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Ren Yue - - 2013
Paper spray has been developed as a fast sampling ionization method for direct analysis of raw biological and chemical samples using mass spectrometry (MS). Quantitation of therapeutic drugs in blood samples at high accuracy has also been achieved using paper spray MS without traditional sample preparation or chromatographic separation. The ...
Mu Lin - - 2013
Weak Galerkin methods refer to general finite element methods for partial differential equations (PDEs) in which differential operators are approximated by their weak forms as distributions. Such weak forms give rise to desirable flexibilities in enforcing boundary and interface conditions. A weak Galerkin finite element method (WG-FEM) is developed in ...
Nanovskaya Tatiana N TN Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2013
The objective of the study was to determine the bidirectional transfer of pravastatin across the dually perfused term human placental lobule and its distribution between the tissue and maternal and fetal circuits. The transfer of pravastatin was determined in the maternal-to-fetal (n = 11) and fetal-to-maternal (n = 10) directions. Pravastatin was ...
Ramasamy Dhivya D Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology (LAICO), Aravind Eye Care System , Madurai , India - - 2013
To study the optimal method for delivery of spectacles at eye camps to maximize procurement and use. A cluster randomized controlled trial, undertaken in the catchment districts of Aravind Eye Hospital - Theni, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Community eye camps (n = 21) were allocated to offer ...
Rees Gwyneth G Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne , Australia - - 2013
Depression is a common problem among people with visual impairment and contributes to functional decline. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a new model of care for those patients with depressive symptoms in which psychological treatment is integrated into low vision rehabilitation services. Low vision staff will be ...
Omberg Larsson L 1] Sage Bionetworks, Seattle, Washington, USA. - - 2013
The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer Analysis Working Group collaborated on the Synapse software platform to share and evolve data, results and methodologies while performing integrative analysis of molecular profiling data from 12 tumor types. The group's work serves as a pilot case study that provides (i) a template for future ...
Guo Christine C CC 1. Memory and Ageing Centre, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, - - 2013
The neural organization of semantic memory remains much debated. A 'distributed-only' view contends that semantic knowledge is represented within spatially distant, modality-selective primary and association cortices. Observations in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia have inspired an alternative model featuring the anterior temporal lobe as an amodal hub that supports semantic ...
Duncker Tobias T Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, New - - 2013
To report distinct characteristics of fundus autofluorescence (AF) patterns inferior to the optic disc in recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Short-wavelength (SW) and near-infrared (NIR) AF images were acquired from patients with STGD1 and RP. In SW- and NIR-AF images of STGD1 patients, gray levels (GL) on ...
- - 2013
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. ...
Rickerts V - - 2013
Deep fungal infections are associated with significant mortality despite the availability of new antifungal agents. The identification of causative fungi is important to define successful antifungal therapies as agents differ in the in vitro susceptibility. Characterization of tissue morphology and cultivation from tissue provide important clues to patient management. Molecular ...
Kalmuk S - - 2013
Liver and kidney transplantations have been performed for almost 50 years and is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and terminal-stage renal failure. Under given optimal conditions and increasing experience good results can be achieved. Improvements in surgical techniques have led to a decrease in ...
Brennan S L - - 2013
In 2007, Medicare Australia revised reimbursement guidelines for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for Australians aged ≥70 years; we examined whether these changes increased DXA referrals in older adults. Proportions of DXA referrals doubled for men and tripled for women from 2003 to 2010; however, rates of utilization remained low. On ...
Le D Elizabeth - - 2013
There is controversy regarding the superiority of carvedilol (C) over metoprolol (M) in congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that C is superior to M in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy because of its better anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects. In order to test our hypothesis we used a chronic canine model of multivessel ...
Pop I - - 2013
In the past, the interaction between dentoalveolar surgery and restorative dentistry has been limited to the removal of teeth with pulp and/or periradicular disease or those that were unrestorable. However, with the increasing dental awareness of the population and the retention of teeth into later life, the interaction between dentoalveolar ...
Lynch Christopher D - - 2013
Objective To evaluate reinforced glass-ionomer restorations which had been placed in a general dental practice more than five years previously.Method Patients who were identified as having received reinforced one or more reinforced glass-ionomer restorations were invited to attend for an examination of their restorations using scientific evaluation criteria, by one ...
Edwards J - - 2013
Introduction Evidence shows that some individuals with HIV or diabetes do not report their medical history to the dentist. Disclosure is important because these individuals can be at greater risk of oral disease.Aims and objectives The aim of this study is to provide greater understanding of why some individuals do ...
Slobodkin Moran Rawet - - 2013
Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved catabolic process initiated by the engulfment of cytosolic components in a crescent-shaped structure, called the phagophore, that expands and fuses to form a closed double-membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. Autophagosomes are subsequently targeted to the lysosome/vacuole with which they fuse to degrade their content. The formation of ...
Svenning Steingrim - - 2013
During the last decade it has become evident that autophagy is not simply a non-selective bulk degradation pathway for intracellular components. On the contrary, the discovery and characterization of autophagy receptors which target specific cargo for lysosomal degradation by interaction with ATG8 (autophagy-related protein 8)/LC3 (light-chain 3) has accelerated our ...
Macvicar Thomas - - 2013
Mitophagy describes the selective targeting and degradation of mitochondria by the autophagy pathway. In this process, defective mitochondria are first purged from the mitochondrial network then delivered to the lysosome by the autophagy machinery. Mitophagy has emerged as a key facet of mitochondrial quality control and has been implicated in ...
Yonekawa Tohru - - 2013
Autophagy is intimately associated with eukaryotic cell death and apoptosis. Indeed, in some cases the same proteins control both autophagy and apoptosis. Apoptotic signalling can regulate autophagy and conversely autophagy can regulate apoptosis (and most likely other cell death mechanisms). However, the molecular connections between autophagy and cell death are ...
Carroll Bernadette - - 2013
Autophagy is a process of lysosome-dependent intracellular degradation that participates in the liberation of resources including amino acids and energy to maintain homoeostasis. Autophagy is particularly important in stress conditions such as nutrient starvation and any perturbation in the ability of the cell to activate or regulate autophagy can lead ...
Helgason G Vignir - - 2013
Autophagy is a process that takes place in all mammalian cells and ensures homoeostasis and quality control. The term autophagy [self (auto)-eating (phagy)] was first introduced in 1963 by Christian de Duve, who discovered the involvement of lysosomes in the autophagy process. Since then, substantial progress has been made in ...
Wileman Tom - - 2013
Autophagy is a membrane trafficking pathway that results in the formation of autophagosomes which deliver portions of the cytosol to lysosomes for degradation. When autophagosomes engulf intracellular pathogens, the pathway is called 'xenophagy' because it leads to the removal of foreign material. Autophagy is activated during infection by Toll-like receptors ...
Huang Ao - - 2013
Transmembrane protease/serine 4 (TMPRSS4), a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family, is highly expressed in some human cancers and involved in the EMT regulation of cancer cells. The prognostic value of TMPRSS4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been discussed. This study aims to evaluate the association ...
Baroudi Olfa - - 2013
In our case-control study, we measure the antioxidant status by dosing enzymes involved in oxidant stress in plasma of patients with colorectal and gastric cancer, and in the second step, we investigate the impact of chemotherapy before and after surgery on plasma antioxidant status and polyphenols in patients. Blood serum ...
Meslin P-Y - - 2013
The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition ...
Bish D L - - 2013
The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. ...
Orcutt Beth N - - 2013
Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass; yet, empirical analysis of reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first assessment of oxygen consumption in young (~8 Ma) and cool (<25 °C) basaltic crust, ...
Blancon Jean-Christophe - - 2013
The optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes are very promising for developing novel opto-electronic components and sensors with applications in many fields. Despite numerous studies performed using photoluminescence or Raman and Rayleigh scattering, knowledge of their optical response is still partial. Here we determine using spatial modulation spectroscopy, over a ...
Thakurela Sudhir - - 2013
Topoisomerases resolve torsional stress, while their function in gene regulation, especially during cellular differentiation, remains unknown. Here we find that the expression of topo II isoforms, topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ, is the characteristic of dividing and postmitotic tissues, respectively. In embryonic stem cells, topoisomerase IIα preferentially occupies active gene ...
Gopakumar A - - 2013
Bridges are commonly used to replace missing teeth. Periodontal health may, however, be compromised by ill-fitting margins and excess cement. This case report describes the conservative management of chronic gingival inflammation adjacent to the resin-bonded retainers of an anterior bridge by gingival remodelling via a removable prosthesis. This avoided the ...
Kerr Bryan - - 2013
Introduction Evidence shows that some individuals with HIV or diabetes do not report their medical history to the dentist. Disclosure is important because these individuals can be at greater risk of oral disease.Aims and objectives The aim of this study is to provide greater understanding of why some individuals do ...
Sperber G H - - 2013
A review of recent insights into palaeodiets provided by new dating techniques, spectroscopy and attritional wear of enamel in ancient and recent human fossils. Fossilised dental plaque reveals changing dietary content and varying oral microbiota between Neolithic and Industrial era populations. DNA analysis of ancient dental pulpal tissue provides evidence ...
Burke F J T - - 2013
Objective To evaluate reinforced glass-ionomer restorations which had been placed in a general dental practice more than five years previously.Method Patients who were identified as having received reinforced one or more reinforced glass-ionomer restorations were invited to attend for an examination of their restorations using scientific evaluation criteria, by one ...
Roberts Rebecca - - 2013
Autophagy is a conserved survival pathway, which cells and tissues will activate during times of stress. It is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes inside the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanisms and the signalling components involved require specific control to ensure correct activation. The present chapter describes the ...
Tooze Sharon A - - 2013
Autophagy was discovered in the late 1950s when scientists using the first electron microscopes saw membrane-bound structures in cells that contained cytoplasmic organelles, including mitochondria. Pursuant to further morphological characterization it was recognized that these vesicles, now called autophagosomes, are found in all eukaryotic cells and undergo changes in morphology ...
Nakatogawa Hitoshi - - 2013
In autophagy, the autophagosome, a transient organelle specialized for the sequestration and lysosomal or vacuolar transport of cellular constituents, is formed via unique membrane dynamics. This process requires concerted actions of a distinctive set of proteins named Atg (autophagy-related). Atg proteins include two ubiquitin-like proteins, Atg12 and Atg8 [LC3 (light-chain ...
Ganley Ian G - - 2013
Compartmentalization is essential in the eukaryotic cell and this is most often achieved by sequestering specific components that perform a related function in a membrane-bound organelle. To function normally these organelles must transiently fuse with other compartments in order to transfer protein and lipid that is needed for them to ...
Franco Pierfrancesco - - 2013
In order to evaluate the perceived quality of training and education among young Italian radiation oncologists (age <40), AIRO Giovani (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology-Young Members Working Group) carried out a nationwide online survey in 2011, employing a 63-item-based questionnaire, addressed to physician's self-perception of personal training experience (during decade ...
Angelopoulos V - - 2013
Earth's magnetotail contains magnetic energy derived from the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Conversion of that energy back to particle energy ultimately powers Earth's auroras, heats the magnetospheric plasma, and energizes the Van Allen radiation belts. Where and how such electromagnetic energy conversion occurs has been unclear. Using a ...
Omori Toshihiro - - 2013
In polycrystalline materials, grain growth occurs at elevated temperatures to reduce the total area of grain boundaries with high energy. The grain growth rate usually slows down with annealing time, making it hard to obtain grains larger than a millimeter in size. We report a crystal growth method that employs ...
Lukatskaya Maria R - - 2013
The intercalation of ions into layered compounds has long been exploited in energy storage devices such as batteries and electrochemical capacitors. However, few host materials are known for ions much larger than lithium. We demonstrate the spontaneous intercalation of cations from aqueous salt solutions between two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2 MXene layers. ...
Lai Alan - - 2013
Shape memory materials are a class of smart materials able to convert heat into mechanical strain (or strain into heat) by virtue of a martensitic phase transformation. Some brittle materials such as intermetallics and ceramics exhibit a martensitic transformation but fail by cracking at low strains and after only a ...
Bocklisch Christina - - 2013
Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic system reshapes circuit function and drives drug-adaptive behavior. Much research has focused on excitatory transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). How drug-evoked synaptic plasticity of inhibitory transmission affects circuit adaptations remains unknown. We found that medium spiny neurons ...
Leshin L A - - 2013
Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit were heated to ~835°C under helium flow and evolved gases analyzed by Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite. H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 were the major gases released. Water abundance (1.5 to 3 weight percent) and release temperature suggest that H2O is bound ...
Blake D F - - 2013
The Rocknest aeolian deposit is similar to aeolian features analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity. The fraction of sand <150 micrometers in size contains ~55% crystalline material consistent with a basaltic heritage and ~45% x-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component of Rocknest is iron-rich and silicon-poor ...
Miljkovic Nenad - - 2013
With the broad interest in and development of superhydrophobic surfaces for self-cleaning, condensation heat transfer enhancement and anti-icing applications, more detailed insights on droplet interactions on these surfaces have emerged. Specifically, when two droplets coalesce, they can spontaneously jump away from a superhydrophobic surface due to the release of excess ...
Fragoso A S - - 2013
It is of current interest the identification of appropriate matrices for growing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells are able not only to regenerate themselves but also to differentiate into other type of functional cells, and so they have been extensively used in tissue engineering. In this work, we have ...
Patties I - - 2013
Combined action of irradiation (IR), shear stress, and high blood pressure is well recognized to induce damage to vasculature, while data on pathological effects of IR in large peripheral vessels with low blood pressure are scarce. The purpose of the present study was hence to investigate time- and dose-dependent effects ...
Gourtsoyianni S - - 2013
Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract but has a relatively good prognosis with an 80% 5-year overall survival. In this article, we review the role of MRI for assessing treatment response in anal cancer after completion of definitive chemoradiotherapy. New generation MRI scanners with optimal-phased array ...
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