling mechanisms initiated by receptors but rather can bias signals according to the unique receptor conformations they stabilize. One of the important emerging signaling systems where this can occur is through β-arrestin. This chapter discusses biased signaling where emphasis ...
Chen Jeannie - - 2014
Arrestin-1 is the second most abundant protein in rod photoreceptors and is nearly equimolar to rhodopsin. Its well-recognized role is to "arrest" signaling from light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin, a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor. In doing so, arrestin-1 plays a key role in the rapid recovery of the light response. Arrestin-1 exists ...
Leyon Joe J - - 2014
Percutaneous vascular embolization is one of the major applications of interventional radiology. A wide variety of embolization agents are currently available for clinical use. The interventional radiologist needs to be up to date with the newer and different types of embolic agents available along with their biopharmaceutical characteristics, strengths, and ...
Penn Raymond B - - 2014
The obstructive lung disease asthma is treated by drugs that target, either directly or indirectly, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs coupled to Gq are the primary mediators of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and increased airway resistance, whereas the Gs-coupled beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) promotes pro-relaxant signaling in and relaxation of ASM ...
Aydin Suleyman - - 2014
During the past 20 y, there has been much interest in sugars and especially fructose in relation to human health. Over the past decade, considerable scientific debate and controversy have arisen about the potential health effects of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and fructose itself. HFCS increasingly has been used as ...
Hensing Thomas T Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, NorthShore University Health System, Kellogg Cancer Center, 2650 Ridge Avenue, Evanston, IL, 60201, USA, - - 2014
Lung cancer is a heterogeneous, complex, and challenging disease to treat. With the arrival of genotyping and genomic profiling, our simple binary division of lung cancer into non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is no longer acceptable. In the past decade and with the advent of personalized ...
Hahn Rebecca T - - 2014
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has recently emerged as an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at "high risk" or deemed inoperable. Careful pre-procedural preparation requires multi-modality imaging. Intra-procedural imaging frequently relies on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This review will discuss the role ...
Ríos-Castillo Israel - - 2014
Calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) are essential minerals for normal growth and development. Although previous studies have shown that Ca inhibits acute Fe absorption, there is no evidence of the possible long- or medium-term effects of Ca supplementation on Fe bioavailability. The aim of this study was to determine the ...
Bruce Kimberley D - - 2014
The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions. In 2010, it was estimated that 6.4 % of the adult population (285 million) have diabetes. In recent years, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a condition traditionally associated with aging, has been steadily increasing among younger individuals. It is ...
Rajaie Somayeh - - 2014
Earlier studies on the management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have mostly focused on very low carbohydrate diets, whereas long-term adherence to such diets is difficult for apparently healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of moderate replacement of carbohydrates by dietary fats on insulin resistance ...
Ryan Edmond A - - 2014
Neonatal hypoglycemia is an important consequence for the infant of the mother with diabetes. We have reviewed 24 published papers of various protocols for control of glucose in pregnant diabetic women during labor and delivery including our own published work. A relationship of maternal glucose during labor and neonatal hypoglycemia ...
Mochizuki Kazuki - - 2014
Faster eating and elevated circulating activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker for liver injury, are risk factors for the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their complications. The aim of this study was to examine the association between self-reported eating rate and circulating ALT activity in ...
Cameron Ryan T - - 2014
The regulation of small GTPases by arrestins is a relatively new way by which arrestin can exert influence over cell signalling cascades, hence, molecular interactions and specific binding partners are still being discovered. A pathway showcasing the regulation of GTPase activity by β-arrestin was first elucidated in 2001. Since this ...
Lohse Martin J - - 2014
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary interaction partners for arrestins. The visual arrestins, arrestin1 and arrestin4, physiologically bind to only very few receptors, i.e., rhodopsin and the color opsins, respectively. In contrast, the ubiquitously expressed nonvisual variants β-arrestin1 and 2 bind to a large number of receptors in a fairly ...
Hossary Sandy Hassan - - 2014
MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is still a rapidly evolving technique, but it has been already accepted as clinically useful and is widely used to evaluate biliary or pancreatic diseases. The advantages of this technique are that it does not use contrast media or ionizing radiation, it is noninvasive and complication free, ...
Bergonzini Giulia - - 2014
The enantioselective oxidative C-H functionalization of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives is achieved through the merger of photoredox and asymmetric anion-binding catalysis. This combination of two distinct catalysis concepts introduces a potentially general approach to asymmetric transformations in oxidative photocatalysis.
Beld Joris J Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0358, USA. - - 2014
Covering: up to 2013. Although holo-acyl carrier protein synthase, AcpS, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase), was characterized in the 1960s, it was not until the publication of the landmark paper by Lambalot et al. in 1996 that PPTases garnered wide-spread attention being classified as a distinct enzyme superfamily. In the past ...
Chen Qiuyan Q Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 2200 Pierce Avenue, Nashville, TN, 37232, - - 2014
Mammals express four arrestin subtypes, three of which have been shown to self-associate. Cone photoreceptor-specific arrestin-4 is the only one that is a constitutive monomer. Visual arrestin-1 forms tetramers both in crystal and in solution, but the shape of its physiologically relevant solution tetramer is very different from that in ...
Noureddin Mazen - - 2014
With recent studies showing increased prevalence of hepatitis delta (HDV) even in the US, Australia, and some countries in Europe, and very high prevalence in endemic regions, HDV infection is far from being a disappearing disease. Although immigrants from endemic countries have been shown to have increased risk, studies have ...
Gurevich Vsevolod V - - 2014
A variety of heritable and acquired disorders is associated with excessive signaling by mutant or overstimulated GPCRs. Since any conceivable treatment of diseases caused by gain-of-function mutations requires gene transfer, one possible approach is functional compensation. Several structurally distinct forms of enhanced arrestins that bind phosphorylated and even non-phosphorylated active ...
Nakajima Karina - - 2014
Protein malnutrition (PM) often is associated with changes in bone marrow (BM) microenvironment leading to an impaired hematopoiesis; however, the mechanism involved is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare the cell cycle progression of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and evaluate the ...
McGovern Kathryn W - - 2014
β-Arrestins play a crucial role in cell migration downstream of multiple G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) through multiple mechanisms. There is considerable evidence that β-arrestin-dependent scaffolding of actin assembly proteins facilitates the formation of a leading edge in response to a chemotactic signal. Conversely, there is substantial support for the hypothesis that ...
Sauvageau Anny - - 2014
Autoerotic deaths are defined as accidental deaths that occur during individual, solitary sexual activity in which some type of apparatus that was used to enhance the sexual stimulation of the deceased caused unintentional death. In the Western countries, the incidence of these deaths is of approximately 0.5 deaths per million ...
Zhang Song - - 2014
Pre- and post-intervention experiments are widely used in medical and social behavioral studies, where each subject is supposed to contribute a pair of observations. In this paper we investigate sample size requirement for a scenario frequently encountered by practitioners: All enrolled subjects participate in the pre-intervention phase of study, but ...
Masuyer Geoffrey G Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, - - 2014
Human somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc-dependent dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase and a central component of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS). Its involvement in the modulation of physiological actions of peptide hormones has positioned ACE as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Here, ...
He Ting-Fang TF Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Programs of Biophysics, Chemical Physics, and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio 43210, United - - 2013
Intraprotein electron transfer (ET) in flavoproteins is important for understanding the correlation of their redox, configuration, and reactivity at the active site. Here, we used oxidized flavodoxin as a model system and report our complete characterization of a photoinduced redox cycle from the initial charge separation in 135-340 fs to ...
Choi Fiona Y - - 2013
Behavioural sensitization has been linked to drug craving in both clinical and preclinical studies of addiction. Increased motor activity is accompanied by enhanced dopamine (DA) release, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The neural bases of sensitization are linked to alterations in synaptic connections that also underlie learning and memory. ...
Collings Sunny - - 2013
In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may ...
Deshields Teresa L - - 2013
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to track the symptom experience in a sample of cancer patients, determine the persistence of cancer symptoms and symptom burden, and examine the relationship between symptoms and QOL over time. Five hundred forty-two patients provided longitudinal data, completing surveys over a 12-month period. ...
Okubo Taketo - - 2013
Desmoplastic fibroma (DF) is a rare, locally aggressive, solitary tumor microscopically composed of well-differentiated myofibroblasts with abundant dense collagen deposition. The most common sites are the long tubular bones and mandible. To our knowledge, only five cases of DF in the ribs have been reported. Here, we report a case ...
Kimani S - - 2013
Food (cassava) linamarin is metabolized into neurotoxicants cyanide and cyanate, metabolites of which we sought to elucidate the differential toxicity effects on memory. Young 6-8 weeks old male rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) cyanide (NaCN), or 50 mg/kg bw cyanate (NaOCN), or 1 μl/g bw saline, daily for ...
Foucaut A-M - - 2013
After a breast cancer diagnosis, patients are at high risk of reducing their physical activity and gaining weight. Lack of physical activity and weight gain are known negative but modifiable prognostic factors. An observational study of a 3-month adapted physical activity (APA) program was performed to assess its effectiveness in ...
Fuchihata Mutsumi - - 2013
To determine the characteristics of the shape of the cornea in patients with pellucid marginal corneal degeneration (PMD) and to compare these characteristics to those of eyes with keratoconus and eyes of normal subjects. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional case-series in which 49 eyes of 33 patients with PMD, 51 ...
Blum Alan - - 2013
If philosophers have discussed life as preparation for death, this seems to make aging coterminous with dying and a melancholy passage that we are condemned to survive. It is important to examine the discourse on aging and end of life and the ways various models either limit possibilities for human ...
Zhou Yingying - - 2013
Radiotherapy is an important weapon in the treatment of breast cancer, but normal tissue injury after radiotherapy can be a threat for patients. Genetic markers conferring the ability to identify hyper-sensitive patients at risk of normal tissue injury in advance would considerably improve therapy. Association studies on genetic variation and ...
Kuroda Satoshi - - 2013
Even after the recent randomized clinical trials JET and COSS, it is still unclear that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) can identify the candidates for superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. This prospective study was aimed to evaluate the benefits of ...
Kang Chang-Ho - - 2013
Contamination by Cd is a significant environmental problem. Therefore, we examined Cd removal from an environmental perspective. Ureolysis-driven calcium carbonate precipitation has been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil remediation applications. In this study, 55 calcite-forming bacterial strains were newly isolated from various environments. Biomineralization of Cd by ...
Mills Rachel - - 2013
Patient trust in personal medical information is critical to increasing adherence to physician recommendations and medications. One of the anticipated benefits of learning of one's genomic risk for common diseases is the increased adoption of screening, preventive care and lifestyle changes. However, the equivocal results thus far reported of the ...
Kamat A S - - 2013
Entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the level of the elbow is the shared domain of multiple surgical specialties. A wide variety of operative methods for its surgical management have been reported. Our hospital utilizes neurolysis (NL) and subcutaneous transposition (AST). The aim of this paper was to compare ...
Jacobs M - - 2013
The purpose of the study is to (1) estimate the direction, clinical relevance, and duration of health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) change in the first year following esophageal cancer surgery and (2) to assess the robustness of the estimates by subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and an exploration of publication bias. A systematic ...
Lu Xu - - 2013
Understanding the extent and distribution of genetic diversity is crucial for the conservation and management of endangered species. Cupressus chengiana, C. duclouxiana, C. gigantea, and C. funebris are four ecologically and economically important species in China. We investigated their genetic diversity, population structure, and extant effective population size (35 populations, ...
Serruys Patrick W - - 2013
Aims: To assess observations with multimodality imaging of the Absorb bioresorbable everolimus-eluting vascular scaffold performed in two consecutive cohorts of patients who were serially investigated either at 6 and 24 months or at 12 and 36 months. Methods and results: In the ABSORB multicentre single-arm trial, 45 patients (cohort B1) ...
de Paula Ab - - 2013
SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of chemical degradation on the surface roughness (Ra) and hardness (Knoop hardness number [KHN]) of nano restorative materials. Methods : Disc-shaped specimens (5-mm diameter; 2-mm thick) of Filtek Z350 and TPH Spectrum composites and the ...
Hess Paul R - - 2013
Mammals transport blood through a high-pressure, closed vascular network and lymph through a low-pressure, open vascular network. These vascular networks connect at the lymphovenous (LV) junction, where lymph drains into blood and an LV valve (LVV) prevents backflow of blood into lymphatic vessels. Here we describe an essential role for ...
Foreiter Magdalena B - - 2013
Optically active S-alkyl-N,N'-bis((S)-1-phenylethyl)thiouronium salts, abbreviated as (S)-[Cnpetu]Y (where Y is an anion; n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or 16), have been prepared and studied by a broad spectrum of analyses. This consists of density, viscosity, and conductivity determination, followed by a discussion of relevant correlations. ...
Yang Y - - 2013
Cullin 4B (CUL4B) is a component of the Cullin4B-Ring E3 ligase complex (CRL4B) that functions in proteolysis and is implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we report that CRL4B is associated with histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and DNA methyltransferases 3A (DNMT3A). We showed that CRL4B, through catalyzing H2AK119 monoubiquitination, ...
Demajo S - - 2013
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently linked to epigenetic abnormalities and deregulation of gene transcription, which lead to aberrant cell proliferation and accumulation of undifferentiated precursors. ZRF1, a recently characterized epigenetic factor involved in transcriptional regulation, is highly overexpressed in human AML, but it is not known whether it plays ...
Casella Michela - - 2013
Our study aims to compare acute myocardial injury biomarker rise after atrial fibrillation ablation performed with different technologies. Methods and Results: One hundred and ten patients (pts) were treated with Pulmonary Vein (PV) isolation with 4 different technologies: open-irrigated tip RF catheter in 35 pts (Group A), cryoballoon in 35 ...
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