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Wang Sheng-zhi SZ Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, - - 2013
During the development of periphery auditory circuits, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) extend their neurites to innervate cochlear hair cells (HCs) with their soma aggregated into a cluster spatially segregated from the cochlear sensory epithelium. The molecular mechanisms underlying this spatial patterning remain unclear. In this study, in situ hybridization in ...
Maryam W - - 2013
Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device ...
Stanley William T WT Science and Education, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2013
The hero shrew's (Scutisorex somereni) massive interlocking lumbar vertebrae represent the most extreme modification of the vertebral column known in mammals. No intermediate form of this remarkable morphology is known, nor is there any convincing theory to explain its functional significance. We document a new species in the heretofore monotypic ...
Madhavan Anuradha A Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, - - 2013
Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes ...
Ehlert N N Klinik für Hämatologie, Onkologie, Immunologie, Palliativmedizin, Infektiologie und Tropenmedizin, Universität München. - - 2013
A 50-year-old man with HIV infection (first diagnosed > 20 years ago) presented at our hospital with fulminant oral mucositis. Antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir, emtricitabine, raltegravir) had been started 2 months ago. Previously he had no opportunistic infections and no other pre-existing illnesses. He had not travelled outside Europe but stayed ...
Sonego Martina M Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, United - - 2013
After birth, stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). This migration is a fundamental event controlling the proper integration of new neurons in a pre-existing synaptic network. Many regulators of neuroblast migration ...
Young Timothy R - - 2013
Functional binocular vision requires that inputs arising from the two retinae are integrated and precisely organized within central visual areas. Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for one member of the Ten-m/Odz/teneurin family, Ten-m3, in the mapping of ipsilateral retinal projections. Here, we have identified a distinct role for ...
Langley Raymond J RJ National Center for Genome Resources, Santa Fe, NM 87505, - - 2013
Sepsis is a common cause of death, but outcomes in individual patients are difficult to predict. Elucidating the molecular processes that differ between sepsis patients who survive and those who die may permit more appropriate treatments to be deployed. We examined the clinical features and the plasma metabolome and proteome ...
Sugawara Takeyuki - - 2013
The structural maintenance of neural circuits is critical for higher brain functions in adulthood. Although several molecules have been identified as regulators for spine maintenance in hippocampal and cortical neurons, it is poorly understood how Purkinje cell (PC) spines are maintained in the mature cerebellum. Here we show that the ...
Sanders Philip N PN Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2013
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to asthma, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms connecting increased ROS with characteristic features of asthma. We show that enhanced oxidative activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (ox-CaMKII) in bronchial epithelium positively correlates with asthma severity and that epithelial ox-CaMKII increases in ...
Mease Rebecca A RA Neurobiology and Behavior Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. - - 2013
Adaptation is a fundamental computational motif in neural processing. To maintain stable perception in the face of rapidly shifting input, neural systems must extract relevant information from background fluctuations under many different contexts. Many neural systems are able to adjust their input-output properties such that an input's ability to trigger ...
Yu Hsin-Hao - - 2013
Lesions of striate cortex [primary visual cortex (V1)] in adult primates result in blindness. In contrast, V1 lesions in neonates typically allow much greater preservation of vision, including, in many human patients, conscious perception. It is presently unknown how this marked functional difference is related to physiological changes in cortical ...
Black Steven - - 2013
Group B streptococcal disease is a common cause of bacterial sepsis in newborns and is often fatal. To protect these babies, a vaccination program must target pregnant women for immunization so that the resulting antibodies can be passively delivered from the mother to the fetus. Scientists met in Siena, Italy, ...
Hetem Robyn S RS Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Parktown 2193, South Africa. - - 2013
Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature ...
Mazzo Francesca - - 2013
Heteromeric nAChRs are pentameric cation channels, composed of combinations of two or three α and three or two β subunits, which play key physiological roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The prototypical agonist nicotine acts intracellularly to upregulate many nAChR subtypes, a phenomenon that is thought to contribute ...
Meinzer Marcus - - 2013
The rising proportion of elderly people worldwide will yield an increased incidence of age-associated cognitive impairments, imposing major burdens on societies. Consequently, growing interest emerged to evaluate new strategies to delay or counteract cognitive decline in aging. Here, we assessed immediate effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) on ...
Lenaghan Scott C SC Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, - - 2013
Bio-inspiration for novel adhesive development has drawn increasing interest in recent years with the discovery of the nanoscale morphology of the gecko footpad and mussel adhesive proteins. Similar to these animal systems, it was discovered that English ivy (Hedera helix L.) secretes a high strength adhesive containing uniform nanoparticles. Recent ...
Blair Margaret G - - 2013
The neural mechanisms that support the late postnatal development of spatial navigation are currently unknown. We investigated this in rats and found that an increase in the duration of AMPAR-mediated synaptic responses in the hippocampus was related to the emergence of spatial navigation. More specifically, spontaneous alternation rate, a behavioral ...
Lippoldt Erika K EK Neurobiology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, - - 2013
Chronic pain associated with injury or disease can result from dysfunction of sensory afferents whereby the threshold for activation of pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors) is lowered. Neurotrophic factors control nociceptor development and survival, but also induce sensitization through activation of their cognate receptors, attributable, in part, to the modulation of ion ...
Feliu Elisenda E Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen, - - 2013
Mathematical models are increasingly being used to understand complex biochemical systems, to analyse experimental data and make predictions about unobserved quantities. However, we rarely know how robust our conclusions are with respect to the choice and uncertainties of the model. Using algebraic techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, ...
Schmid Benjamin - - 2013
The ever-increasing speed and resolution of modern microscopes make the storage and post-processing of images challenging and prevent thorough statistical analyses in developmental biology. Here, instead of deploying massive storage and computing power, we exploit the spherical geometry of zebrafish embryos by computing a radial maximum intensity projection in real ...
Burness Gary G Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 7B8. - - 2013
Across taxa, the early rearing environment contributes to adult morphological and physiological variation. For example, in birds, environmental temperature plays a key role in shaping bill size and clinal trends across latitudinal/thermal gradients. Such patterns support the role of the bill as a thermal window and in thermal balance. It ...
McKenzie Scott W SW Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, UK. - - 2013
Interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. By contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. Positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. Here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (Amphorophora idaei) and ...
Hachach-Haram Nadine - - 2013
The youthful face is often defined by malar and lateral cheek fullness with associated submalar concavity, giving a smooth contour between the different subunits coupled with an aesthetically pleasing convex lower eyelid-cheek continuum. This article reviews the key anatomical concepts of midfacial aging, the evolution of midface-lifting techniques, and indications ...
Shelat Phullara B PB Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2013
Pluronic F-68, an 80% hydrophilic member of the Pluronic family of polyethylene-polypropylene-polyethylene tri-block copolymers, protects non-neuronal cells from traumatic injuries and rescues hippocampal neurons from excitotoxic and oxidative insults. F-68 interacts directly with lipid membranes and restores membrane function after direct membrane damage. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of Pluronic ...
Berger Denise J - - 2013
Whether the nervous system relies on modularity to simplify acquisition and control of complex motor skills remains controversial. To date, evidence for modularity has been indirect, based on statistical regularities in the motor commands captured by muscle synergies. Here we provide direct evidence by testing the prediction that in a ...
Yu Hai Bin - - 2013
Secondary (also known as Johari-Goldstein or β-) relaxations are an intrinsic feature of supercooled liquids and glasses. They are important in many respects but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. A long-standing puzzle is why some glasses show β-relaxations as pronounced peaks, whereas others as unobvious excess wings. Here ...
Jones James Holland JH Woods Institute for Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2034, USA. - - 2013
In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter-gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite ...
Haditsch Ursula U Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. - - 2013
Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we ...
Lan Ganhui G Department of Physics, George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, - - 2013
The incoherent type-1 feed-forward loop (I1-FFL) is ubiquitous in biological regulatory circuits. Although much is known about the functions of the I1-FFL motif, the energy cost incurred in the network and how it affects the performance of the network have not been investigated. Here, we study a generic I1-FFL enzymatic ...
Liljeholm Mimi M Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences and Computation and Neural Systems Program, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. - - 2013
Flexible action selection requires knowledge about how alternative actions impact the environment: a "cognitive map" of instrumental contingencies. Reinforcement learning theories formalize this map as a set of stochastic relationships between actions and states, such that for any given action considered in a current state, a probability distribution is specified ...
Lipke K J - - 2013
The face plays the main role in interpersonal communication and in aesthetic perception. What is more, on account of the complex eyelid anatomy required to ensure the functioning of the eye, the treatment of periocular injuries requires a profound knowledge of anatomy and plastic reconstructive surgery, even if a loss ...
Zemankovics Rita R Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1450, Budapest, - - 2013
Gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations are implicated in memory processing. Such rhythmic activity can be generated intrinsically in the CA3 region of the hippocampus from where it can propagate to the CA1 area. To uncover the synaptic mechanisms underlying the intrahippocampal spread of gamma oscillations, we recorded local field potentials, ...
Salvioni Paolo - - 2013
Time is embedded in any sensory experience: the movements of a dance, the rhythm of a piece of music, the words of a speaker are all examples of temporally structured sensory events. In humans, if and how visual cortices perform temporal processing remains unclear. Here we show that both primary ...
Nomura Tadashi - - 2013
The emergence of larger brains with large numbers of neurons is an evolutionary innovation in mammals and birds. However, the corresponding changes in cortical developmental programmes during amniote evolution are poorly understood. Here we examine the cortical development of Madagascar ground geckos, and report unique characteristics of their reptilian cortical ...
Rossberg Axel G AG Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, UK. - - 2013
The rapid advance in genetic sequencing technologies has provided an unprecedented amount of data on the biodiversity of meiofauna. It was hoped that these data would allow the identification and counting of species, distinguished as tight clusters of similar genomes. Surprisingly, this appears not to be the case. Here, we ...
Lee Matthew Kun - - 2013
Objective Ptosis of the submandibular glands is a well-recognized yet poorly quantified element of the aging face and neck. The goal of this study is to describe and quantify the rate and extent of age-related submandibular gland ptosis. A novel grading system is proposed to quantify the degree of descent ...
Navarro-Cebrian Ana A Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, and Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Emeryville, California 94608, USA. - - 2013
Whether humans adjust their behavior in response to unaware errors remains a controversial issue relevant to insight in neuropsychiatric conditions. Initial error awareness studies found that the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential (ERP) originating in the medial prefrontal cortex after errors, activated equally for aware and unaware errors, suggesting ...
Deshmukh Umesh S US Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA. - - 2013
Interplay between a natural killer (NK)-cell receptor, NKp30, and other cells in the salivary glands profoundly affects pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome (Rusakiewicz et al., this issue).
Xu Zhi Cheng - - 2013
Background Due to its complex, three-dimensional morphology, auricular reconstruction remains one of the most challenging procedures in reconstructive surgery. A subject that remains controversial, however, is the question of the growth potential of the cartilaginous framework. This study explored the anthropometric changes of the reconstructed auricle and the contralateral normal ...
Morris Adam P AP Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA. - - 2013
Eye-position signals (EPS) are found throughout the primate visual system and are thought to provide a mechanism for representing spatial locations in a manner that is robust to changes in eye position. It remains unknown, however, whether cortical EPS (also known as "gain fields") have the necessary spatial and temporal ...
Wang John J Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. - - 2013
Fisheries bycatch of marine animals has been linked to population declines of multiple species, including many sea turtles. Altering the visual cues associated with fishing gear may reduce sea turtle bycatch. We examined the effectiveness of illuminating gillnets with ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes for reducing green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) ...
Hoenig Jonathan - - 2013
Minimally invasive procedures have become increasingly popular over the last decade. In many cases, the use of neuromodulators and fillers has replaced surgical procedures. This article reviews the analysis and evaluation of the aesthetic patient presenting for periorbital rejuvenation. A layered approach is used, evaluating the skin, fat, muscle, and ...
Islam Rafique R Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, - - 2013
While sialylation plays important functions in the nervous system, the complexity of glycosylation pathways and limitations of genetic approaches preclude the efficient analysis of these functions in mammalian organisms. Drosophila has recently emerged as a promising model for studying neural sialylation. Drosophila sialyltransferase, DSiaT, was shown to be involved in ...
Frischmeyer-Guerrerio Pamela A - - 2013
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays diverse roles in physiologic processes as well as human disease, including cancer, heart disease, and fibrotic disorders. In the immune system, TGFβ regulates regulatory T cell (Treg) maturation and immune homeostasis. Although genetic manipulation of the TGFβ pathway modulates immune ...
Scevola Silvia - - 2013
The authors present an original case report to warn of a possible severe functional complication that might follow a simple facial skin procedure. A 55-year-old woman underwent excision of a mole along the alar-facial groove, which seemingly healed without immediate complications. Ultimately the patient reported an ipsilateral nasal obstruction 2 ...
Tailor Jignesh J Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21QR, United - - 2013
Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or ...
Zhu Zuofeng - - 2013
Inflorescence architecture is a key agronomical factor determining grain yield, and thus has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. Transition from a spread panicle typical of ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to the compact panicle of present cultivars (O. sativa L.) was a crucial event in rice ...
Mitterboeck T Fatima TF Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1. - - 2013
The loss of flight ability has occurred thousands of times independently during insect evolution. Flight loss may be linked to higher molecular evolutionary rates because of reductions in effective population sizes (Ne) and relaxed selective constraints. Reduced dispersal ability increases population subdivision, may decrease geographical range size and increases (sub)population ...
Zamzow Daniel R DR Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, - - 2013
The NMDA receptor is an important component of spatial working and reference memory. The receptor is a heterotetramer composed of a family of related subunits. The GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor appears to be essential for some forms of memory and is particularly vulnerable to change with age in ...
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