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Berger Denise J - - 2013
Whether the nervous system relies on modularity to simplify acquisition and control of complex motor skills remains controversial. To date, evidence for modularity has been indirect, based on statistical regularities in the motor commands captured by muscle synergies. Here we provide direct evidence by testing the prediction that in a ...
Salvioni Paolo - - 2013
Time is embedded in any sensory experience: the movements of a dance, the rhythm of a piece of music, the words of a speaker are all examples of temporally structured sensory events. In humans, if and how visual cortices perform temporal processing remains unclear. Here we show that both primary ...
Meinzer Marcus - - 2013
The rising proportion of elderly people worldwide will yield an increased incidence of age-associated cognitive impairments, imposing major burdens on societies. Consequently, growing interest emerged to evaluate new strategies to delay or counteract cognitive decline in aging. Here, we assessed immediate effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) on ...
Black Steven - - 2013
Group B streptococcal disease is a common cause of bacterial sepsis in newborns and is often fatal. To protect these babies, a vaccination program must target pregnant women for immunization so that the resulting antibodies can be passively delivered from the mother to the fetus. Scientists met in Siena, Italy, ...
Rusakiewicz Sylvie - - 2013
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a lymphocytic exocrinopathy. However, patients often have evidence of systemic autoimmunity, and they are at markedly increased risk for the development of non- Hodgkin's lymphoma. Similar to other autoimmune disorders, a strong interferon (IFN) signature is present among subsets ...
Hachach-Haram Nadine - - 2013
The youthful face is often defined by malar and lateral cheek fullness with associated submalar concavity, giving a smooth contour between the different subunits coupled with an aesthetically pleasing convex lower eyelid-cheek continuum. This article reviews the key anatomical concepts of midfacial aging, the evolution of midface-lifting techniques, and indications ...
Hoenig Jonathan - - 2013
Minimally invasive procedures have become increasingly popular over the last decade. In many cases, the use of neuromodulators and fillers has replaced surgical procedures. This article reviews the analysis and evaluation of the aesthetic patient presenting for periorbital rejuvenation. A layered approach is used, evaluating the skin, fat, muscle, and ...
Xu Zhi Cheng - - 2013
Background Due to its complex, three-dimensional morphology, auricular reconstruction remains one of the most challenging procedures in reconstructive surgery. A subject that remains controversial, however, is the question of the growth potential of the cartilaginous framework. This study explored the anthropometric changes of the reconstructed auricle and the contralateral normal ...
Sugawara Takeyuki - - 2013
The structural maintenance of neural circuits is critical for higher brain functions in adulthood. Although several molecules have been identified as regulators for spine maintenance in hippocampal and cortical neurons, it is poorly understood how Purkinje cell (PC) spines are maintained in the mature cerebellum. Here we show that the ...
Yu Hsin-Hao - - 2013
Lesions of striate cortex [primary visual cortex (V1)] in adult primates result in blindness. In contrast, V1 lesions in neonates typically allow much greater preservation of vision, including, in many human patients, conscious perception. It is presently unknown how this marked functional difference is related to physiological changes in cortical ...
Yu Hai Bin - - 2013
Secondary (also known as Johari-Goldstein or β-) relaxations are an intrinsic feature of supercooled liquids and glasses. They are important in many respects but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. A long-standing puzzle is why some glasses show β-relaxations as pronounced peaks, whereas others as unobvious excess wings. Here ...
Matsunaga Ryo - - 2013
Protein fibrils are expected to have applications as functional nanomaterials because of their sophisticated structures; however, nanoscale ordering of the functional units of protein fibrils remains challenging. Here we design a series of self-polymerizing protein monomers, referred to as protein shackles, derived from modified recombinant subunits of pili from Streptococcus ...
Frischmeyer-Guerrerio Pamela A - - 2013
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays diverse roles in physiologic processes as well as human disease, including cancer, heart disease, and fibrotic disorders. In the immune system, TGFβ regulates regulatory T cell (Treg) maturation and immune homeostasis. Although genetic manipulation of the TGFβ pathway modulates immune ...
Shams Pari N - - 2013
The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and ...
McCann John D - - 2013
Lower eyelid blepharoplasty is one of the most common procedures in aesthetic plastic surgery. Although patients desiring lower eyelid blepharoplasty typically describe their problem as "bags in the lower eyelids," there are many anatomical imperfections that should be assessed. With aging, the youthful single convexity of the lower lid separates ...
Leatherbarrow Brian - - 2013
This article provides a comprehensive discussion on the complications of blepharoplasty. We discuss the importance of preoperative counselling and surgical planning to provide the patient with a satisfactory outcome. Strategies are presented to manage common complications.
Lipke K J - - 2013
The face plays the main role in interpersonal communication and in aesthetic perception. What is more, on account of the complex eyelid anatomy required to ensure the functioning of the eye, the treatment of periocular injuries requires a profound knowledge of anatomy and plastic reconstructive surgery, even if a loss ...
Eagleman David M - - 2013
Communicating science to the public takes time away from busy research careers. So why would you do it? I here offer six reasons. First, we owe that understanding to the people who fund our experiments, the taxpaying public. Second, we can leverage our skills as scientists to inspire critical thinking ...
Young Timothy R - - 2013
Functional binocular vision requires that inputs arising from the two retinae are integrated and precisely organized within central visual areas. Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for one member of the Ten-m/Odz/teneurin family, Ten-m3, in the mapping of ipsilateral retinal projections. Here, we have identified a distinct role for ...
Nomura Tadashi - - 2013
The emergence of larger brains with large numbers of neurons is an evolutionary innovation in mammals and birds. However, the corresponding changes in cortical developmental programmes during amniote evolution are poorly understood. Here we examine the cortical development of Madagascar ground geckos, and report unique characteristics of their reptilian cortical ...
Schmid Benjamin - - 2013
The ever-increasing speed and resolution of modern microscopes make the storage and post-processing of images challenging and prevent thorough statistical analyses in developmental biology. Here, instead of deploying massive storage and computing power, we exploit the spherical geometry of zebrafish embryos by computing a radial maximum intensity projection in real ...
Zhu Zuofeng - - 2013
Inflorescence architecture is a key agronomical factor determining grain yield, and thus has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. Transition from a spread panicle typical of ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to the compact panicle of present cultivars (O. sativa L.) was a crucial event in rice ...
Maryam W - - 2013
Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device ...
Mease Rebecca A RA Neurobiology and Behavior Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. - - 2013
Adaptation is a fundamental computational motif in neural processing. To maintain stable perception in the face of rapidly shifting input, neural systems must extract relevant information from background fluctuations under many different contexts. Many neural systems are able to adjust their input-output properties such that an input's ability to trigger ...
Sonego Martina M Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, United - - 2013
After birth, stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). This migration is a fundamental event controlling the proper integration of new neurons in a pre-existing synaptic network. Many regulators of neuroblast migration ...
Cheng Ning N Developmental Neural Plasticity Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2013
Neural circuits maintain a precise organization that is vital for normal brain functions and behaviors, but become disrupted during neurological disease. Understanding the connection between wiring accuracy and function to measure disease progression or recovery has been difficult because of the complexity of behavioral circuits. The olfactory system maintains well-defined ...
Haditsch Ursula U Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. - - 2013
Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we ...
Shelat Phullara B PB Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2013
Pluronic F-68, an 80% hydrophilic member of the Pluronic family of polyethylene-polypropylene-polyethylene tri-block copolymers, protects non-neuronal cells from traumatic injuries and rescues hippocampal neurons from excitotoxic and oxidative insults. F-68 interacts directly with lipid membranes and restores membrane function after direct membrane damage. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of Pluronic ...
Zamzow Daniel R DR Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, - - 2013
The NMDA receptor is an important component of spatial working and reference memory. The receptor is a heterotetramer composed of a family of related subunits. The GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor appears to be essential for some forms of memory and is particularly vulnerable to change with age in ...
Madhavan Anuradha A Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, - - 2013
Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes ...
Navarro-Cebrian Ana A Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, and Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Emeryville, California 94608, USA. - - 2013
Whether humans adjust their behavior in response to unaware errors remains a controversial issue relevant to insight in neuropsychiatric conditions. Initial error awareness studies found that the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential (ERP) originating in the medial prefrontal cortex after errors, activated equally for aware and unaware errors, suggesting ...
Morris Adam P AP Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA. - - 2013
Eye-position signals (EPS) are found throughout the primate visual system and are thought to provide a mechanism for representing spatial locations in a manner that is robust to changes in eye position. It remains unknown, however, whether cortical EPS (also known as "gain fields") have the necessary spatial and temporal ...
Wu Junfang J Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201-1579, - - 2013
Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently causes severe, persistent central neuropathic pain that responds poorly to conventional pain treatments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling appears to contribute to central sensitization and nocifensive behaviors in certain animal models of chronic pain through effects mediated in part by the alternatively spliced truncated isoform ...
Ming Xiaotian X Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, - - 2013
We have previously demonstrated that Sox17 regulates cell cycle exit and differentiation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we investigated its function in white matter (WM) development and adult injury with a newly generated transgenic mouse overexpressing Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage under the CNPase promoter. Sox17 overexpression in CNP-Sox17 mice ...
Gordon Patrick J PJ Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, - - 2013
The LIM-Homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 is an essential organizer of early eye development and is subsequently expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). To determine its requirement in RPCs, we performed a temporal series of conditional inactivations in mice with the early RPC driver Pax6 α-Cre and the tamoxifen-inducible Hes1(CreERT2) driver. ...
Wang Sheng-zhi SZ Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, - - 2013
During the development of periphery auditory circuits, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) extend their neurites to innervate cochlear hair cells (HCs) with their soma aggregated into a cluster spatially segregated from the cochlear sensory epithelium. The molecular mechanisms underlying this spatial patterning remain unclear. In this study, in situ hybridization in ...
Tanis Jessica E JE Department of Physiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2013
Disruption of neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis contributes to neurodegenerative diseases through mechanisms that are not fully understood. A polymorphism in CALHM1, a recently described ion channel that regulates intracellular Ca(2+) levels, is a possible risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Since there are six potentially redundant CALHM family members in humans, ...
Islam Rafique R Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, - - 2013
While sialylation plays important functions in the nervous system, the complexity of glycosylation pathways and limitations of genetic approaches preclude the efficient analysis of these functions in mammalian organisms. Drosophila has recently emerged as a promising model for studying neural sialylation. Drosophila sialyltransferase, DSiaT, was shown to be involved in ...
Zemankovics Rita R Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1450, Budapest, - - 2013
Gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations are implicated in memory processing. Such rhythmic activity can be generated intrinsically in the CA3 region of the hippocampus from where it can propagate to the CA1 area. To uncover the synaptic mechanisms underlying the intrahippocampal spread of gamma oscillations, we recorded local field potentials, ...
Zhang Xiao-lei XL Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, - - 2013
Dendritic spines are a major substrate of brain plasticity. Although many studies have focused on Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated regulation of spine dynamics and synaptic function in adult brain, much less is know about protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of spine shape dynamics during postnatal brain development. Synaptopodin is ...
Lippoldt Erika K EK Neurobiology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, - - 2013
Chronic pain associated with injury or disease can result from dysfunction of sensory afferents whereby the threshold for activation of pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors) is lowered. Neurotrophic factors control nociceptor development and survival, but also induce sensitization through activation of their cognate receptors, attributable, in part, to the modulation of ion ...
Langley Raymond J RJ National Center for Genome Resources, Santa Fe, NM 87505, - - 2013
Sepsis is a common cause of death, but outcomes in individual patients are difficult to predict. Elucidating the molecular processes that differ between sepsis patients who survive and those who die may permit more appropriate treatments to be deployed. We examined the clinical features and the plasma metabolome and proteome ...
Sallet Jérôme J Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom. - - 2013
The human dorsal frontal cortex has been associated with the most sophisticated aspects of cognition, including those that are thought to be especially refined in humans. Here we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) in humans and macaques to infer and compare the organization of dorsal ...
Tailor Jignesh J Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21QR, United - - 2013
Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or ...
Sehara Yoshihide Y Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, - - 2013
Transient global ischemia causes selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in humans and animals. It is well established that estrogens ameliorate neuronal death in animal models of focal and global ischemia. However, the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and its target genes in estradiol ...
Deshmukh Umesh S US Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA. - - 2013
Interplay between a natural killer (NK)-cell receptor, NKp30, and other cells in the salivary glands profoundly affects pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome (Rusakiewicz et al., this issue).
Liljeholm Mimi M Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences and Computation and Neural Systems Program, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. - - 2013
Flexible action selection requires knowledge about how alternative actions impact the environment: a "cognitive map" of instrumental contingencies. Reinforcement learning theories formalize this map as a set of stochastic relationships between actions and states, such that for any given action considered in a current state, a probability distribution is specified ...
Sanders Philip N PN Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2013
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to asthma, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms connecting increased ROS with characteristic features of asthma. We show that enhanced oxidative activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (ox-CaMKII) in bronchial epithelium positively correlates with asthma severity and that epithelial ox-CaMKII increases in ...
- - 2013
HHS is issuing this final rule to clarify how section 340B(e) of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) will be implemented. The final rule applies section 340B(e) of the PHSA only to drugs transferred, prescribed, sold, or otherwise used for the rare condition or disease for which the orphan drug ...
Sergi Alessandro - - 2013
A formalism for studying the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in classical spin baths is introduced. The theory is based on generalized antisymmetric brackets and predicts the presence of open-path off-diagonal geometric phases in the evolution of the density matrix. The weak coupling limit of the equation can be integrated ...
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